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HBSE 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन

Haryana State Board HBSE 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Haryana Board 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन

HBSE 6th Class Science हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन InText Questions and Answers

पहेली/बूझो

प्रश्न 1.
बूझो ने प्रायः देखा है कि सड़क बनाने वाले। सड़क की मरम्मत करने के लिए एक काले रंग के पदार्थ को गर्म करते हैं। बूझो जानना चाहता है कि काले पदार्थ को गर्म करने पर हुआ परिवर्तन क्या उत्क्रमणीय है ?
उत्तर:
नहीं, इसे उत्क्रमित नहीं किया जा सकता।

प्रश्न 2.
पहेली जानना चाहती है कि क्या आपने कभी लुहार को औजार बनाते हुए देखा है? लोहे के टुकड़े को लुहार किस प्रकार विभिन्न औजारों में परिवर्तित करता है। लोहे के टुकड़े को तब तक गर्म करते हैं जब तक लाल न हो जाए। जब वह मुलायम हो जाता है तब उसको पीटकर इच्छानुसार औजार का आकार दिया जाता है। गर्म करने पर लोहे में क्या परिवर्तन हुआ?
उत्तर:
लोहे के टुकड़े में गर्म करने पर प्रसार हुआ।

HBSE 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन

HBSE 6th Class Science हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन Textbook Questions and Answers

प्रश्न 1.
जब आप जलमग्न इलाके में घूमते हैं तो अपनी पोशाक को मोड़कर उसकी लम्बाई कम कर लेते हैं। क्या इस परिवर्तन को उत्क्रमित किया जा सकता है?
उत्तर:
हाँ, इस परिवर्तन को उत्क्रमित किया जा सकता है। हम अपनी पोशाक को पुनः वापस उसी स्थिति में ला सकते हैं।

प्रश्न 2.
अकस्मात् आपका प्रिय खिलौना गिरकर टूट जाता है। आप कतई इस परिवर्तन को नहीं चाहते थे। क्या यह परिवर्तन उत्क्रमित किया जा सकता है ?
उत्तर:
नहीं, इस परिवर्तन को उत्क्रमित नहीं किया जा सकता है। टूटे हुए खिलौने को वापस नहीं जोड़ा जा सकता है।

प्रश्न 3.
नीचे दी गई सारणी में कुछ परिवर्तन दिए गए हैं। प्रत्येक परिवर्तन के सामने रिक्त स्थान में लिखिए कि वह परिवर्तन उत्क्रमित किया जा सकता है अथवा नहीं?
परिवर्तन – उत्क्रमित किया जा सकता है (हाँ/नहीं)
1. लकड़ी के टुकड़े चीरना – …………..
2. आइसक्रीम का पिघलना – …………..
3. चीनी का जल में घुलना – …………..
4. खाना पकाना – …………..
5. आम का पकना – …………..
6. दूध का दही में जमना – …………..
उत्तर:
परिवर्तन – उत्क्रमित किया जा सकता है (हाँ/नहीं)
1. लकड़ी के टुकड़े चीरना – नहीं
2. आइसक्रीम का पिघलना – हाँ
3. चीनी का जल में घुलना – हाँ
4. खाना पकाना – नहीं
5. आम का पकना – नहीं
6. दूध का दही में जमना – नहीं

HBSE 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन

प्रश्न 4.
चित्रकारी करने पर ड्राइंगशीट में परिवर्तन हो जाता है। क्या आप इस परिवर्तन को उत्क्रमित कर सकते हैं?
उत्तर:
यदि ड्राइंगशीट पर चित्रकारी पेंसिल से की गई है तो इसे उत्क्रमित किया जा सकता है। यदि चित्रकारी रंगों से की गई है तो उत्क्रमित नहीं किया जा सकता है।

प्रश्न 5.
उदाहरण देकर उत्क्रमित किए जाने वाले तथा उत्क्रमित न किए जाने वाले परिवर्तनों में अन्तर स्पष्ट कीजिए।
उत्तर:
कुछ परिवर्तन जो उत्क्रमित कुछ परिवर्तन जो उत्क्रमित किए जा सकते हैं। नहीं किए जा सकते हैं

कुछछ परिवर्तन जो उत्क्रमित किए जा सकते हैं कुछ परिवर्तन जो उत्क्रमित नहीं किए जा सकते हैं
उदाहरण उदाहरण
1. बर्फ का पिघ्यलना 1. मोमबत्ती का जलना
2. जल का वाष्प में बदलना 2. दूध का दही बनना
3. कागज को मोड़कर हवाई जहाज बनाना 3. आम का पकना

प्रश्न 6.
टूटी हुई हड्डी पर बंधी पट्टी के ऊपर प्लास्टर ऑफ पेरिस (POP) की एक मोटी परत चढ़ाई जाती है। सूखने पर यह कठोर हो जाती है जिससे टूटी हड्डी हिलती नहीं है। क्या POP में हुए परिवर्तन को उत्क्रमित कर सकते
उत्तर:
नहीं, POP में हुये परिवर्तन को उत्क्रमित नहीं किया जा सकता है।

प्रश्न 7.
रात्रि में एक सीमेंट की बोरी जो खुले मैदान मरखा हड्था, वर्षा के कारण भीग जाती है। अगले दिन तेज धूप निकलती है। सीमेंट में जो परिवर्तन हो गया है क्या उसे उत्क्रमित कर सकते हैं?
उत्तर:
नहीं, सीमेंट में हुए परिवर्तन को उत्क्रमित नहीं कर सकते हैं।

HBSE 6th Class Science हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन Important Questions and Answers

वस्तुनिष्ठ प्रश्न

I. बहुविकल्पी प्रश्न : निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों में सही विकल्प का चयन कीजिए

1. परिवर्तन है-
(क) फूल खिलना
(ख) कपड़े सूखना
(ग) पेड़ से पत्ती गिरना
(घ) ये सभी
उत्तर:
(घ) ये सभी

2. गुब्बारे में फेंक से हवा भरने पर इसका होता है
(क) संकुचन
(ख) संघनन
(ग) प्रसार
(घ) कोई नहीं
उत्तर:
(ग) प्रसार

3. परिवर्तन होते हैं
(क) एक प्रकार के
(ख) दो प्रकार के
(ग) तीन प्रकार के
(घ) चार प्रकार के
उत्तर:
(ख) दो प्रकार के

4. मोमबत्ती का जलना परिवर्तन है
(क) उत्क्रमित होने वाला
(ख) उत्क्रमित न होने वाला
(ग) दोनों
(घ) कोई नहीं
उत्तर:
(ख) उत्क्रमित न होने वाला

HBSE 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन

II. रिक्त स्थान : निम्नलिखित वाक्यों में रिक्त स्थान भरिए

1. पेंसिल को बार-बार उपयोग करने पर इसके …………………., …………………. में परिवर्तन हो जाता है।
2. जब हम किसी धातु की वस्तु को गर्म करते हैं तो इसका …………………. हो जाता है।
3. …………………. करने पर द्रव जल में परिवर्तित हो जाता है।
4. मोमबत्ती को थोड़ी देर जल जाने के पश्चात उसकी …………………. में परिवर्तन होता है।
उत्तर:
1. आकार, आमाप
2. प्रसार
3. ठंडा
4. लम्बाई।

III. सुमेलन : कॉलम ‘A’ के शब्दों का मिलान कॉलम ‘B’ के शब्दों से कीजिए

कॉलम ‘A’ (प्रक्रम) कॉलम ‘B’ (परिवर्तन)
1. गुब्बारे में अत्यधिक हवा भरना (i) द्रव में बदलना
2. बर्फ को गर्म करना (ii) छोटा आकार होना
3. चॉक स्टिक को घिसना (iii) रोटी बनना
4. आटे की लोई को बेलना (iv) फट जाता है।

उत्तर:

कॉलम ‘A’ (प्रक्रम) कॉलम ‘B’ (परिवर्तन)
1. गुब्बारे में अत्यधिक हवा भरना (iv) फट जाता है।
2. बर्फ को गर्म करना (i) द्रव में बदलना
3. चॉक स्टिक को घिसना (ii) छोटा आकार होना
4. आटे की लोई को बेलना (iii) रोटी बनना

IV. सत्य/असत्य : निम्नलिखित वाक्यों में सत्य एवं असत्य कथन छाँटिए

1. कागज को मोड़कर कई आकारों में बदल सकते हैं।
2. आटे को गूंथकर इससे पुन: आटा नहीं बनाया जा सकता।
3. जली हुई मोमबत्ती से पुनः नई मोमबत्ती बना सकते हैं।
4. बर्फ को पिघलाकर पानी बनाया जा सकता है।
उत्तर:
1. सत्य
2. सत्य
3. असत्य
4. सत्य।

अति लघु उत्तरीय प्रश्न

प्रश्न 1.
गुब्बारे में हवा भरने पर उसमें क्या परिवर्तन होते हैं? (क्रिया कलाप)
उत्तर:
आकार एवं आमाप में परिवर्तन हो जाते हैं।

प्रश्न 2.
कागज को मोड़कर आप क्या बना सकते हैं? (कोई दो) (क्रिया कलाप)
उत्तर:

  • जहाज
  • नाव।

HBSE 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन

प्रश्न 3.
गुब्बारे में हवा भरकर फुलाना, कागज से नाव बनाना, गुंधे आटे से लोई बनाना आदि में एक जैसा क्या है?
उत्तर:
सभी में परिवर्तन होते हैं और सभी को अपनी पूर्व स्थिति में लाया जा सकता है।

प्रश्न 4.
जब हम किसी धातु को गर्म करते हैं तो क्या होता है ? (क्रिया कलाप)
उत्तर:
धातु में प्रसार होता है।

प्रश्न 5.
दो उत्क्रमित किए जा सकने वाले परिवर्तन लिखिए।
उत्तर:

  • पानी से बर्फ बनना।
  • दूध को गर्म करना।

प्रश्न 6.
क्या सभी परिवर्तनों को उत्क्रमित किया जा सकता है?
उत्तर:
नहीं, सभी परिवर्तनों को उत्क्रमित नहीं किया जा सकता। कुछ परिवर्तन उत्क्रमित करने योग्य नहीं होते।

प्रश्न 7.
ठंडा करने पर कुछ वस्तुएँ छोटी हो जाती हैं। इसे क्या कहते हैं?
उत्तर:
संकुचन।

प्रश्न 8.
ऐसे दो परिवर्तनों के नाम लिखिए, जो उत्क्रमित नहीं किए जा सकते।
उत्तर:
1. आम का पकना
2. दूध का दही में जमना।

HBSE 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन

प्रश्न 9.
दो प्राकृतिक परिवर्तनों के नाम लिखिए जो आपके आस-पास होते हैं।
उत्तर:
1. बादलों का बनना
2. गीले कपड़े का सूखना।

प्रश्न 10.
मोमबत्ती जल रही है। क्या इसमें कोई परिवर्तन हो रहा है ?
उत्तर:
हाँ, मोमबत्ती के जलने से परिवर्तन हो रहा है।

लघु उत्तरीय प्रश्न

प्रश्न 1.
अपने घर पर बनने वाले पकवानों को देखिए। इनमें होने वाले कोई दो ऐसे परिवर्तन बताइए जिन्हें उत्क्रमित किया जा सके।
उत्तर:
(1) गुंथे आटे की लोई से रोटी और रोटी से लोई बनायी जा सकती है (रोटी को बिना सुखाए या सेंककर)।
(2) चीनी से शर्बत तथा वाष्पन करके चीनी।

प्रश्न 2.
गर्म करने पर किसी वस्तु का प्रसार होता है। इस परिवर्तन का एक उदाहरण लिखिए।
उत्तर:
लकड़ी के पहिए पर लोहे की रिम को कसने के लिए, रिम को गर्म किया जाता है, जिससे रिम में प्रसार हो जाता है। अब इसे लकड़ी के पहिए पर चढ़ाकर ठंडा पानी डाल दिया जाता है जिससे रिम संकुचित होकर पहिए पर कस जाती है।
HBSE 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन -1
चित्र: धातु रिम जड़ित बैलगाड़ी का पहिया

HBSE 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन

प्रश्न 3.
जल को गर्म तथा ठंडा करने पर इसमें किस प्रकार के परिवर्तन होते हैं? समझाइये।
उत्तर:
जब हम जल को तीव्र गर्म करते हैं तो यह उबलने लगता है और अधिक गर्म करने पर जल वाष्प में बदलने लगता है। यदि वाष्प को ठंडा किया जाता है तो यह जल में बदल जाती है। यदि इसे अत्यधिक ठंडा किया जाता है तो यह बर्फ बन जाता है।

प्रश्न 4.
उत्क्रमित न होने वाले परिवर्तन के लिए एक क्रियाकलाप लिखिए।
उत्तर:
एक छोटी मोमबत्ती लेकर उसकी लम्बाई नाप लीजिए। अब इसे सही जगह रखाकर जलाएँ। कुछ देर बाद मोमबत्ती को बुझा दें तथा पुनः उसकी लम्बाई मापें। हम देखते हैं कि मोमबत्ती छोटी हो गई है जिसे पुनः पूरा नहीं किया जा सकता।
HBSE 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन -2
चित्र : मोमबत्ती का जलना

प्रश्न 5.
निम्नलिखित में से उत्क्रमित होने वाले तथा उत्क्रमित न होने वाले परिवर्तन छाँटिए-
लकड़ी का जलना, लोहे में जंग लगना, चीनी का पानी में घुलना, कपड़े का गीला होना, POP का जमना, कागज का जहाज बनाना।
उत्तर:

उत्क्रमित किए जाने वाले परिवर्तन उत्क्रमित न किए जाने वाले परिवर्तन
(i) चीनी का पानी में घुलना (i) लकड़ी का जलना
(ii) कपड़े का गीला होना (ii) लोहे में जंग लगना
(iii) कागज का जहाज बनाना (iii) POP का जमना

HBSE 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन

प्रश्न 6.
वाष्यन तथा गलन को परिभाषित कीजिए।
उत्तर:
वाष्पन- पानी का उबलकर वाष्प के रूप में परिवर्तन होना वाष्पन कहलाता है।
गलन- किसी ठोस पदार्थ को गर्म करने पर उसका पिघलना गलन कहलाता है।

प्रश्न 7.
कॉलम I तथा कॉलम II का मिलान कीजिए-

कॉलमा I कॉलम II
(क) किसी चीज का द्रव में बदलना जब उसे गर्म किया जाए (i) वाष्पन
(ख) ठंडी करने पर धातु का संकुचित होना (ii) प्रसार
(ग) मूल पदार्थ और अवस्था की पुनः प्राप्ति (iii) गलन
(घ) आकार में विस्तार (iv) संकुचन
(छ) जल का वाष्प में परिवर्तन (v) उत्क्रमण

उत्तर:

कॉलमा I कॉलम II
(क) किसी चीज का द्रव में बदलना जब उसे गर्म किया जाए (iii) गलन
(ख) ठंडी करने पर धातु का संकुचित होना (iv) संकुचन
(ग) मूल पदार्थ और अवस्था की पुनः प्राप्ति (v) उत्क्रमण
(घ) आकार में विस्तार (i) वाष्पन
(छ) जल का वाष्प में परिवर्तन (ii) प्रसार

दीर्घ उत्तरीय प्रश्न

प्रश्न 1.
आपके आस-पास होने वाले कुछ परिवर्तनों की सूची बनाइए तथा लिखिए कि उन्हें उत्क्रमित किया जा सकता है या नहीं। (क्रिया कलाप)
उत्तर:
सारणी-कुछ सामान्य परिवर्तन

परिवर्तन उत्क्रमित किया जा सकता है
1. कच्चे अण्डे से उबला हुआ अंडा नहीं
2. गाढ़े घोल से इडली नहीं
3. गीले कपड़े से सूखे कपड़े हाँ
4. ऊन के धागे से बुना हुआ स्वेटर हाँ
5. अनाज से बनाया गया आटा नहीं
6. ठंडे दूध से गर्म दूध हाँ
7. सीधी डोरी से कुंडलित डोरी नहीं
8. कली से फूल नहीं
9. दूध से पनीर नहीं
10. गाय के गोबर से बायोगैस हाँ
11. खिंचे रबड़ से सामान्य साइज का रबड़ हाँ
12. जमी हुई आइसक्रीम से पिघली हुई आइसक्रीम हाँ

प्रश्न 2.
लकड़ी के हत्थे लगाने से पहले औजार प्रायः गर्म किए जाते हैं। उदाहरण सहित कारण लिखिए।
उत्तर:
लोहे के बने कुछ औजारों; जैसे-हथौड़ा, फावड़ा, कुदाल, खुरपी, बेलचा आदि में लकड़ी के हत्थे लगाए जाते हैं। औजारों में लकड़ी का हत्था सही तरह से कसने के लिए इन्हें पहले गर्म किया जाता है। गर्म करने पर औजारों के इन भागों का प्रसार हो जाता है जिनमें हत्था फँसाना है। ऐसा करने से लकड़ी का हत्था उसमें प्रवेश कर जाता है। परन्तु हत्था फँसाने के तुरन्त बाद पानी में डालकर इन्हें ठण्डा कर लिया जाता है जिससे औजारों के वलय में संकुचन होकर हत्था औजारों में ठीक से फैंस जाता है।
HBSE 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन -3
चित्र : लकड़ी के हत्थे लगाने से पहले औजार प्रायः गर्म किए जाते हैं

HBSE 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन

प्रश्न 3.
प्राकृतिक तथा कृत्रिम परिवर्तनों के पाँच-पाँच उदाहरण लिखिए।
उत्तर:

प्राकृतिक परिवर्तन कृत्रिम परिवर्तन
(i) बादल बनना (i) आटे से लोई बनाना
(ii) पौधों की लम्बाई बढ़ना (ii) उबालने पर अण्डे का जमना
(iii) पहाड़ों पर बर्फ पिघलना (iii) ध से दही बनना
(iv) कली का पुष्प में बदलना (iv) कपड़े को गीला करना
(v) फलों का पकना। (v) मोमबत्ती जलाना।

 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन Class 6 HBSE Notes in Hindi

→ हमारे आस-पास अनेक परिवर्तन अपने आप होते रहते हैं।
→ पौधों पर नयी-नयी पत्तियाँ आती हैं, ये रंग बदलती हैं, पुष्प खिलते हैं तथा मुरझा जाते हैं। बादल बनते हैं, वर्षा होती है, मिट्टी गीली होती है और सूख जाती है। हवाएँ चलती हैं, नदियाँ बहती हैं आदि अनेक परिवर्तन हैं, जो स्वयं होते रहते हैं।
→ हमारे आस-पास होने वाले परिवर्तनों को दो वर्गों में बाँटा जा सकता है-

  • परिवर्तन जिन्हें उत्क्रमित किया जा सकता है।
  • परिवर्तन जिन्हें उत्क्रमित नहीं किया जा सकता है।

→ पदार्थों को गर्म करके या किसी अन्य पदार्थ के साथ मिश्रित करके उनमें परिवर्तन लाए जा सकते हैं।
→ पदार्थ को गर्म करके प्रसार और संकुचन के परिवर्तन का उपयोग लोहे के रिम को लकड़ी के पहिए पर कसने के लिए होता है।
→ परिवर्तन – परिवर्तन का अर्थ है बदलाव अर्थात् किसी प्रक्रम का नतीजा मूल पदार्थ से अलग होना।
→ प्रसार – आकार में बढ़ोत्तरी अथवा प्रसार।
→ संकुचन – सिकुड़ने की क्रिया या छोटे होने की क्रिया।
→ वाष्यन – जल की उसकी गैस अवस्था में बदलाव होने की क्रिया।
→ गलन – किसी भी वस्तु का द्रव में बदलना जब उसे गर्म किया जाए।

HBSE 9th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Why Do We Fall Ill

Haryana State Board HBSE 9th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Why Do We Fall Ill Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Haryana Board 9th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Why Do We Fall Ill

HBSE 9th Class Science Why Do We Fall Ill Intext Questions and Answers

Questions from Sub-section 13.1

Question 1.
State any two conditions essential for good health.
Answer:
Following are the two conditions essential for good health :
(i) Community cleanliness
(ii) Balanced diet.

Question 2.
State any two conditions essential for being free of diseases.
Answer:
Following are the two conditions essential for being free of diseases :
(1) Clean environment
(ii) Good habits and regular exercise.

Question 3.
Are the answers to the above questions necessarily the same or different ? Why ?
Answer:
The answers to the above questions are necessarily same because to keep good health or diseases free are almost same situation.

HBSE 9th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Why Do We Fall Ill

Questions from Sub-section 13.2

Question 1.
List any three reasons why you would think that you are sick and ought to see a doctor. If only one of these symptoms were present, would you still go to the doctor ? Why or why not ?
Answer:
There can be many
(i) cough
(ii) fever
(iii) weakness.

If the given symptoms appear for a small period of time, there is no need to go to a doctor, because the immune system of our body stops these quickly and makes the body free of the effects of any disease. But if persistent cough prevails, lungs may be infected. If fever persists, it can be due to a serious ailmant T.B. If there is nutritious deficiency, it can lead to general weakness. In conditions like these, it is proper to go to a physician, so that the real course of the symptoms may be as certained and it can be cured.

Question 2.
In which of the following case do you think the long term effects on your health are likely to be most unpleasant ?

  • If you get jaundice.
  • If you get lice.
  • If you get acne. Why?

Answer:
If we’re suffering from jaundice, it is most likely to have ill effects on our health. Jaundice is a disease that effect the liver, which is an important organ of the body and which has an important role to play in our body. So the body of the person suffering from jaundice is predominantly affected. The effect of getting lice or acne are not so predominant.

HBSE 9th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Why Do We Fall Ill

Questions from Sub-section 13.3

Question 1.
Why are we normally advised to take bland and nourishing food when we are sick?
Answer:
Bland and nourishing food is recommended to sick people so that it is easily digested and there is reimbursement of the nutrients lost due to sickness.

Question 2.
What are the different means by which infectious diseases are spread?
Answer:
Infectious diseases spread through the following methods:
1. Through ai: Many disease particles spread in the air due to sneezing, coughing, talking, spitting or defecating. When a healthy person breathes in the air containing these disease particles, the person catches the disease.

2. Through water: Pathogens of cholera, tuberculosis etc., get mixed in drinking water and enter the body. The disease spreads by washing utensils or vegetables and fruits in polluted water. It also spreads when the clothes of an infected person are washed near a source of water or he defecates near it.

3. Through food:
Pathogens present in foodstuffs also enter the body and make the person infected. It is harmful to take stale or cold food.

4. Individual contact:
Coming in contact with the patient’s clothes, bedding, utensils, towel or directly with the patient also transmits the pathogens.

5. Through animals: Some animals like houseflies, mosquitoes, mice etc., also play the role of vectors. By polluting food the pathogens are left there which ultimately enter the human body. Malaria is spread by mosquito bite while cholera spreads through houseflies and plague through mice.

Question 3.
What precautions can you take in your school to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases?
Answer:
Following precautions should be taken:
(i) Chlorination of drinking water should be done.
(ii) All the eatables in the school canteen should be kept covered.
(iii) The sale of stale fruits and other eatables should be prohibited.
(iv) If a student catches an infectious disease he should not be allowed to mix up with his classmates in the classroom as well as in the playground till he fully recovers.
(v) Children should be properly educated about personal as well as community hygiene.
(vi) To prevent communicable diseases all children should be given proper vaccination.

HBSE 9th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Why Do We Fall Ill

Question 4.
What is immunisation?
Answer:
The strength produced in the body to resist diseases is called immunity for example; disease producer is got entered into the body. This disease producer combats with the blood cells. In reaction to that some specific chemical substances are produced. These various substances destroy the pathogens in the body and thus, produce the ability of resistivity to combat diseases. It is called as immunity of the body and this process is called as immunisation.

Question 5.
What are the immunisation programmes available at the nearest health centre in your locality? Which of these diseases are the major health problems in your area ?
Answer:
In our town health centre following vaccination programmes are available:

  • National tuberculosis eradication programme.
  • National, cholera eradication programme.
  • National leprosy eradication programme.
  • National polio eradication campaign.
  • National child communicable disease eradication (vaccination of children).

Generally, in all cities and towns problems in relation to hygienic environment community hygienic and pure drinking water one quite common. In proper disposal of garbage in cities and towns is responsible for polluting the environment. Pure water is not being available. Air and water pollution have been adding to health problems.

HBSE 9th Class Science Why Do We Fall Ill Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
How many times did you fall ill in the last one year? What were the illnesses?
(i) Think of one change you could make in your habits in order to avoid any of/most of the above illnesses.
(ii) Think of one change you would wish for in your surroundings in order to avoid any of/most of the above illnesses.
Answer:
Every person can suffer from a minor or major diseases at any time. Hardly a few persons can be there who do not develop any disease, but even then due to some reasons health can be affected. I also fell ill in the last year. I had suffered from malaria.
(i) Different safety measures can be adopted to get rid of malaria. It can be avoided by filling the pits and landfills around our neighbourhood with soil and sand, drain blockage should be removed, water should be drained out from the flower pots, desert cooler-tanks and empty vessels in our houses, at night net and mosquito repellent cream should be applied to the skin. The doors and windows in the houses should be equipped with wire-gauze.

(ii) The growth of mosquitoes can be checked by keeping our surroundings clean and tidy pits and drains must not be let overflow or choked with stagnant water. Unwanted bushes or weeds should be destroyed.

HBSE 9th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Why Do We Fall Ill

Question 2.
A doctor/nurse/health worker is exposed to more sick people than others in the community. Find out how she/he avoids getting sick herself/himself.
Answer:
Doctors, nurses and health workers immensely remain in contact with patients than other people. To protect themselves from harmful bacteria or microbes following safety measures are adopted by them :
(1) They are habitual wearing washed and clean clothes every day.
(2) While examining a patient, doctor use to cover their mouth and nose with a mask so that the least microbes carry ing infection should not enter their body through breathing.
(3) Nurses and other medical workers wear rubber gloves while injecting or dressing a patient, so that they may not come in direct contact with the patient.
(4) After examining a patient, a doctor or another person at help wash up their hands with an antiseptic solution.
(5) Whole of the staff in the hospital is much concerned about common hygiene. The floors of the wards and rooms are swabbed with disinfectant phenyl regularly.
(6) The garbage and waste should be destroyed with scientific methods.

Question 3.
Conduct a survey in your neighbourhood to find out what the three most common diseases are. Suggest three steps that could be taken by your local authorities to bring down the incidence of these diseases.
Answer:
On conducting a survey in the neighbourhood it was found that the three most common diseases in my locality are:
(i) Diarrhoea and expectoration (vomiting)
(ii) Malaria
(iii) Cough and cold.

Following are the three suggestions to immunise ourselves against these diseases :
(1) There is a great need to take care of the eatables and drinking water they must be protected against any kind of pollution.
(2) Ensure that the water is covered so that mosquitoes can’t breed and we can have safe drinking water.
(3) Maintaining cleanliness and proper disposal system is needed.

HBSE 9th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Why Do We Fall Ill

Question 4.
A baby is not able to tell her/his caretakers that she/he is sick. What would help us to find out
(a) that the baby is sick?
(b) what is the sickness?
Answer:
(a) If a baby is not able to tell his/her caretaker that he/she is sick then body symptoms should be observed by the caretaker. The caretaker should take the baby to the doctor, if she or he finds a clue that the baby is sick. Some symptoms that can be observed are :
1. If the baby cries continuously.
2. If the baby doesn’t want to eat anything.
3. If the baby feels irritated all the time.

(b) Kind of sickness can be known by certain symptoms e.g. yellowness of skin and eyes, redness in eye may indicate conjunctivitis.

Question 5.
Under which of the following conditions is a person most likely to fall sick?
(a) when she is recovering from malaria.
(b) when she has recovered from malaria and is taking care of someone suffering from chicken pox.
(c) when she is on a four-day fast after recovering from malaria and is taking care of someone suffering from chicken pox. Why?
Answer:
A person is most likely to fall sick when she is on a four-day fast after recovering from malaria and is taking care of someone suffering from chicken pox. This is because since she has suffered from malaria and is in the recovery phase, it means that she is still not completely disease-free. Her chances of getting chicken pox are also high as her body has lowered.

Question 6.
Under which of the following conditions are you most likely to fall sick?
(a) when you are taking examinations.
(b) when you have travelled by bus and train for two days.
(c) when your friend is suffering from measles. Why?
Answer:
(a) I am most likely to fall sick when my friend is suffering from measles. Measles is a viral infection. It is a contagious disease. It spreads through contact with infected mucus and saliva. The virus can sustain for several hours. Even coming in contact or sharing items with an infected person results in the spread of disease.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Haryana State Board HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Haryana Board 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Economics Poverty as a Challenge Intext Questions and Answers

(Page 32)

Question 1.
Why do different countries use different poverty lines?
Answer:
A person is considered poor if his or her income or consumption level falls below a given “minimum level” necessary to fulfill basic needs. What is necessary to satisfy basic needs is different at different times and in different countries. Therefore, poverty line may vary with.time and place. Each country uses an imaginary line that is considered appropriate for its existing level of development and its accepted minimum social norms.

Question 2.
What do you think is the minimum necessary level in your locality?
Answer:
Students are required to do it themselves.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

(Page 33)

Question 1.
Study the Table 3.1 and answer the following questions.
Estimates of Poverty in India

Poverty ratio (%) Number of poor (in milliqns)
Year Ru-ral Ur-ban Com-bined Ru-ral Ur-ban Com-bined
1973-74 56.4. 49.0 54.9 261 60 321
1993-94 37.3 32.4 36.0 244 76 320
1999-00 27,1 23.6 26.1 193 67 260

Source:
Econnomic Survey 2002-03, Ministry of Finance, Government of India.
Even if poverty ratio declined between 1973-74 and 1993-94, why did the number of poor remain at about 320 million?

Are the dynamics of poverty reduction the same in rural and urban India?
Answer:
(i) The number of poor remain at about 320 million due to increasing population and shifting of people from rural to urban areas.
(ii) The dynamics of poverty reduction are not same in rural and urban India whereas as poverty level is continously declining in rural India it is not so in urban area’s. In the year 1993-94 poverty in urban areas infact increased.

(Page 35)

Observe some of the poor families around you and try to find the following:
(i) Which social and economic group do they belong to?
(ii) Who are the earning members in the family?
(iii) What is the condition of the old people in the family ?
(iv) Are all the children (boys and girls) attending schools?
Answer:
Students should do it themselves.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

(Page 36)

Question 1.
Study the graph 3.2 and do the following:
(i) Identify the three states where, the poverty ratio is the highest
HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge - 1
HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge - 2

(ii) Identify the three states where poverty ratio is lowest.
Note-See the graph on page No. 114
Answer:
(i) Poverty ratio is highest in Orissa, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh.
(ii) Poverty ratio is lowest in Jammu Kashmir, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh.

Question 2.
Study die graph 3.4 and do the following
(i) Identify the area of the world, where poverty ratios have declined.
(ii) Identify the area of the globe which has the largest concentration of poor.
Answer:
(i) Poverty has declined substantially in China and South-east Asian countries.
(ii) Sub-Saharan Africa, has the largest concentration of poor.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

(Page 40)

Question 1.
Describe how the poverty line is measured fat India. .
Answer:
In India while determining the poverty line, a minimum level of food requirement, clothing, footwear, fuel and light, educational andmedical requirements are determined for subsistence. These physical quantities are mulitplied by their prices in rupees. The present formula for food requirement while estimating the poverty line is based on the desired calories requirement. The calories needs vary depending on age, sex and thefype of work that a person does. The accepted calories requirement in India is 2400 calories per person per day in rural areas and 2100 calories per person per day in urban areas.

Poverty line is also measured on die basis of monetary expenditure per capita needed for buying these calorie requirements in terms of food-grains etc. On the basis of these calculations, for the year2000, the poverty line
for a person was fixed at Rs 328 per month for the rural areas and Rs 454 for the urban areas.

Question 2.
Do you think the present methodology for poverty estimation is appropriate.
Answer:
The present method of measuring poverty is not adequate. It takes into consideration the minimum subsistence level and not the reasonable level of living. There is need to broaden the concept of poverty. A large number of people may be able to feed themselves but they do not have access to other necessities like education, sanitation, health, job security etc. They may not be free from caste and gender discrimination etc. Thus definition of poverty should be changed. Apart from food all the above things should be brought into its preview.

Question 3.
Describe poverty trends in India since 1973.
Answer:
There is a Substantial decline fit- poverty ratios in India from about 55 percent in 1973 to 36 percent in 1993. The proportion of people below poverty line further came down to about 26 percent in 2000. If the trend continues, people below poverty line may come down to less than 20 percent in the next ew years. Although, the percentage erf people living below poverty has decUned in the earlier two decades the number of poor remained stable around 320 million for a fairly long period. The latest estimates indicate a significant reduction in the number of poor to about 260 million.

Question 4.
Discuss the major reasons for poverty tit India.
Answer:
There are various reasons for poverty in India. Few of them ate listed below.
(i) British policy-The historical reason is the low level of economic development under the British colonial administration. The policies of colonial government ruined the traditipnal handicrafts and discouraged development of industries like textiles.

(ii) Tow economic growth rate-The low rate of growth persisted until the nineteen eighties. This resulted in less job opportunities ‘ and low growth rate of incomes.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

(iii) High growth rate of the population-The growth rate of population was very high. It combined with low economic growth rate to make the growth rate of percent income very low.

(iv) Migration of people from rural to urban , areas-Due to heavy pressure on agricultural land and absence of alternative occupation in rural areas people started migrating to urban areas. This intensified the problem of urban poverty. These people could not find job with adequate income therefore, started living in slums and under unhygienic conditions.

(v) Unequal distribution of income and wealth-One of the major reasons of poverty” is the high income in equalities. The main cause of it is the unequal distribution of land. Land reforms that aimed at the redistribution of assets and improvement of the poor in rural areas were not implemented effectively.

(vi) Social factors like-illiteracy-Large size of family, law of inheritance, and caste system are, also responsible for prevalence of poverty-ridden people.

Question 5.
Identify the social and economic groups which are most vulnerable to poverty in India.
Answer:
The proportion of people below poverty line is not same for all social groups and. economic categories in India. Social groups which are most vulnerable to poverty. are scheduled castes and scheduled tribe households. Similarly, among the economic groups the most vulnerable groups are the rural agricultural labour households and the urban casual labour households.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Question 6.
Give an account of interstate disparities in poverty in India.
Answer:
The proportion of poor people is not the same in every state. Though there is a decline in state level poverty, the success rate of reducing poverty varies from state to state. Recent estimates show that in 20 states and union territories, the poverty ratio is less than the national average. On the other hard, poverty is still a serious problem in Orissa, Bihar, Assam, Tripura arid Uttar. Pradesh: Orissa and Bihar ate the poorest state with poverty ratios of 47 and 43 percent respectively. Along with rural poverty, urban poverty is also high in Orissa, Madhya Pradesh) Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.

In comparison, there has been a significant decline in poverty, in Kerala, Jammu and Kashmir;’Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and West Bengal. States like Punjab arid Haryana have traditionally succeeded in reducing poverty with The help of high agricultural growth rates. They have succeeded in reducing poverty due to human resource development. In West Bengal, land reform measures have helped in bringing down poverty levels. In Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu public distribution system have been responsible for the improvement.

Question 7.
Describe global poverty trends.
Answer:
The proportion of people in developing countries living in extreme economic poverty-defined by the World Bank as living on less than $ 1 per day – has fallen from 28 per cent in 1990 to 21 per Cent in 2001. Although there has been a substantial reduction in global poverty, it is marked with great regional differences. Poverty declined substantially in China and Southeast Asian countries as a result of rapid economic growth and massive investments in human resource development.

Number of poors in China has come down from 606 million in 1981 to 212 million in 2001; Dt fhe countries of South Asia (India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan) the decline has notbeen as rapid. Despite decline in the percentage of the poor, the number of poor has declined marginally from 475 million in 1981 to 428 million in 2001. Because of different poverty

line definition, poverty in India is also shown higher than, the national estimates. In sub-Saharan Africa, poverty in fact rose from 41 per cent in 1981 to 46 per cent in 2001. In Latin America, the ratio of poverty remained the same. Poverty has also resurfaced in some of the former socialist countries like Russia, where officially it was non-existent earlier. The Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations calls for reducing the proportion of people living on less than $ 1 a day to half, the 1990 level by 2015.

Question 8.
Describe current government strategy of poverty alleviation.
Answer:
The currentanti-poverty strategy of the government is bajjed broadly on two planks-
(i) promotion of economic growth.
(ii) targeted anti-poverty programmes:

(i) Promotion of economic growth:
for a long period percentage of poor (45) remained stagnant. It started falling with tire increase in economic growth rate in eighties. The growth rate increased from 3.5 percent in 1970’s to about 6 percent during 1980’s and 1990’s The higher growth, rates have helped significantly in the reduction of poverty.

Thus; there is a strong link between economic growth and poverty reduction. Economic growth widens opportunities and provides the resources needed to invest in human development. This also encourages people to send their children, including girls, to schools in the hope of getting better economic returns from investing in education.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

(ii) Targeted anti-poverty programmes:
The poor are not able to take advantage from the opportunities created by economic growth. Moreover growth in agriculture is much below expectations. Therefore, there is a clear need for targetted anti-poverty programmes. Some of these are as follows:

(iii) National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (2005)-It was passed in September 2005. The act provides 100 days assured employment every year to every rural household in 200 districts. Later, the scheme will be extended to 600 districts. One-third of the proposed jobs would be reserved for. women.

(b) National Food for Work Programme:
It was launched in 2004 in 150 most backward districts of the country. The programme is open to all rural poor who are in need of wage employment and desire to do manual work. It is implemented as a 100 percent centrally sponsored, scheme and food-grains are provided free of cost to the states.

(iii) Prime Minister Rozgar Yozana-It was started in 1993. In it youths are helped in settiiig up small business and industries in rural areas and small towns.

(iv) Rural Employment Generation Programme-It was launched in 1995. The aim of the programme is to create self employment opportunities in rural areas and small towns. A target of creating 25 lakh hew jobs has. been set up for the programme under the tenth five-year plan.

(v) Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana-It was launched in 1999. The programme aims at bringing the assisted poor families above the poverty line by organising them into self help groups through a mix of bank credit and government subsidy.

(vi) Pradhan Mantri Gramoda/a Yozana – It was launched In 2000, additional central assistance is given to-states for basic services such as primary health, primary education, rural shelter, rural drinking water and rural electrification.

Question 9.
Answer file following questions briefly-
(i) What do you understand by human poverty.
(ii) Who are the poorest of the poor ?
(iii) What are the main features of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005?
Answer:
(i) Today many scholars advocate that one must broaden the concept of poverty into human poverty. By it they mean that while measuring poverty instead of minimum subsistence level we must consider reasonable 5 level of living. It must include in its purview availability of basic education, health care, sanitation, job security gender equality etc.

(ii) Women, children and old people are poorest of file poor.
(iii) Main features of National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 are:
(a) It provides 100 days assured employment every year to every rural household in 200 districts.
(b) One-third of the proposed jobs would be reserved for’ women.
(c) If the.applicant is not provided employment within fifteen days he/she will be entitled to a daily unemployment allowance.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Economics Poverty as a Challenge Important Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is poverty ?
Or
Explain the term ‘poverty’.
Answer:
Poverty means a situation in which a person is unable to get minimum basic necessities of life i:e. food, clothing and shelter for his or her sustenance.

Question 2.
What is poverty line?
Answer:
Poverty line is referred to as minimum requirement for basic necessities.

Question 3.
Mention two measures to alleviate poverty in India.
Answer:
Measures to reduce poverty in India are-
(a) to create more employment opportunities.
(b) to check the growth of population.

Question 4.
How social scientists look at poverty ?
Answer:
Social scientists look at poverty through a variety of indicators. Usually the indicators used relate to the levels of income and consumption. But now the poverty is looked through other social indicators like illiteracy level, lack of general resistance due to malnutrition, lack of access to health care, lack of job opportunities, lack of access to safe drinking water etc

Question 5.
Who estimates poverty line in India?
Answer:
National-sample survey organisation.

Question 6.
What is the poverty line for a person according to the 2000 census?
Answer:
According to the year 2000, the poverty line of a person is Rs. 328 per month, for the rural areas and Rs. 454 for urban areas.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Question 7.
Mention the three most poor states of India.
Answer:
The there most poor states of India are Orissa, Bihar and Mahdya Pradesh.

Question 8.
What is the poverty line an defined by the World Bank?
Answer:
Poverty line as defined by the world bank is the people living on less than $ 1 per day:

Question 9.
How does growth rate in population increase poverty in a country? Explain.
Answer:
Population growth is one of the major causes of unemployment in India: When the. number of people increases in a country much faster than the increase in employment opportunities, that situation may lead to unemployment. Since the pressure of population on agriculture/primary sector is already very high, the responsibility of creating new jobs is to be borne and shared by the secondary and tertiary sector.

Question 10.
Explain the term ‘poverty7?
Answer:
Poverty is a situation in which a person is unable to get minimum basic necessities of life, i.e. food, clothing and shelter for his or her sustenance. Such people are called as poverty ridden or people living below poverty line. When a larger section of the people in an economy is deprived of these basic necessities that economy is said to be in mass poverty. During 1999-2000, approximately 26 crore people in India were reported to be poverty ridden.

Question 11.
Explain any four causes of poverty.
Answer:
Four causes of poverty are-
(i) Unemployment-When With the increase in population, employment opporhihities does not grow at the same rate, it results in poverty

(ii) Social factors-Social factors like illiteracy, ignorance; fatalism and joint family system have stopped from adopting modem ideas and techniques so that they could not increase their income.

(iii) Underutilised natural resources-The resources have not been, fully utilised. The bulk of our resources are still lying unused.

(iv) Backward agriculture-There is lack of basic facilities like water, fertiliser, pesticides etc. The productivity is low’and Indian farmer remains poor.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Question 12.
Explain structural aitd cyclical unemployment. Give one example of each.
Answer:
Structural unemployment-If in an economy, there is no capital or resources to provide employment to all the labour force that situation is referred to as structural unemployment. The nature of unemployment in India is parly structural. “India does not have sufficient capital to employ labourers working in agriculture. Cyclical unemployment-When there is unemployment due to shortage of demand for %oods, it is referred to as cyclical unemployment. It generally occurs in capitalist countries.

Question 13.
Explain any two measures undertaken by government to alleviate poverty in rural India.
Answer:
Programmes started by government to alleviate poverty in rural/ areas are as follows –
(i) Swaranjayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana-The objective of the programme is to help the existing poor families to come above the poverty line. It is actually a sponsored scheme and is in operation in all – the development blocks of the country since 1980. Under it families below poverty line are provided financial assistance.

The objectives of the programme is, to give employment, to those, men and women who do not get sufficient days of employment in rural areas. This programme aims at creation of community assets such as Social forestry/ soil conservation, minor irrigation projects, and renovation of village wells, rural roads, schools etc.

Question 14.
What are the methods to measure poverty* line?
Answer:
Methods to measure poverty line-
(i) Expenditure method-Firstly, for each person the minimum nutritional food requirement for survival is measured. Then it is converted into equivalent money value i.e. rupees. Apart from food, money required for other items is also added into it. This total equivalent amount is considered as poverty line. An those families which spend less than the poverty line, are considered as below poverty line families.

(ii) Income method-In this method, all those families whose total income in a month is less than foe poverty line as fixed- by the government are considered to be belowpoverty line.families.

Question 15.
How did government table problems of poverty in foe initial stages of economic planning.
Answer:
In the initial, stages of. economic of poverty from four dimensions, as given below—
(i) The government believed that efforts towards developing foe heavy industries and green revolution would create employment opportunities and incomes, which would lead to rapid economic development
(ii) Several land reform measures such as abolition of zamindari system, security of tenant farmers against eviction, fixation of rents, ceilings on land holdings and distribution of surplus land etc.
(iii) Small scale and cottage industries were encouraged.
(iv) An attempt was made to reduce gap between rich and poor through income and wealth redistribution.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Question 16.
Explain social exclusion concept of poverty.
Answer:
According to this concept, poverty must bee seen in terms of the poor having to -live only in a poor surroundings with other poor people, excluded from enjoying social equality of better off people in better surroundings. Social exclusion can be both a cause as well as a consequence of poverty in foe usual sense. Broadly, it is a process-through which individuals or groups are excluded from facilities, benefits and opportunities that others enjoy.

Question 17.
What is vulnerability ?
Or
Explain the concept of vulnerability.
Answer:
Vulnerability to poverty is a measure which describes the greater probability of certain communities or individuals of becoming or remaining poor in the coming years. Vulnerability is determined by the finding an alternative living in terms ojf assets, education, health and job opportunities. Further it is analysed on the basis of greater risks these groups face at the time of natural disasters. Additional analysis is made of their social and economic ability to handle these risks.

Question 18.
How indebtedness of farmers is responsible for poverty ?
Or
How indebtedness of fanners is both the cause and effect of poverty ?
Answer:
Small farmers need money to buy agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizer, pesticides etc. Since poor people hardly have any savings, they borrow from money- 7 lenders. Money-lenders give them loan at very high interest rates. Therefore, they are unable to repay these’ loans because of poverty. They become victims, of indebtedness. So the high level of indebtedness is both the cause and effect of poverty.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Question 19.
Examine the causes of poverty and explain any three measures adopted to remove poverty in India. r
Answer:
Causes of poverty-
(i) Britishers adopted the policy to discourage traditional industries. This has left millions of weavers poor.
(ii) Excessive dependency on agriculture has resulted in low ievel of income for the rural masses.
(iii) Majority of the rural poor do not have enough land and machinery. They are mostly landless labourers and people without work.
(iv) Social factors like illiteracy, large size of family, law of inheritance and caste system are also responsible for prevalence of poverty ridden people.

Poverty alleviation programmes-
(i) Swarnajayanti Grain Swarojgar Yojana-It is a centrally sponsored scheme which is in operation since 1980. It provides financial assistance to rural poor.

(ii) JawaharGram Samriddhi Yojana-Its objective is to generate employment for those men and women who do not get sufficient days, of employment in rural areas.

(iii) Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana and Swarnajayanti Shahari Rojgar Yojana-These schemes are aimed at the welfare of the educated unemployed in urban areas. It aims to provide self employment to the educated unemployed in the age group of 18 to 35, particularly, in the urban areas. Employment Assurance Scheme and Pradhanmantri Gramodaya Yojana were launched in 1999 and 2000-01.

Some Important Facts

1. Poverty-It is a situation in which a person is unable to get minimum basic necessities of life.
2. Poverty line-It is the minimum requirement for basic necessities.

HBSE 11th Class Geography Important Questions and Answers

Haryana Board HBSE 11th Class Geography Important Questions and Answers

HBSE 11th Class Geography Important Questions in Hindi Medium

HBSE 11th Class Geography Important Questions: भौतिक भूगोल के मूल सिद्धांत

HBSE 11th Class Geography Important Questions: भारत-भौतिक पर्यावरण

HBSE 11th Class Geography Important Questions in English Medium

HBSE 11th Class Geography Important Questions: Fundamentals of Physical Geography

  • Chapter 1 Geography as a Discipline
  • Chapter 2 The Origin and Evolution of the Earth
  • Chapter 3 Structure of the Earth’s Interior
  • Chapter 4 Distribution of Oceans and Continents
  • Chapter 5 Minerals and Rocks
  • Chapter 6 Geomorphic Processes
  • Chapter 7 Landforms and Their Evolution
  • Chapter 8 Composition and Structure of Atmosphere
  • Chapter 9 Solar Radiation, Heat Balance and Temperature
  • Chapter 10 Atmospheric Circulation and Weather Systems
  • Chapter 11 Water in the Atmosphere
  • Chapter 12 World Climate and Climate Change
  • Chapter 13 Oceanic Water
  • Chapter 14 Movement of the Ocean Water
  • Chapter 15 Life on the Earth
  • Chapter 16 Biodiversity and Conservation

HBSE 11th Class Geography Important Questions: India: Physical Environment

  • Chapter 1 India-Location
  • Chapter 2 Structure and Physiography
  • Chapter 3 Drainage System
  • Chapter 4 Climate
  • Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation
  • Chapter 6 Soils
  • Chapter 7 Natural Hazards and Disasters

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 6 Political Parties

Haryana State Board HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 6 Political Parties Notes

Haryana Board 10th Class Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 6 Political Parties

  • In this chapter, we shall study the role of political parties in the rise of democracies, in electoral politics, and in the making and working of the government.

→ Why Do We Need Political Parties?

  • Political parties are one of the most visible institutions in a democracy; for ordinary citizens, democracy is equal to political parties. It is important to know the nature and workings of political parties.

→ Meaning of Political Parties

  • A political party is an organized group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government.
  • Political parties reflect fundamental political divisions in society.
  • A political party has three components:
    (i) The leaders
    (ii) The active members
    (iii) The followers and supporters.

→ Functions of Political Parties

  • Political parties contest elections.
  • Political parties put forward different policies and programmes and the voters choose the desired ones from among them.
  • Political parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country.
  • Political parties form and run governments.
  • The losing parties in the elections play the role of opposition to the parties in power.
  • Political parties shape public opinion.
  • Parties provide people access to government machinery and welfare schemes implemented by governments.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 6 Political Parties

→ Necessity of Political Parties

  • Without political parties, every candidate in the elections will be independent. So, no one will be able to make any promises to the people about any major policy changes.
  • The rise of political parties is linked to the emergence of representative democracies.
  • As societies became large and complex they also needed some agency to gather different views on various issues and to present these to the government. This need is fulfilled by the political parties.

→ How Many Parties Should We Have?

  • More than 750 parties are registered with the Election Commission of India.
  • In some countries, only one party is allowed to control and run the government. These are called one-party systems, e.g. China.
  • In some countries, power usually changes between two main parties. Such a party system is called two-party system, e.g. The United States of America (USA).
  • If several parties compete for power and more than two parties have a reasonable chance of coining to power either on their own strength or by alliance with others, we call it a multi-party system, e.g. India.
  • We have a multi-party system because this system allows a variety of interests and opinions to enjoy political representation.

→ National Parties

  • A party that secures at least six per cent of the total votes in Lok Sabha elections or Assembly elections in four states, and wins at least four seats in the Lok Sabha, is recognised as a national party.
  • There were seven national recognised parties in the country in the year 2018:
    (i) Indian National Congress (INC) is one of the oldest parties of the world. It was founded in 1885.
    (ii) Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) was founded in 1980 by reviving the erstwhile Bharatiya Jana Sangh.
    (iii) Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) was formed in 1984 under the leadership of Kanshi Ram.
    (iv) Communist Party of India-Marxist (CPI-M) was founded in 1964 and believes in Marxism-Leninism.
    (v) Communist Party of India (CPI) was formed in 1925 and believes in Marxism-Leninism, secularism and democracy.
    (vi) Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) was formed in 1999, following a split in the Congress party.
    (vii) All India Trinamool Congress (AITC) was formed in 1998 under the leadership of Mamata Baneijee.
  • All the national parties have been allotted well-known and permanent symbols by the Election Commission of India.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 6 Political Parties

→ State Parties

  • A party, that secures at least six per cent of the total votes in an election to the Legislative Assembly of a State and wins at least two seats is recognised as a State Party.
  • Other than these seven parties, most of the major parties of the country are classified as state parties.
  • Some of these parties are Samajwadi Party, Shiromani Akali Dal, Janata Dal (U), Biju Janata Dal, Sikkim Democratic Front, Shiv Sena, DMK, ADMK, Jharkhand Mukti Morcha, etc.

→ Challenges to Political Parties

  • The first challenge is lack of internal democracy within parties.
  • The second challenge is that most political parties do not practise open and transparent procedures for their functioning. There are very few ways for an ordinary worker to rise to the top in a party.
  • The third challenge is about the growing role of money and muscle power in parties, especially during elections.
  • The fourth challenge is that very often, parties do not seem to offer a meaningful choice to the voters.

→ How can Parties be reformed?

  • The Constitution was amended to prevent elected MLAs and MPs from changing parties. If any MLA or MP changes parties after election, he or she will lose the seat in the legislature.
  • This new law has helped to bring down defection.
  • Now, it is mandatory for every candidate who contests elections to file an affidavit giving details of their property and criminal cases pending against them.
  • This has made a lot of information available to the public.
  • The Election Commission passed an order, making it necessary for political parties to hold their organisational elections and file their income tax returns.
  • Besides these, many suggestions are often made to reform political parties:
  • A law should be made to regulate the internal affairs of political parties.
  • It should be made compulsory for political parties to give a minimum number of tickets, about one-third to women candidates.
  • There should be state funding of elections.
  • People can put pressure on political parties through petitions, publicity, and agitations.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 6 Political Parties

→ Important Terms

1. Political Party: An organized group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government.

2. Partisan: A person who is strongly committed to a party, group or faction.

3. Partisanship: It is marked by a tendency to take a side and an inability to take a balanced view on an issue.

4. Ruling Party: A political party that runs the government.

5. Regional Party: A political party whose political activities are limited to a region.

6. Opposition: The political party or a group of parties that is a main part of the legislature but not a part of the government. It is opposed to the government.

7. Election Commission: An independent authority provided by the Constitution, to ensure free and fair elections in the country.

8. Single-Party System: In some countries, only one party is allowed to control and run the government. This is also called the one-party system.

9. Two-Party System: A system where two parties prevail in a country.

10. Multi-Party System: A political condition, in which many parties make a bid for power and have some chance of being successful.

11. Alliance: A political condition in a multi-party system, when several parties join hands for the purpose of contesting elections and winning power.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 6 Political Parties

12. National Party: A party that has a wide base in a large part of the country is called a national party.

13. Rightist Party: Party is rigid in its approach to the past glory of the country and supporter of ethics and morals.

14. Leftist Party: Party ideologically radical and conservative.

15. State Party: A political party whose political activities are limited to a region. It is also called a regional party.

16. Defection: Changing party allegiance from the party under which a person got elected (to a legislative body) to a different party.

17. M.P.: Member of Parliament.

18. M.L.A.: Member of Legislative Assembly.

19. Affidavit: A signed document, submitted to an office where a person makes a sworn statement regarding his/her personal information.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Haryana State Board HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Haryana Board 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

HBSE 10th Class Economics Globalisation and the Indian Economy Intext Questions and Answers

Let’s Work This Out (Page No. 57)

Question 1.
Complete the following statement to show how the production process in the garment industry is spread across countries.
The brand tag says ‘Made in Thailand’ but they are not Thai products. We dissect the manufacturing process and look for the best solution at each step. We are doing it globally. In making garments, the company may, for example, get cotton fibre from Korea,
Answer:
The brand tag says ‘Made in Thailand’, but they are not Thai products. We dissect the manufacturing process and look for the best solution at each step. We are doing it globally. In making garments, the company may, for example, get cotton fibre from Korea, China and India, which may be cheap manufacturing locations. India has highly skilled engineers, relevant to garments’ industry, who can understand the technical aspects of production. It also has educated, English- speaking youth, who can provide customer care services.

Let’s Work These Out (Page No. 59)

Read the following passage and answer the questions :
Ford Motors, an American Company, is one of the world’s largest automobile manufacturers with production spread over 26 countries of the world. Ford Motors came to India in 1995 and spent ₹ 1700 crore to set up a large plant near Chennai. This was done in collaboration with Mahindra and Mahindra, a major Indian manufacturer of jeeps and trucks. By the year 2017, Ford Motors was selling 88,000 cars in the Indian markets, while another 1,81,000 cars were exported from India to South Africa, Mexico and Brazil. The company wants to develop Ford India as a component supplying base for its other plants across the globe.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Question 1.
Would you say Ford Motors is a MNC? Why?
Answer:
Yes, Ford Motors is certainly an MNC, because it operates in many countries across the world, India being one of them. This multinational corporation is headquartered in the USA.

Question 2.
What is foreign investment? How much did Ford Motors invest in India?
Answer:
The investment made by MNCs for production in other countries is called foreign investment. Ford Motprs has invested? 1700 crore in India.

Question 3.
By setting up their production plants in India, MNCs, such as Ford Motors, tap the advantage, not only of the large markets that countries such as India provide but also the lower costs of production. Explain the statement.
Answer:
Generally, MNCs set up production where it is close to the markets, where there is skilled and unskilled labour available at low prices, where the availability of other factors of production is assured and there are favourable government policies of related countries. India has become a favourite country of MNCs, due to availability of all the above facilities. That’s why, MNCs, such as Ford Motors, have set up their production plants in India, and gained profit.

Question 4.
Why do you think the company wants to develop India, as a base for manufacturing car components for its global operations? Discuss the following factors :
(a) cost of labour and other resources in India
(b) the presence of several local manufacturers who supply auto parts to Ford Motors
(c) closeness to a large number of buyers in India and China.
Answer:
The Ford Motors Company wants to develop India, as a base for manufacturing car components, for its global operations as –

  • The company can get skilled and unskilled labour at cheap rates in India. Besides, it can get other necessary resources of production at reasonable rates.
  • There are many small production units that have the efficiency to handle the cost, quality and labour conditions and can easily supply small parts to the company.
  • India and China are neighbouring countries. Both countries can provide a large market to the company.

Question 5.
In what ways will the production of cars by Ford Motors in India lead to interlinking of production?
Answer:
The production of cars, by Ford Motors in India, will lead to interlinking of production because this company is set up in India in collaboration with Mahindra and Mahindra. Mahindra and Mahindra is also a major Indian manufacturer of jeeps and trucks and several small companies of India can get a chance to work with such big companies.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Question 6.
In what ways is an MNC different from other companies?
Answer:
MNC is different from other companies in the following ways :

MNCs:

  • MNCs own or control the production in more than one country.
  • MNCs set up their offices and factories for production in other countries.
  • There is a high level of capital investment.
  • They earn huge profits due to the availability of resources at cheap rates.
  • MNCs produce at a large scale.
  •  MNCs compete globally.

Other companies:

  • Other companies own and control production only in one country.
  • Other companies set up their offices and factories for production in one country.
  • There is low level of capital investment.
  • They earn lesser profit due to lack of resources.
  • Other companies produce at small scale.
  • Other companies compete with, their local competitors.

Question 7.
Nearly all major multinationals are American, Japanese or European, such as Nike, Coca-cola, Pepsi, Honda, Nokia. Can you guess why?
Answer:
Almost all major multinationals are American, Japanese or European because these countries are developed countries. MNCs require a huge amount of money, latest technology, skilled management, entrepreneurial capability of high scale production etc., for expanding their production and markets in .other countries. Generally, poor countries do not have these resources. That’s why, nearly all major multinationals are American, Japanese or European.

Let’s Work These Out (Page No. 61)

Question 1.
What was the main channel connecting countries in the past ? How is it different now?
Answer:
Foreign trade was the main channel, connecting countries in the past.
Now, Foreign trade results in connecting the markets or integration of markets of different countries.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Question 2.
Distinguish between foreign trade and foreign investment.
Answer:
Foreign Trade: Foreign trade is a way of trading, in which, a market of a country is connected and integrated with the markets of different countries. It creates an opportunity for the producers to reach beyond the domestic markets.
Foreign Investment: Investment made by MNCs is called foreign investment. It is made with the hope, that these assets will earn profits.

Question 3.
in recent years China has been importing steel from India. Explain how the import of steel by China will affect –
(a) steel companies in China.
(b) steel companies in India.
(c) industries buying steel for production of other industrial goods in China.
Answer:
(a) Steel Companies in China: Steel companies in China will get cheap and
good quality steel.

(b) Steel Companies in India: Steel companies in India will earn good profit and extend their trades.! On the other hand, if export increases more, then Indian companies will suffer and face many problems, like-lack of raw materials, high cost of raw material and finished goods, etc.

(c) Industries buying steel for Production of other Industrial goods in China: Industries buying steel for production of other industrial goods in China will get cheap and sufficient raw material, as per their requirement. Therefore, total industrial production of China will increase.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Question 4.
How will the import of steel from India into the Chinese markets lead to integration of markets for steel in the two countries? Explain.
Answer:
The import of steel from India into the Chinese markets will lead to integration of markets for steel in the two countries in the following ways :
(i) It will help the Chinese steel market to get cheap and good quality raw material.
(ii) It will help the Indian steel companies to earn more foreign exchange.

Let’s Work These Out (Page No. 62)

Question 1.
What is the role of MNCs in the globalisation process?
Answer:
MNCs are playing an important role in the globalisation process. More and more goods and services are available to people. New techniques and technologies are moving from one country to another. People move from one country to another in search of better jobs, better education etc. Most regions of the world are coming in close contact with each other, just because of MNCs.

Question 2.
What are the various ways in which countries can be linked?
Answer:
The various ways in which countries can be linked are as follows :

  • Movement of people from one country to another.
  • Movement of goods and services between various countries.
  • Foreign trade between various countries.
  • By increasing the number of MNCs.
  • Movement of latest technology from one country to another.

Question 3.
Choose the correct option :
Globalisation, by connecting countries, shall result in :
(a) lesser competition among producers.
(b) greater competition among producers.
(c) no change in competition among producers.
Answer:
(b) greater competition among producers.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Let’s Work These Out (Page No. 63)

A news magazine published for London readers is to be designed and printed in Delhi. The text of the magazine is sent through Internet to the Delhi office. The designers in the Delhi office get orders on how to design the magazine from the office in London using telecommunication facilities. The designing is done on a computer. After printing, the magazines are sent by air to London. Even the payment of money for designing and printing from a bank in London to a bank iii Delhi is done instantly through the Internet (e-banking)!

Question 1.
In the above example, underline the words describing the use of technology in production. .
Answer:
A news magazine published for London readers is to be designed and printed in Delhi. The text of the magazine is sent through internet to the Delhi office. The designers in the Delhi office get orders on how to design the magazine from the office in London using telecommunication facilities. The designing is done on a computer. After printing, the magazines are sent by air to London. Even the payment of money for designing and printing from a bank in London to a bank in Delhi is done instantly through the Internet (e-banking)! . ‘

Question 2.
How is information technology connected with globalisation? Would globalisation have been possible without the expansion of IT?
Answer:
In modern times, technology, in the area of telecommunication, computers, internet, has been changing rapidly. Telecommunication facilities, such as telegraph, tele¬phone including mobile phones, fax, are used to contact one another around the world to access information instantly and to communicate in remote areas. This has been facilitated by satellite communication devices.

The computer has now entered almost every field of activity. Information and communication technology has played a major role in spreading out the production of services across countries. No, globalisation would have not been possible without the expansion of IT. In this modern world, business is not possible without information technology.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Let’s Work These Out (Page No. 64)

Question 1.
What do you understand by liberalisation of foreign trade?
Answer:
Liberalisation means removing unnecessary trade restrictions and making the economy more competitive. The policy of removing barriers and restrictions from exports and imports of government, is known as liberalisation of foreign trade.

Question 2.
Tax on imports is one type of trade barriers. The government could also place a limit on the number of goods that can be imported. This is known as quotas. Can you explain, using the example of Chinese toys, how quotas can be used as trade barriers? Do you think this should be used? Discuss.
Answer:
If Indian government implements import quota, then the importer country cannot buy Chinese toys more than the quota. Those who wish to import these toys, would have to pay tax on this. Because of the tax, buyers will have to pay a higher price for imported toys. Chinese toys will no longer be cheaper in the Indian markets and imports from China will automatically reduce. Indian toy makers will prosper. No, I don’t think it should be used, because now, the time has reached for Indian producers to compete with foreign producers, as it would improve the performance of producers within the country, since they would have to improve their quality.

Let’s Work These Out (Page No. 66)

Question 1.
Fill in the blanks :
WTO was started at the initiative ……………. of countries. The aim of the WTO is to ………….. WTO establishes rules regarding ……………. for all countries, and sees that ………….. In practice, trade between countries is not ………….. Developing countries like India have ………….. whereas developed countries, in many cases, have continued to provide protection to their producers.
Answer:
WTO was started at the initiative of developed countries. The aim of the WTO is to liberalise International Trade. WTO establishes rules regarding international Trade for all countries, and sees that these rules are obeyed or not. In practice, trade between countries is not fair and free. Developing countries like India have removed trade barriers, whereas developed countries, in many cases, have continued to provide protection to their producers.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Question 2.
What do you think can be done so that trade between countries is more fair?
Answer:
I think, the following attempts can be made, so that trade between countries is more fair :

  • Unnecessary restrictions on foreign trade and foreign investment should be removed.
  • Trade barriers should be removed.
  • Policy of liberalisation should be adopted.
  • All countries should follow the rules of WTO regarding trade.

Question 3.
In the above example, we saw that the US government gives massive sums of money to farmers for production. At times, governments also give support to promote the production of certain types of goods, such as those which are environmentally friendly. Discuss whether these are fair or not.
Answer:
No, these are unfair. The US government wants to capture the world market through industrial production, as well as agricultural production. For this, massive money was given to farmers for production. US farmers can sell farm products at the lowest prices. The surplus farm products are sold in other country markets at lower prices. This will adversely affect farmers in developing countries such as India.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Therefore, developing countries are asking the developed country governments, “We have reduced trade barriers as per WTO rules, but you have ignored the rules of WTO and have continued to pay your farmers vast sums of money. You have asked our governments to stop supporting our farmers, but you are doing that yourself. Is this free and fair trade?” Yes, this may be fair, if only monetary help is given for increment in production as per demand, but this condition should be applicable for all goods.

Let’s Work These Out (Page No. 67)

Question 1.
How has competition benefited people in India?
Answer:
Competition has benefited people in India in the following manner :

  • Due to competition, people are able to get goods at cheaper rate and with better quality.
  • Consumers, particularly the well-off sections in the urban areas, have a wide range of goods and services. They are enjoying variety of goods and services at cheaper rates.
  • People are enjoying much higher standards of living today.
  • MNCs have invested in industries, such as-cell phones, automobiles, electronics, soft drinks, fast food or services, like banking, in urban areas. In these industries and services, new jobs have been created.
  • Some companies in India, supplying raw materials etc. to MNCs, have prospered.
  • Several top Indian companies have invested in newer technology and production methods and raised their production standards.
  • Some companies have gained from successful collaborations with foreign companies.
  • Some large Indian companies have emerged as multinationals, such as – Tata Motors, Infosys, Ranbaxy, Asian Paints etc.
  • New opportunities have been created for companies, providing services, particularly those, involving IT.

Question 2.
Should more Indian companies emerge as MNCs? How would it benefit the people in the country?
Answer:
Yes, more Indian companies should emerge as MNCs. It would benefit the people of the country as follows:

  • It will provide employment opportunities to the people of the country.
  • It would make available, the goods at cheaper rates to the people, due to competition between companies.
  • It will improve the standard of goods because of the use of new technology and production methods.
  • These companies will earn more foreign exchange for the country.

Question 3.
Why does government try to attract more foreign investment?
Answer:
Government tries to attract more foreign investment because of the following reasons :

  • For building basic infrastructure of the country.
  • For industrial development.
  • For technological development.
  • For agricultural development.
  • For increasing job opportunities in the country.

Question 4.
In chapter 1, we saw what may be development for one may be destructive for others. The setting of SEZs has been opposed by some people in India. Find out who are these people and why are they opposing it.
Answer:
In recent years, the central and state governments in India have taken special steps to attract foreign companies to invest in India. In this reference, Special Economic Zones (SEZs) are being set up. Some people are opposed to the setting of SEZs. These people are farmers and tribals. They are opposing it because this may appropriate the land and disrupt the lives of people who are displaced.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Let’s Work These Out (Page No. 68)

Question 1.
What are the ways in which Ravi’s small production unit was affected by rising competition?
Answer:
Ravi took a loan from the bank, to start his own company producing capacitors, in the year 1992, at Hosur in Tamil Nadu. Within three years, he was able’ to expand production. His struggle to run his company started when the government removed restrictions on imports of capacitors, as per its agreement at WTO, in 2001.

However, competition from the MNC brands forced the Indian television companies to move into assembling activities for MNCs. Even when some of them bought capacitors, they would prefer to import, as the price of the imported item was half the price charged , by people like Ravi. Ravi now produces less than half the capacitors that he produced in the year 2000. Many of Ravi’s friends, in the same business, have closed their units.

Question 2.
Should producers such as Ravi stop production because their cost of production is higher compared to producers in other countries? What do you think?
Answer:
No, producers like Ravi should not stop production. They should improve the quality of their production by adopting latest technology and production methods. They should > reduce cost of production to compete with the producers of the other countries.

Question 3.
Recent studies point out that small producers in India need three things to compete .. better in the market
(a) better roads, power, water, raw materials, marketing and information network
(b) improvements and modernisation of technology
(c) timely availability of credit at reasonable interest rates.
Can you explain how these three things would help Indian producers?
Do you think MNCs will be interested in investing in these? Why?
Do you think the government has a role in making these facilities available? Why?
Can you think of any other step that the government could take? Discuss.
Answer:
(i) All these three things
(a) better roads, power, water, raw materials, marketing and information network,
(b) Improvements and modernisation of technology,
(c) timely availability of credit at reasonable interest rates, are necessary for Indian f>roducers.
(1) Better roads would help in transportation of raw materials and produced goods.
(2) Power, water, raw materials, would help in rapid production of goods.
(3) Marketing and information network would help in selling of produced goods.
(4) Improvements and modernisation of technology would help in quality production.
(5) Timely availability of credit at reasonable interest rates would inspire the Indian producers to invest in modem and high technology and production methods. It would reduce the prices of goods and make their quality standard of goods high.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

(ii) Yes, MNCs will definitely invest in these zones because they will get all the necessary facilities under one roof and these may prove to be cheaper for them.

(iii) Yes, I think the government has a major role in making these facilities available. These facilities require a huge amount of money. Such a large expense of money is possible only with the support of the government. It is very difficult for the private sector to make it easily possible.

(iv) Yes, the government can adopt following suggestions :

  • The government can liberalise its other trade rules.
  • It can decrease the paper work.
  • It can reduce other formalities.
  •  It can reduce corruption, prevalent in government offices.
  • It can invite NRIs to make investment in India.
  • It can avail more facilities to industrialists.

Let’s Work These Out (Page No. 70)

Question 1.
In what ways has competition affected workers, Indian exporters and foreign MNCs in the garment industry?
Answer:
Workers in the garment industry :

  • Now their jobs are not secure.
  • They are employed on temporary basis.
  • They have to put. in very long working hours.
  • They are paid low wages.
  • They work in night shifts on regular basis during the peak season.
  • They do not get fair share of benefits brought in by globalisation.

Indian exporters in the garment industry:

  • Indian exporters are getting large orders.
  • They try hard to cut their own costs to reduce production cost of the garment.
  • They try to cut labour costs to reduce the cost of raw materials.
  • They employ workers on a temporary basis, so that they do not have to pay workers for the whole year.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Foreign MNCs in the garpvent industry:

  • MNCs look for the cheapest goods in order to maximise their profits.
  • Competition among the garment exporters has allowed the MNCs to make large profits.

Question 2.
What can be done by each of the following so that the workers can get a fair share of benefits brought by globalisation?
(a) Government
(b) Employers at the exporting factories
(c) MNCs
(d) Workers
Answer:
The below-given measures can be adopted so that the workers can get a fair share of benefits brought by globalisation :
(a) Government:
The government can make some labour laws in favour of workers, such as, a permanent appointments for the whole year, regular wages and working hours etc. Government can force producers to implement these laws and can provide protection to workers. It can help the workers to get their rights.

(b) Employers at the exporting factories: They can help the workers by following the rules and regulations laid by government. They can provide them some benefits and facilities, such as – fair wages, job security, fixed working hours, overtime wages, health insurance, provident fund etc.

(c) MNCs: If MNCs want, they can help the government to make globalisation fair, by implementing the labour laws and other norms of the government. They should place orders to those exporters, who follow labour laws strictly.

(d) Workers: Workers should work honestly in interest of their employer company. They should avoid strikes, lockouts, industrial violence etc. They should establish labour unions, to settle their demands with government and employers.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Question 3.
One of the present issues of debate in India is, whether companies should have flexible policies for employment. Based on what you have read in the chapter, summarise the point of view of the employers and workers.
Answer:
One of the present issues of debate in India is whether companies should have flexible policies for employment.

Based on the chapter, the point of view of the employers and workers are as follows:
(i) The point of view of the employers: A large number of employers like to employ workers on a temporary basis. This means, that the jobs of workers are no longer secure. Employers try hard to reduce their costs, due to increased competition at the world level. They employ workers on a temporary basis so that they do not have to pay workers for the whole year.

(ii) The point of view of the workers: The lives of workers have changed by the pressure of competition and globalisation. Workers are not in favour of flexible policies of employment because their jobs are no longer secure just because of them. They do not get work for the whole year and they are forced to work overtime, to make both ends meet.

HBSE 10th Class Economic Globalisation and the Indian Economy Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What do you understand by globalisation? Explain in your own words.
Answer:
Globalisation is the process of rapid integration or inter-connection between countries. Globalisation encourages foreign trade and foreign investment. Under this, all barriers or restrictions on foreign trade are removed. Therefore, more and more goods and services, investments and technology move between countries, direct foreign investment increases, export and import increases. Therefore, level of production and productivity rises.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Question 2.
What were the reasons for putting barriers to foreign trade and foreign investment by the Indian Government? Why did it wish to remove these barriers?
Or
Why did Indian Government put barriers to foreign trade and investment?
Answer:
Government can use trade barriers to increase or decrease foreign trade and to decide what kinds of goods, and how much of each, should come into the country. The Indian government, after independence, had put barriers to foreign trade and foreign investment, to protect the producers within the country from foreign competition. Industries were just coming up in the 1950s and 1960s, and competition from imports at that stage, would not have allowed these industries to come up.

Thus, Indian government allowed imports of only essential items, such as – machinery, fertilisers, petroleum etc. and put barriers on foreign trade and foreign investment. The Indian Government wanted to remove these barriers, because in the starting of 1991, it was felt that the competition would improve the performance of producers within the country and help in economy’s growth. It had been decided, that the time had come for Indian producers, to compete with producers around the world.

Question 3.
How would flexibility in labour laws help companies?
Answer:
In the following way, flexibility in labour laws help companies :

  1. Companies employ workers only on a temporary basis, so that they do not have to pay workers for the whole year.
  2. It reduces the cost to employer because they pay less to the employees.
  3. Workers, also, have to put in very long working hours and work night shifts on a regular basis, during the peak season. In this way, companies make large profits.

Question 4.
What are the various ways in which MNCs set up, or control production in other countries?
Answer:
Following are the ways in which MNCs set up, or control production in other countries :
(i) By Joint Venture: Sometimes, MNCs make production in collaboration with domestic companies, within some other countries. Domestic company gets double profit by joint production – (1) MNCs can provide finance for investment, and (2) MNCs bring latest technology of production with them.
(ii) By Buying Domestic Companies: MNCs expand their production, by buying domestic companies.
(iii) By Ordering their Products from Small Producers: MNCs have another way to control production in other countries. MNCs, in developed countries, place order for production to small producers. Garments, footwear, sports items are examples of industries, where production is carried out by a large number of small producers around the world. These products are supplied to the MNCs, which sell these under them own brand name, to the customers.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Question 5.
Why do developed countries want developing countries to liberalise their trade and investment? What do you think should the developing countries demand in return?
Answer:
Developed countries want developing countries to liberalise their trade and investment, in order to expand their trade in developing countries, through foreign trade and foreign investment. To gain profit at the high rate, developed countries want to invest in developing countries. Yes, I think developing countries should demand free access to developed country’s market, removal of unfair trade barriers and more financial support. They should also demand to follow WTO rules regarding trade, so that they also can invest in developed countries.

Question 6.
“The impact of globalisation has not been uniform.” Explain this statement.
Answer:
The impact of globalisation has not been uniform. It is beneficial for some sections of society, while for some others, it has been harmful and bad. Many people have been deprived of profits of globalisation.

The above-mentioned statement can be explained as given below:
There are some positive and negative impacts of globalisation which are as follows:
1. Positive Impacts: There have been the following impacts of globalisation:
(i) There is greater competition among producers – Both, local and foreign producers, provide advantages to consumers. There is the greater choice before these consumers to enjoy the improved quality and lower prices for several products. Consequently, these people now enjoy much higher standards of living, than was possible earlier.

(ii) Globalisation has increased employment, comfort and improvised the lifestyle of the people. Thus, it has proved beneficial for some people of society.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

2. Negative Effects:

  • Some small industries have to bear a great loss, due to competition with multinational companies.
  • Many labourers have been unemployed because many factories have been closed.
  • Employment of workers has not been certain and safe.
  • Employers are reducing wages. They are taking more work from workers.
  • Globalisation has increased the difference between the poor and the rich.

Question 7.
How has the liberalisation of trade and investment policies helped the globalisation process?
Answer:
Liberalisation of trade and investment policies has helped the globalisation process in the following manner :

  • Liberalisation of trade removes barriers of trade, and due to this, import and export between countries has become easier. It helps in the process of globalisation.
  • Relaxation of rules and regulations encourages MNCs to invest in other countries, and this is a part of globalisation.
  • Liberalisation makes MNCs free, to expand their market in other countries. This is the process of globalisation.

Question 8.
How does foreign trade lead to the integration of markets across countries? Explain with an example other than those given here.
Answer:
Foreign trade leads to the integration of markets across countries as given below:

  • Almost all the countries have become dependent on each other. ‘
  • Every country has to export goods and services.
  • Foreign trade creates an opportunity beyond the domestic markets, i.e. markets of their own country.
  • Substitutes of goods get increasingly available in the market.

Example: There is a sufficient production of cotton and woollen clothes in India. If any country demands for it, India can export it to that country. On the other hand, there is a lack of mineral oil in India, therefore mineral oil can be imported from any mineral oil producing country. In this way, foreign trade leads to integration of markets, across countries.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Question 9.
Globalisation will continue in the future. Can you imagine what the world would be like twenty years from now? Give reasons for your answer.
Answer:
Undoubtedly, globalisation will continue in the future. The world would be like a big market, twenty years from now. The reasons are as follows :

  • There will be a global expansion of MNCs.
  • The world markets will be close to each other, due to the expansion of MNCs.
  • Foreign investment of MNCs will be increased.
  • Skilled and unskilled labourers will be spread out in the whole world, due to the mobility of labour.
  • Foreign trade will increase among various countries of the world.
  • The flow of more and more goods, services, investments and technology will increase among various countries.
  • employment will increase.
  • People will be in a position to buy quality goods at the cheapest rates. This will improve the standard of living of people.
  • MNCs will get benefited from the increased competition.
  • Cultural values will be exchanged.

Question 10.
Suppose you find two people arguing: One is saying globalisation has hurt our country’s development. The other is telling, that globalisation is helping India develop. How would you respond to these arguments?
Answer:
One, who is saying that globalisation has hurt our country’s development, is not right, because globalisation is very important for the development of an economy. Globalisation has created employment opportunities. It has benefited rich consumers, producers, and skilled and educated workers. Direct Foreign Investment has increased. Globalisation has made the Indian economy more competitive. It has made India capable to face foreign competition.

globalisation has some bad effects on our economy. Some small producers and workers suffered through competition, due to globalisation. Some small factories have been shut down. The government should make attempts for fair globalisation. Fair globalisation would create opportunities for all and also ensure, that the benefits of globalisation are shared better.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Question 11.
Fill in the blanks –
Indian buyers have a greater choice of goods than they did two decades back. This is closely associated with the process of ………….. Markets in India are selling goods produced in many other countries. This means there is increasing ……………… with other countries. Moreover, the rising number of brands that we see in the markets might be produced by MNCs in India. MNCs are investing in India because …………….. While
consumers have more choices in the market, and the effect of rising …………… and ………….. has meant greater …………….. among the producers.
Answer:
Indian buyers have a greater choice of goods than they did two decades back. This is closely associated with the process of globalisation Markets in India are selling goods produced in many other countries. This means there is increasing trade with other countries. Moreover, the rising number of brands that we see in the markets might be produced by MNCs in India. MNCs are investing in India because of cheaper production costa While consumers have more choices in the market, the effect of rising demand and purchasing power has meant greater competition among the producers.

Question 12.
Match the following :

(i) MNCs buy at cheap rates from small producers (a) Automobiles
(ii) Quotas and taxes on imports are used to regulate trade (b) Garments, footwear, sports items
(iii) Indian companies who have invested abroad (c) Call centres
(iv) IT has helped in spreading of production of services (d) Tata Motors, Infosys, Ranbaxy
(v) Several MNCs have invested in setting up factories in India for production (e) Trade barriers

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

(i) → (b)
(ii) → (e)
(iii) → (d)
(iv) → (c)
(v) → (a)

Question 13.
Choose the most appropriate option:
(i) The past two decades of globalisation has seen rapid movements in
(a) goods, services and people between countries.
(b) goods, services and investments between countries.
(c) goods, investments and people between countries.
Answer:
(b) goods, services and investments between countries.

(ii) The most common route for investments by MNCs in countries around the world
(a) set up new factories.
(b) buy existing local companies.
(c) form partnerships with local companies.
Answer:
(b) buy existing local companies.

(iii) Globalisation has led to improvement in living conditions –
(a) of all the people.
(b) of people in developed countries.
(c) of workers in developing countries.
(d) none of the above.
Answer:
(b) of people in the developed countries.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Additional Activity/Project
Take some branded products that we use every day (soaps, toothpaste, garments, electronic goods, etc.) Check which of these are produced by MNCs.
Note:
Do it yourself.

Take any Indian industry or service of your choice. Collect information and photographs from newspapers, magazine clippings, books, television, internet. Interview with people on the following aspects of the industry:
(i) Various producers/companies in the industry
(ii) Is the product exported to other countries?
(iii) Are there MNCs among the producers?
(iv) Competition in the industry
(v) Conditions of work in the industry
(vi) Has there been any major change in the industry in the past 15 years?
(vii) Problems that people in the industry face.
Note:
Do it yourself.

HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2

Haryana State Board HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Haryana Board 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Exercise 6.2

यदि एक रेखा किसी त्रिभुज की दो भुजाओं को एक ही अनुपात में विभाजित करे, तो वह तीसरी भुजा के समांतर होती है। [आधारभूत समानुपातिकता प्रमेय का विलोम]
हल :
दिया है : ΔABC में एक रेखा l भुजाओं AB और AC को क्रमशः D और E पर इस प्रकार काटती है कि \(\frac{\mathrm{AD}}{\mathrm{DB}}=\frac{\mathrm{AE}}{\mathrm{EC}}\)
सिद्ध करना है : DE || BC
उपपत्ति: माना DE ∦ BC तब D से DE’ || BC खींचे।
अब, क्योंकि DE’ || BC.
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 01
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 02
[atex]\frac{\mathrm{AC}}{\mathrm{E}^{\prime} \mathrm{C}}=\frac{\mathrm{AC}}{\mathrm{EC}}[/latex]
E’C || EC.
परंतु यह तभी संभव है जब E तथा E’ संपाती हों अर्थात् DE’ रेखा l हो जबकि DE’ || BC अतः
DE || BC [इति सिद्धम]

HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2

प्रश्न 1.
आकृति (i) और (ii) में, DE || BC है। (i) में EC और (ii) में AD ज्ञात कीजिए-
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 1
हल :
(i) दिया है, AD = 1.5cm, DB = 3cm, AE = 1cm, EC = ?
क्योंकि ΔABC में DE || BC,
इसलिए \(\frac{\mathrm{AD}}{\mathrm{DB}}=\frac{\mathrm{AE}}{\mathrm{EC}}\)
\(\frac{1.5}{3}=\frac{1}{E C}\)
1.5 EC = 3 x 1
EC = \(\frac{3 \times 1}{1.5}\)= 2cm

(ii) दिया है, DB = 7.2cm, AE = 1.8cm, EC = 5.4cm, AD = ?
क्योंकि ΔABC में DE || BC,
इसलिए \(\frac{A D}{D B}=\frac{A E}{E C}\)
\(\frac{\mathrm{AD}}{7.2}=\frac{1.8}{5.4}\)
DB – EC AD 1.8 7.2 5.4
AD = \(\frac{1.8 \times 7.2}{5.4}\) = 2.4 cm

प्रश्न 2.
किसी APQR की भुजाओं PQ और PR पर क्रमशः बिंदु E और F स्थित हैं। निम्नलिखित में से प्रत्येक स्थिति के लिए, बताइए कि क्या EF || QR है
(i) PE = 3.9cm, EQ = 3cm, PF = 3.6cm और FR = 2.4cm
(ii) PE = 4cm, QE = 4.5cm, PF = 8cm और RF = 9cm
(iii) PQ = 1.28cm, PR = 2.56cm, PE = 0.18cm 3 PF = 0.36cm
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 1-1
हल :
(i) दिया है, PE = 3.9cm, EQ = 3cm, PF = 3.6cm, FR = 2.4cm
अब,
\(\frac{\mathrm{PE}}{\mathrm{EQ}}=\frac{3.9}{3}=\frac{39}{30}=\frac{13}{10}\) ……………(i)
\(\frac{\mathrm{PF}}{\mathrm{FR}}=\frac{3.6}{2.4}=\frac{36}{24}=\frac{3}{2}\) ……………(ii)
समीकरण (i) व (ii) से,
\(\frac{\mathrm{PF}}{\mathrm{FR}}=\frac{3.6}{2.4}=\frac{36}{24}=\frac{3}{2}\)
\(\frac{\mathrm{PE}}{\mathrm{EQ}} \neq \frac{\mathrm{PF}}{\mathrm{FR}}\)
अतः EF समांतर नहीं है QR अर्थात् EF ∦ QR

(iii) दिया है, PE = 4cm, QE = 4.5cm, PF = 8cm, RF = 9cm
अब,
\(\frac{P E}{E Q}=\frac{4}{4.5}=\frac{40}{45}=\frac{8}{9}\) …………….(i)
\(\frac{\mathrm{PF}}{\mathrm{FR}}=\frac{8}{9}\) …………..(ii)
समीकरण (i) व (ii) से,
\(\frac{\mathrm{PE}}{\mathrm{EQ}}=\frac{\mathrm{PF}}{\mathrm{FR}}\)
अतः EF || QR

(iii) दिया है, PQ = 1.28cm, PR = 2.56cm, PE = 0.18cm, PF = 0.36cm
EQ=PQ-PE = 1.28 -0.18 = 1.10cm
FR = PR-PF = 2.56-0.36 = 2.20cm
अब,
\(\frac{\mathrm{PE}}{\mathrm{EQ}}=\frac{0.18}{1.10}=\frac{18}{110}=\frac{9}{55}\) ……………(i)
\(\frac{\mathrm{PF}}{\mathrm{FR}}=\frac{0.36}{2.20}=\frac{36}{220}=\frac{9}{55}\) ……………(ii)
समीकरण (i) व (ii) से,
\(\frac{\mathrm{PE}}{\mathrm{EQ}}=\frac{\mathrm{PF}}{\mathrm{FR}}\)
अतः EF || QR

HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2

प्रश्न 3.
संलग्न आकृति में यदि LM || CB और LN || CD हो तो सिद्ध कीजिए कि \(\frac{A M}{A B}=\frac{A N}{A D}\) है।
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 2
हल :
ΔABC में LM || BC
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 4
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 5

प्रश्न 4.
संलग्न आकृति में DE || AC और DF ||AE है। सिद्ध कीजिए कि \(\frac{\mathbf{B F}}{\mathbf{F E}}=\frac{\mathbf{B E}}{\mathbf{E C}}\) है।
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 3
हल :
ΔABC में DE || AC (दिया है)
\(\frac{\mathrm{BD}}{\mathrm{AD}}=\frac{\mathrm{BE}}{\mathrm{EC}}\) ……. (i)
ΔABE में DF || AE (दिया है)
[ltex]\frac{\mathrm{BD}}{\mathrm{AD}}=\frac{\mathrm{BF}}{\mathrm{FE}}[/latex] ……. (ii)
समीकरण (i) व (ii) की तुलना से,
\(\frac{\mathrm{BF}}{\mathrm{FE}}=\frac{\mathrm{BE}}{\mathrm{EC}}\) (इति सिद्धम)

प्रश्न 5.
संलग्न आकृति में DE || OQ और DF || OR है। दर्शाइए कि EF || QR है।
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 6
हल :
ΔPQO में DE || OQ है
\(\frac{P E}{E Q}=\frac{P D}{D O}\) ……. (i)
ΔPRO में DF || OR है
\(\frac{\mathrm{PF}}{\mathrm{FR}}=\frac{\mathrm{PD}}{\mathrm{DO}}\) …… (ii)
समीकरण (i) व (ii) की तुलना से,
\(\frac{\mathrm{PE}}{\mathrm{EQ}}=\frac{\mathrm{PF}}{\mathrm{FR}}\)
अब क्योंकि ΔPQR में
\(\frac{\mathrm{PE}}{\mathrm{EQ}}=\frac{\mathrm{PF}}{\mathrm{FR}}\)
EF || QR (इति सिद्धम)

प्रश्न 6.
संलग्न आकृति में क्रमशः OP,OQ और OR पर स्थित बिंदु A, B और C इस प्रकार हैं कि AB || PQ और AC || PR है। दर्शाइए कि BC ||QR है।
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 7
हल :
ΔPOQ में AB || PQ है
\(\frac{\mathrm{OA}}{\mathrm{AP}}=\frac{\mathrm{OB}}{\mathrm{BQ}}\) …………..(i)
ΔPOR में AC || PR है
\(\frac{\mathrm{OA}}{\mathrm{AP}}=\frac{\mathrm{OC}}{\mathrm{CR}}\) ….. (ii)
समीकरण (i) व (ii) की तुलना से,
\(\frac{O B}{B Q}=\frac{O C}{C R}\)
अतःΔOQR में BC || QR (इति सिद्धम)

प्रश्न 7.
प्रमेय 6.1 (आधारभूत समानुपातिकता प्रमेय) का प्रयोग करते हुए सिद्ध कीजिए कि एक त्रिभुज की एक भुजा के मध्य-बिंदु से होकर दूसरी भुजा के समांतर खींची गई रेखा तीसरी भुजा को समद्विभाजित करती है। (याद कीजिए कि आप इसे कक्षा IX में सिद्ध कर चुके हैं।)
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 8
हल :
दिया है : एक ΔABC में AB के मध्य-बिंदु D से एक रेखा ! ||BC खींची गई जो AC को E पर प्रतिच्छेद करती है।
सिद्ध करना है : E, AC का मध्य-बिंदु है।
उपपत्तिः क्योंकि D, AB का मध्य-बिंदु है, इसलिए,
AD = DB
\(\frac{\mathrm{AD}}{\mathrm{DB}}=\frac{1}{1}\)
परंतु ΔABC में l || BC
\(\frac{A D}{D B}=\frac{A E}{E C}\) (आधारभूत समानुपातिकता प्रमेय के अनुसार) ….(ii)
समीकरण (i) व (ii) की तुलना से,
\(\frac{\mathrm{AE}}{\mathrm{EC}}=\frac{1}{1}\)
(इति सिद्धम)
AE = EC
अतः E, AC का मध्य-बिंदु है।

प्रश्न 8.
प्रमेय 6.2 (आधारभूत समानुपातिकता प्रमेय के विलोम) का प्रयोग करते हुए सिद्ध कीजिए कि एक त्रिभुज की किन्हीं दो भुजाओं के मध्य-बिंदुओं को मिलाने वाली रेखा तीसरी भुजा के समांतर होती है। (याद कीजिए कि आप कक्षा IX में ऐसा कर चुके हैं।)
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 9
हल :
दिया है : एक ΔABC में D और E क्रमशः भुजाओं AB और AC के मध्य-बिंदु हैं।
सिद्ध करना है : DE || BC
उपपत्ति : क्योंकि D, भुजा AB का मध्य-बिंदु है,
AD = DB
\(\frac{\mathrm{AD}}{\mathrm{DB}}=\frac{1}{1}\) ………….(i)
इसी प्रकार E, भुजा AC का मध्य-बिंदु है।
AE = EC
\(\frac{\mathrm{AE}}{\mathrm{EC}}=\frac{1}{1}\) ….(ii)
समीकरण (i) व (ii) की तुलना से,
\(\frac{A D}{D B}=\frac{A E}{E C}\)
अतः रेखा DE भुजाओं AB और AC को समानुपात में विभाजित करती है। आधारभूत समानुपातिकता प्रमेय के विलोम अनुसार,
DE || BC (इति सिद्धम)

HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2

प्रश्न 9.
ABCD एक समलंब है जिसमें AB || DC है तथा इसके विकर्ण परस्पर बिंदु ० पर प्रतिच्छेद करते हैं। दर्शाइए कि \(\frac{\mathrm{AO}}{\mathrm{BO}}=\frac{\mathrm{CO}}{\mathrm{DO}}\) है।
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 10
हल :
दिया है : ABCD एक समलंब है जिसमें AB || DC तथा विकर्ण AC और BD परस्पर बिंदु 0 पर प्रतिच्छेद करते हैं।
सिद्ध करना है : \(\frac{\mathrm{AO}}{\mathrm{BO}}=\frac{\mathrm{CO}}{\mathrm{DO}}\)
रचना : बिंदु O से OE || AB या DC खींचें जो AD को E पर काटे।
उपपत्ति : ΔADC में OE || DC (रचना द्वारा)
\(\frac{A E}{E D}=\frac{A O}{C O}\)
(आधारभूत समानुपातिकता प्रमेय से) …(1) इसी प्रकार ΔABD में OE || AB (रचना द्वारा)
\(\frac{A E}{E D}=\frac{B O}{D O}\)
(आधारभूत समानुपातिकता प्रमेय से) ….(ii)
समीकरण (i) व (ii) की तुलना से,
\(\frac{A O}{C O}=\frac{B O}{D O}\)
\(\frac{\mathrm{AO}}{\mathrm{BO}}=\frac{\mathrm{CO}}{\mathrm{DO}}\) (इति सिद्धम)

प्रश्न 10.
एक चतुर्भुज ABCD के विकर्ण परस्पर बिंदु O पर इस प्रकार प्रतिच्छेद करते हैं कि 4 4 है। दर्शाइए कि ABCD समलंब है।
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 11
हल :
दिया है : चतुर्भुज ABCD के विकर्ण AC तथा BD परस्पर बिंदु ० पर इस प्रकार प्रतिच्छेद करते हैं कि
\(\)
सिद्ध करना है : ABCD एक समलंब है।
रचना : बिंदु 0 से OE || AB खींचो जो AD को E पर प्रतिच्छेद करे।
उपपत्ति :ΔABD में OE || AB (रचना द्वारा)
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 12
अतः आधारभूत समानुपातिकता प्रमेय के विलोम से,
OE || DC …………(iii)
परंतु OE || AB ……………(iv)
समीकरण (iii) व (iv) से,
DC || AB
इसलिए ABCD एक समलंब है।