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HBSE 12th Class Practical Work in Geography Solutions Chapter 5 क्षेत्रीय सर्वेक्षण

Haryana State Board HBSE 12th Class Geography Solutions Practical Work in Chapter 5 क्षेत्रीय सर्वेक्षण Textbook Exercise  Questions and Answers.

Haryana Board 12th Class Practical Work in Geography Solutions Chapter 5 क्षेत्रीय सर्वेक्षण

बहुविकल्पीय प्रश्न

प्रश्न 1.
नीचे दिए गए चार विकल्पों में से सही उत्तर का चुनाव कीजिए-
(i) क्षेत्र सर्वेक्षण की योजना के लिए नीचे दी गई विधियों में कौन-सी विधि सहायक है?
(क) व्यक्तिगत साक्षात्कार
(ख) द्वितीयक सूचनाएँ
(ग) मापन
(घ) प्रयोग
उत्तर:
(ख) द्वितीयक सूचनाएँ।

HBSE 12th Class Practical Work in Geography Solutions Chapter 5 क्षेत्रीय सर्वेक्षण

(ii) क्षेत्र सर्वेक्षण के निष्कर्ष के लिए क्या किया जाना चाहिए?
(क) आंकड़ा प्रवेश एवं सारणीयन
(ख) प्रतिवेदन लेखन
(ग) सूचकांकों का अभिकलन
(घ) उपर्युक्त में से कोई नहीं।
उत्तर:
(ख) प्रतिवेदन लेखन।

(iii) क्षेत्र सर्वेक्षण के प्रारंभिक स्तर पर अत्यंत महत्त्वपूर्ण क्या है?
(क) उद्देश्य का निर्धारण करना
(ख) द्वितीयक आंकड़ों का संग्रहण
(ग) स्थानिक एवं विषयक सीमाओं को परिभाषित करना (घ) निर्देशन अभिकल्पना।
उत्तर:
(क) उद्देश्य का निर्धारण करना

(iv) क्षेत्र सर्वेक्षण के समय किस स्तर की सूचनाओं को प्राप्त
करना चाहिए?
(क) बृहत् स्तर की सूचनाएँ
(ख) मध्यम स्तर की सूचनाएँ
(ग) लघु स्तर की सूचनाएँ
(घ) उपर्युक्त सभी स्तर की सूचनाएँ।
उत्तर:
(क) बृहत् स्तर की सूचनाएँ।

प्रश्न 2.
निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों के उत्तर लगभग 30 शब्दों में दीजिए-
(i) क्षेत्र सर्वेक्षण क्यों आवश्यक हैं?
उत्तर:
क्षेत्र सर्वेक्षण विधि से किसी क्षेत्र के स्थानीय भूगोल के बारे में प्रत्यक्ष ज्ञान प्राप्त होता है। इस विधि से विद्यार्थियों में आपसी सहयोग तथा नेतृत्व की भावना जागृत होती है। क्षेत्रीय कार्य से भूगोलवेत्ता स्वयं आँकड़े एकत्र करके मानचित्र बनाने का कार्य कर सकते हैं।

(ii) क्षेत्र सर्वेक्षण के उपकरण एवं प्रविधियों को सूचीबद्ध कीजिए।
उत्तर:
क्षेत्रीय सर्वेक्षण आयोजित किया जाता है जिसके लिए अलग-अलग किस्मों की विधियों की जरूरत होती है। इनमें मानचित्रों एवं अन्य आंकड़ों सहित द्वितीयक सूचनाएँ, क्षेत्रीय पर्यवेक्षण। लोगों के साक्षात्कार हेतु प्रश्नावलियों से आंकड़ा उत्पाद इत्यादि को शामिल किया जाता है।

(iii) क्षेत्र सर्वेक्षण के चुनाव से पहले किस प्रकार के व्याप्ति क्षेत्र की आवश्यकता पड़ती है?
उत्तर:
जाँच करने वाला खुद यह तय करेगा कि सर्वेक्षण सारी जनसंख्या के लिए जनगणना रूप में संचालित करना है या फिर कुछ चुनिन्दा सैम्पल पर आधारित होगा। अगर सर्वेक्षण का क्षेत्र ज्यादा विशाल न हो पर इसकी रचना विविध तत्वों की है तो अपेक्षा में सारी जनसंख्या का सर्वेक्षण होना चाहिए।

(iv) सर्वेक्षण अभिकल्पना को संक्षिप्त में समझाएँ।
उत्तर:
सैम्पल सर्वेक्षण की संरचना में हम इसके नाप तथा उसके अध्ययन के ढंग को शामिल करते हैं। ऐसे अध्ययन स्थितियों और प्रक्रियाओं की उनकी संपूर्णता और उनके घटना स्थल के परिप्रेक्ष्य में समझने में अन्वेषक को समर्थ बनाते हैं। यह सर्वेक्षण स्थानीय स्तर पर स्थानिक वितरण के प्रारूपों, उनके साहचर्य और संबंधों के बारे में हमारी समझ को बढ़ाते हैं।

(v) क्षेत्र सर्वेक्षण के लिए प्रश्नों की अच्छी संरचना क्यों आवश्यक है?
उत्तर:
क्षेत्र सर्वेक्षण के प्रश्नों की अच्छी संरचना आवश्यक है।
इससे हम पहले बनाए प्रश्न उस व्यक्ति से पूछ सकते हैं जिससे साक्षात्कार चलता है। यह प्रश्नावली सुरक्षित है। यह प्रश्न आर्थिक स्थिति से संबंधित होने चाहिए। ताकि उनकी मुश्किलों के उत्तर मिल सकें। यह बहुत जरूरी है कि उनसे उनकी स्थिति की सही जानकारी ले ली जाए। इस प्रकार एक अच्छी प्रश्नावली बहुत आवश्यक है।

अतिरिक्त प्रश्न (Other Questions)

प्रश्न 1.
क्षेत्रीय कार्य से क्या अभिप्राय है? भूगोल में क्षेत्रीय कार्य की क्या आवश्यकता है? इसके महत्त्व तथा उद्देश्य का वर्णन करो।
उत्तर:
भूगोल एक क्षेत्रीय विज्ञान है या क्षेत्र परक (field oriented) है जिसमें किसी क्षेत्र के विभिन्न भागों में प्राकृतिक, सामाजिक, सांस्कृतिक तथा आर्थिक तत्वों में विभिन्नताओं का अध्ययन किया जाता है। यह अध्ययन मानचित्रों की सहायता से किया जा सकता है, परंतु किसी क्षेत्र का विस्तारपूर्वक तथा व्यावहारिक ज्ञान अमुक क्षेत्र में स्वयं जाकर ही प्राप्त किया जा सकता है। क्षेत्रीय अध्ययन से हमें स्थाई जानकारी प्राप्त होती है। जैसे- प्रो० फेयरग्रीव ( Fairgrieve) के अनुसार-

‘भूगोल का ज्ञान व्यक्ति अपने जूतों के तले घिसकर प्राप्त करता है।” (Geography comes through the soles of one’s shoes.) प्रो० ई० ए० फ्रीमेन के अनुसार, “भूगोल यात्रा करने तथा स्वयं अपनी आँखों से देखने का विषय है।” (Geography is a matter of travel, a matter of seeing things with our own eyes.)

क्षेत्रीय अध्ययन (Field Work )-
क्षेत्रीय अध्ययन वह क्रिया है। जिसमें किसी क्षेत्र में घूम-फिर कर प्रेक्षण किया जाता है। विशेष रूप से बनाई गई प्रश्नमाला (Questionnaire) द्वारा लोगों से पूछताछ की जाती है तथा एकत्र किए आँकड़ों को मानचित्रों द्वारा व्यक्त किया जाता है।

आवश्यकता (Necessity )-
किसी क्षेत्र के बारे में सरकार द्वारा मुद्रित आँकड़े इतने पर्याप्त नहीं होते कि उनकी मदद से भौगोलिक अध्ययन किया जा सके। इसलिए मानवीय जीवन के विभिन्न तत्वों की प्रत्यक्ष जानकारी तथा विश्लेषण केवल क्षेत्रीय अध्ययन द्वारा ही संभव है। इस प्रकार क्षेत्रीय अध्ययन किसी क्षेत्र के सर्वेक्षण के लिए आवश्यक है। इसलिए वातावरण के प्राकृतिक तथा सांस्कृतिक लक्षणों का अध्ययन करने के लिए क्षेत्रीय कार्य भूगोल में आवश्यक है। क्षेत्र सर्वेक्षण के दो मौलिक चरण हैं-

  1. आँकड़ों का संग्रहण (Collection of Data)
  2. आँकड़ों का प्रसंस्करण (Processing of Data)

उपग्रह चित्र भौगोलिक अध्ययन के महत्त्वपूर्ण साधन हैं। परंतु क्षेत्र सर्वेक्षण नवीनतम सूचनाएं प्राप्त करने का महत्त्वपूर्ण स्रोत है।

महत्त्व तथा उद्देश्य (Importance and Objectives) –

  1. क्षेत्रीय अध्ययन से मानवीय क्रियाओं पर प्रभाव डालने वाले वातावरण के प्राकृतिक तथा सांस्कृतिक तत्वों के संबंध का ज्ञान होता है।
  2. इस विधि से किसी क्षेत्र के स्थानीय भूगोल (Local Geography) के बारे में प्रत्यक्ष ज्ञान प्राप्त होता है।
  3. इस विधि से विद्यार्थियों में आपसी सहयोग (Team Spirit) तथा नेतृत्व (Leadership) की भावना जागृत होती है।
  4. इस विधि से लोगों के साथ साक्षात्कार करने का एक सुअवसर प्रदान होता है तथा निकट संबंध स्थापित होता है।
  5. क्षेत्रीय कार्य से भूगोलवेत्ता स्वयं आँकड़े एकत्र करके मानचित्र बनाने का कार्य कर सकता है।
  6. इस विधि से किसी क्षेत्र का व्यावहारिक ज्ञान (Practical knowledge) प्राप्त होता है जिससे यह कार्य सरल और रुचिकर हो जाता है।

HBSE 12th Class Practical Work in Geography Solutions Chapter 5 क्षेत्रीय सर्वेक्षण

प्रश्न 2.
क्षेत्रीय कार्य की विभिन्न क्रियाओं का वर्णन करो।
उत्तर:
क्षेत्रीय कार्य की विभिन्न क्रियाएं क्षेत्र का निरीक्षण करने, आँकड़े एकत्र करने, विभिन्न प्रकार की जानकारी प्राप्त करने तथा उसे मानचित्रों पर व्यक्त करने पर निर्भर करती हैं। ये सभी कार्य विभिन्न अवस्थाओं में बांटकर एक क्रमबद्ध ढंग से किए जाते हैं। क्षेत्रीय अध्ययन की विभिन्न विधियां क्षेत्रीय अध्ययन के उद्देश्य तथा विषय पर निर्भर करती हैं। इस कार्य को निम्नलिखित चरणों (Stages) में बांटा जाता है-
1. प्रारंभिक अवस्था (Preliminary Stage )- इस चरण में क्षेत्रीय कार्य की योजना तैयार करके निम्नलिखित कार्य किए जाते हैं-

  1. अध्ययन क्षेत्र का चुनाव।
  2. विषय का चुनाव।
  3. क्षेत्र का एक आधार मानचित्र (Base Map) तैयार करना।
  4. आधार मानचित्र की कई प्रतिलिपियां तैयार करना।
  5. क्षेत्र का एक स्थलाकृतिक मानचित्र (Topographical Map)-प्राप्त करना। स्थलाकृतिक मानचित्र से हमें धरातल, जलप्रवाह, भूमि उपयोग, बस्ती प्रतिरूप परिवहन आदि का पता चलता है।

2. क्रियान्वयन अवस्था (Operational Stage )- इस अवस्था में निम्नलिखित कार्य किए जाते हैं-

  1. क्षेत्र में जाकर स्वयं निरीक्षण करना।
  2. विषय से संबंधित प्रश्नावली (Questionnaire) तैयार करना।
  3. नवीनतम आँकड़े एकत्रित करना।
  4. क्षेत्र से कुछ चुने हुए ( लगभग 20%) भागों के नमूने का सर्वेक्षण (Sample Survey) करना।
  5. स्थलाकृतिक मानचित्र से क्षेत्र की पूरी जानकारी प्राप्त करना।

3. परिकलन अवस्था (Tabulation Stage )- इस अवस्था में प्राप्त आँकड़ों को तालिकाओं (Tables) के रूप में लिखा जाता है। इन आँकड़ों की संख्या कम करके कुछ निष्कर्ष तथा औसत आँकड़े प्राप्ता किए जाते हैं।

4. मानचित्रण अवस्था ( Mapping Stage )-

  • आँकड़ों को विभिन्न आरेखों द्वारा प्रकट किया जाता है।
  • आँकड़ों की सहायता से विभिन्न मानचित्र तैयार किए जाते

5. रिपोर्ट विवरण चरण (Reporting Stage ) – सर्वेक्षण पूरा होने पर उस क्षेत्र का पूरा विवरण लिखा जाता है। उसके आधार पर कुछ निष्कर्ष निकाले जाते हैं तथा उद्देश्यों की पूर्ति संबंधी विवरण दिया जाता है।

प्रश्न 3.
क्षेत्रीय कार्य के लिए प्रश्नमाला तैयार करते समय किन- किन बातों का ध्यान रखा जाता है?
उत्तर:
आँकड़े एकत्र करने के लिए एक विशेष प्रकार की प्रश्नमाला तैयार करना आवश्यक है। इस प्रश्नमाला द्वारा लोगों से पूछताछ की जाती है। यह प्रश्नमाला ही वास्तव में क्षेत्रीय कार्य का आधार है। प्रश्नमाला बनाते समय निम्नलिखित बातों का ध्यान रखना चाहिए-

  1. सर्वेक्षण का स्वयं निरीक्षण करके ही प्रश्नमाला बनानी चाहिए।
  2. सर्वेक्षण का मुख्य उद्देश्य सदा ध्यान में रखना चाहिए।
  3. प्रश्न संक्षिप्त तथा सीधे होने चाहिए।
  4. प्रश्न सरल होने चाहिए ताकि उत्तर देने में कोई कठिनाई न हो।
  5. प्रश्न क्रमबद्ध तथा क्षेत्रीय कार्य से संबंधित हों।
  6. ऐसे प्रश्न नहीं होने चाहिएं जो निजी या धार्मिक हों, जिससे उत्तर देने वाले की भावना को ठेस पहुंचे।

सावधानियां (Precautions)

  1. सर्वेक्षक को उत्तर देने वाले लोगों से अच्छे संबंध स्थापित करने चाहिए।
  2. उत्तर संक्षिप्त लिखने चाहिए।
  3. प्रश्नमाला की प्रत्येक सूची का उत्तर लिखना चाहिए।
  4. अपने निजी विचार नहीं लिखने चाहिए।
  5. उत्तर देने वाले लोगों की सुविधा के अनुसार प्रश्नमाला भरने का समय निश्चित करना चाहिए।

प्रश्न 4.
प्रश्नावली से क्या अभिप्राय है? इसके विभिन्न प्रकार बताएं।
उत्तर:
प्रश्नावली (Questionnaire )
प्रश्नावली विधि में पहले से तैयार किए गए प्रश्नों को कुछ चुने हुए लोगों के समक्ष रखा जाता है। प्रश्नावली संरचनात्मक अथवा असंरचनात्मक हो सकती है जब एक संरचनात्मक प्रश्नावली का प्रयोग किया जाता है तो शोधकर्ता के लिए फेरबदल की कम गुंजाइश होती है, उसे यांत्रिक तरीकों से प्रश्नों को रखते हुए उनके उत्तर लिखने पड़ते हैं। संरचना विहीन प्रश्नावलियों में, सर्वेक्षण की आवश्यकतानुसार प्रश्नों के क्रम को बदला जा सकता है। उत्तर लिखने के साथ एक मानचित्र या रेखाचित्र बनाया जा सकता है। प्रत्येक प्रश्न के साथ कोष्ठक में कुछ टिप्पणियां दी जाती हैं जो उत्तरों को संशोधित करने में प्रेक्षक को मदद देती हैं। प्रश्नों के अनेक प्रकार होते हैं किस प्रकार के प्रश्न बनाए जाएं यह वांछित आँकड़ों की प्रकृति तथा प्रश्नोत्तर देने वाले लोगों की अपनी पृष्ठभूमि पर निर्भर करता है।

प्रश्नावलियों के प्रकार (Types of Questionnaire)-

  1. सरल चयन (Simple Choice Questions)
  2. बहुविकल्पी प्रश्न (Multiple Choice Questions)
  3. क्रममापक उत्तर का प्रश्न (Semantic Scale Questions)
  4. मुक्तांत उत्तर का प्रश्न (Open ended Questions)

1. सरल चयन के प्रश्न (Simple Choice Questions ) सरल चयन वाले प्रश्नों के संदर्भ में, ‘हाँ’ या ‘नहीं’ में हो सकता है। उदाहरण के लिए इस प्रश्न- ‘क्या आप खेती करते हैं?’ का उत्तर ‘हाँ’ या ‘नहीं’ होगा। यह प्रश्न लोगों के व्यवसाय की जानकारी देता है।

2. बहुविकल्पी प्रश्न (Multiple Choice Questions ) – बहुविकल्प वाले प्रश्नों के उत्तर में, कुछ विकल्प दिए जाते हैं, किन्तु उनमें से केवल एक विकल्प ही सही उत्तर होता है। उदाहरण – X प्रदेश में A स्थान पर ही चीनी मिल क्यों स्थित है? इसका संभव्य उत्तर है-

  1. भूमि की उपलब्धता
  2. श्रम की उपलब्धता
  3. पूँजी की उपलब्धता
  4. बाजार की सुगमता
  5. मालिकों अथवा उभयकर्ता की स्थान के लिए अपनी व्यक्तिगत पसन्द।
  6. कोई अन्य कारण उपरोक्त उत्तरों में से केवल एक ही उत्तर सही है।

HBSE 12th Class Practical Work in Geography Solutions Chapter 5 क्षेत्रीय सर्वेक्षण

3. क्रममापक उत्तर का प्रश्न (Semantic Scale Questions)-
यहां पर उत्तरदाता को सोचने की श्रेणी को बिंदुमापक पर अंकित किया जाता है उत्तरदाता की सोच पक्ष अथवा विपक्ष में कितनी शक्तिशाली है, इसलिए किया जाता है।
उदाहरण के लिए गरीबी हटाओ कार्यक्रम को सरकार द्वारा कैसे लागू किया जाता है?

  1. बहुत अच्छा
  2. अच्छा
  3. संतोषजनक
  4. खराब
  5. बहुत खराब यहां पर उत्तरदाता के कामों को लिख लिया जाता है।

4. मुक्तांत उत्तर का प्रश्न (Open Ended Questions )-
इस संदर्भ में, प्रश्नों को पूछा जाता है तथा उत्तरदाता के उत्तर को लिख लिया जाता है।
उदाहरण के लिए-ग़रीबी उन्मूलन हेतु सरकार को क्या कदम उठाने चाहिएं?
इस प्रश्न का उत्तर एक व्यक्ति से दूसरे व्यक्ति के बीच उनकी व्यक्तिगत, सामाजिक तथा आर्थिक पृष्ठभूमि के अनुसार अलग-अलग होगा।

प्रश्न 5.
क्षेत्र सर्वेक्षण संबंधी उपकरणों का वर्णन करें।
उत्तर:
क्षेत्र सर्वेक्षण हेतु आवश्यक व्यवस्था तथा उपकरण (Equipment)-सर्वेक्षण करने के लिए क्षेत्र में जाने से पहले, उससे संबंधित पुस्तकालयों में प्रकाशित जानकारी का अध्ययन आवश्यक होता है। इस प्रकार एकत्रित सूचनाएं, अध्ययन के आधार के रूप में कार्य करती हैं। यह क्षेत्र में मिलने वाले संभावित लक्षणों की पूर्व जानकारी प्रदान करता है। क्षेत्र में ठहरने के लिए समुचित व्यवस्था करना नहीं भूलना चाहिए।

क्षेत्र में जाते समय निम्न उपकरणों को ले जाना चाहिए-

  1. आवश्यक ड्राइंग सामग्री सहित एक लेखन पुस्तिका (Field Book)।
  2. कार्य की प्रकृति तथा शिक्षक द्वारा निर्देश अनुसार सर्वेक्षण- उपकरण (Survey Instruments)।
  3. मानचित्र पर प्रदर्शित लक्षणों का क्षेत्र के लक्षणों से तुलना करने के लिए क्षेत्र का स्थलाकृतिक सर्वेक्षण मानचित्र (Topographical Maps )
  4. विशिष्ट लक्षणों का फोटोचित्र प्राप्त करने के लिए कैमरा (Camera)।
  5. दूर से भूदृश्यों को सरलतापूर्वक देखने के लिए दूरबीन (Birnoculars)।
  6. शैल नमूने तोड़ने के लिए हथौड़ा (Hammer)।
  7. मिट्टी के नमूने लेने के लिए मृदा प्रतिदर्श (Rock Specimens)
  8. शैलों के नमूने रखने के लिए बैग (Bag)
  9. अन्य सामग्रियां।

प्रश्न 6.
किसी गांव का भूमि उपयोग सर्वेक्षण कैसे किया जाता है? इस सर्वेक्षण में प्रयोग की जाने वाली प्रश्नावली तैयार करो।
उत्तर:
भूमि उपयोग सर्वेक्षण (Land Use Survey)
1. परिचय (Introduction )-भारत एक कृषि प्रधान देश है। किसी क्षेत्र में कृषि की विशेषताएं प्रकार तथा भूमि उपयोग की जानकारी प्राप्त करने के लिए किसी एक गांव को इकाई मान कर भूमि उपयोग सर्वेक्षण किया जाता है।
2. उद्देश्य (Aims )-

  1. कृषि क्षेत्र में भूमि उपयोग की जानकारी प्राप्त करना।
  2. भूमि उपयोग को मानचित्र पर दिखाना।
  3. बोई जाने वाली फ़सलों की जानकारी प्राप्त करना।
  4. मिट्टी की किस्में तथा उत्पादकता ज्ञात करना।
  5. सिंचित क्षेत्र की जानकारी प्राप्त करना।

3. विधि (Method)-
(क) प्रारंभिक अवस्था सबसे पहले पटवारी से गांव का भूकर मानचित्र (Cadastral Map) प्राप्त किया जाता है जिस पर प्रत्येक खेत की सीमा तथा खसरा नंबर लिखा जाता है। इस मानचित्र की कई प्रतिलिपियां तैयार की जाती हैं। गांव की स्थिति निर्धारित की जाती है।

(ख) क्रियान्वयन अवस्था इसके पश्चात् गांव के पटवारी के रिकॉर्ड से निम्नलिखित जानकारी प्राप्त की जाती है-

क्रम संख्या भूमि का आकार
1. गांव की कुल भूमि
2. कृषि के लिए प्राप्त न होने वाली भूमि
3. अन्य अकृषित भूमि
4. कृषिकृत भूमि
5. कुल सिंचित भूमि
6. कुल असिंचित भूमि
7. खेतों की कुल संख्या
8. खेतों का औसत आकार

किसानों से पूछे जाने वाले प्रश्नों की सूची तैयार की जाती है। क्षेत्रीय कार्य की तिथि तथा समय निश्चित किया जाता है। खेतों को विभिन्न वर्गों में बांट दिया जाता है।
HBSE 12th Class Practical Work in Geography Solutions Chapter 5 क्षेत्रीय सर्वेक्षण 1
HBSE 12th Class Practical Work in Geography Solutions Chapter 5 क्षेत्रीय सर्वेक्षण 2
(ग) क्षेत्रीय कार्य – गांव के खेतों का क्रमवार निरीक्षण किया जाता है। प्रत्येक किसान से खेतों के आकार, उनका उपयोग तथा फ़सलों की जानकारी प्राप्त की जाती है। इस जानकारी को प्रश्नमाला में लिख लिया जाता है। मुख्यतः आषाढ़ी (Rabi) तथा सावनी (Kharif) दो प्रकार की फ़सलें बोई जाती हैं। भूमि उपयोग तथा मिट्टियों को दिखाने के लिए विभिन्न रंगों तथा आभाओं का प्रयोग किया जाता है। विभिन्न फ़सलों को दिखाने के लिए चिह्नों तथा अक्षर प्रयोग किये जाते हैं।

HBSE 12th Class Practical Work in Geography Solutions Chapter 5 क्षेत्रीय सर्वेक्षण

(घ) मानचित्र – आँकड़ों की सहायता से भूमि उपयोग दिखाने के लिए मानचित्र बनाए जाते हैं जिनमें विभिन्न प्रविधियां प्रयोग की जाती हैं। फ़सलों के लिए विभिन्न रंगों तथा आभाओं का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

(ङ) रिपोर्ट – इन मानचित्रों का विश्लेषण करके कुछ निष्कर्ष निकाले जाते हैं जिससे कई प्रकार की जानकारी प्राप्त होती है। जैसे-

  1. गांव में कृषि योग्य भूमि का क्षेत्रफल
  2. खेतों की कुल संख्या
  3. मिट्टी के मुख्य प्रकार
  4. आषाढ़ी तथा सावनी की मुख्य फ़सलें
  5. कृषिकृत क्षेत्रफल
  6. भूमि उपयोग की सघनता की त्रुटियां
  7. भूमि उपयोग में सुधार तथा अधिक विकास की संभावनाएं (8) कुल सिंचित क्षेत्र।

प्रश्न 7.
कृषि क्षेत्र में मृदा प्रदूषण, औद्योगिक क्षेत्र में वायु प्रदूषण तथा यातायात वाहनों द्वारा नगरीय क्षेत्र में प्रदूषण सर्वेक्षण का वर्णन करो।
उत्तर:
पर्यावरण प्रदूषण का सर्वेक्षण (Survey of Environmental Pollution )-पर्यावरण प्रदूषण में मृदा प्रदूषण, जलप्रदूषण, वायु प्रदूषण तथा शोर प्रदूषण सम्मिलित किए जाते हैं।
(क) सर्वेक्षण विधि –

  1. प्रदूषण के कारणों तथा प्रदूषित करने वाले ठोस अपशिष्ट पदार्थों के बारे में जानकारी क्षेत्र के निवासियों से बातचीत द्वारा प्राप्त की जा सकती है।
  2. प्रदूषण फैलाने वाले कारक, आस-पास के क्षेत्रों पर प्रदूषण का प्रभाव लोगों के द्वारा झेली गई कठिनाइयां तथा
  3. मिट्टी के अनुपजाऊ होने के बारे में भी बता सकते हैं।
  4. क्षेत्र सर्वेक्षण को अपशिष्ट पदार्थों के प्रबंधन में प्रयुक्त तकनीकों, विभिन्न लाभान्वित होने वाले लोगों की भूमिका, समस्या के समाधान के लिए किए गए प्रयासों एवं अभी तक के परिणामी विकास को भी देखना चाहिए।

1. औद्योगिक क्षेत्र में प्रदूषण – औद्योगिक क्षेत्र में ईंधन तथा रसायनों द्वारा प्रदूषण होता है।

उद्योगों द्वारा पर्यावरण के प्रदूषण की अनुसूची
HBSE 12th Class Practical Work in Geography Solutions Chapter 5 क्षेत्रीय सर्वेक्षण 3
2. यातायात के साधनों द्वारा प्रदूषण – विभिन्न वाहन, जैसे- बसें, ट्रक, कारें, तिपहिया व दुपहिया वाहन आदि पर्यावरण को प्रदूषित करते हैं। यह समस्या नगरीय इलाकों में अधिक होती है।
वाहनों द्वारा प्रदूषण की प्रश्नावली
HBSE 12th Class Practical Work in Geography Solutions Chapter 5 क्षेत्रीय सर्वेक्षण 4
3. कृषि क्षेत्र में रासायनिक पदार्थों से प्रदूषण – कृषि | रसायनों का प्रयोग किया जाता है। इससे पर्यावरण का प्रदूषण क्षेत्र में कृषि की उपज को बढ़ाने के लिए विभिन्न प्रकार के होता है।
मृदा प्रदूषण की प्रश्नावली
HBSE 12th Class Practical Work in Geography Solutions Chapter 5 क्षेत्रीय सर्वेक्षण 5

प्रश्न 8.
किसी क्षेत्र में ग़रीबी का क्षेत्र सर्वेक्षण करने की विधि तथा उद्देश्य बताओ।
उत्तर:
गरीबी का क्षेत्र सर्वेक्षण (Field Study of Poverty )-गरीबी के मुख्य कारण बेरोजगारी तथा अशिक्षा हैं। गरीबी का सामाजिक अध्ययन किसी मलिन बस्तियों के प्रत्येक परिवार का अध्ययन हो सकता है।
गरीबी का मापदंड-

  1. लोगों की औसत आमदनी,
  2. उन को प्राप्त कैलोरी की मात्रा
  3. चिकित्सा सुविधाओं की उपलब्धता
  4. व्यवसाय आदि
  5. क्षेत्र में जनसंख्या का वितरण
  6. मानव निवास-स्थान,
  7. भोजन, वस्त्र एवं सामाजिक- सांस्कृतिक संबंध।

HBSE 12th Class Practical Work in Geography Solutions Chapter 5 क्षेत्रीय सर्वेक्षण

उद्देश्य –

  1. सरकार द्वारा विभिन्न गरीबी उन्मूलन कार्यक्रमों द्वारा किए जा रहे प्रयासों, उनका क्षेत्र के लोगों पर प्रभावों का भी प्रभावी प्रश्नावलियों के माध्यम से निश्चय किया जा सकता है।
  2. आँकड़ों का विश्लेषण तथा अध्ययन से क्षेत्र में गरीबी के स्तर का पता लगाया जा सकता है।
  3. गरीबी के मुख्य कारणों का पता लग सकता है।

गरीबी सर्वेक्षण की प्रश्नावली
HBSE 12th Class Practical Work in Geography Solutions Chapter 5 क्षेत्रीय सर्वेक्षण 6

प्रश्न 9.
किसी क्षेत्र में मृदा ह्रास, सूखा तथा बाढ़ व ऊर्जा संबंधी अध्ययन की सर्वेक्षण विधि बताओ।
उत्तर:
मृदा ह्रास का अध्ययन (Soil Degradation ) -मृदा पर कृषि उपज तथा उत्पादकता निर्भर करती है। इसलिए मृदा ह्रास सर्वेक्षण आवश्यक है-
ऐसा अध्ययन संपन्न करने के लिए मिट्टी की विभिन्न सतहों पर मिट्टी के प्रतिदर्श (Sample) प्राप्त करने के लिए मृदा नमूना प्राप्त करने वाले उपकरण का प्रयोग किया जा सकता है। क्षेत्र के विभिन्न खेतों से मृदा-प्रतिदर्श प्राप्त किये जा सकते हैं प्रतिदर्शो के विभिन्न थैलों (Bags) में अथवा शीशे की नलियों (Glass Tubes) में रखकर स्थान का नाम तथा क्रमांक लिख देते हैं। ऊपरी मिट्टी (Top Soil), मध्यवर्ती मिट्टी ( Sub Soil), कड़ी तह एवं मूल शैलों (Parent Rocks) आदि को अलग-अलग प्रदर्शित करने के लिए उनकी आरेखीय परिच्छेदिकाएं बनानी चाहिए। मृद्रा ह्रास के मापदंड के लिए तत्व-

  1. क्षेत्र के फसल प्रारूप,
  2. भूमि उपयोग प्रतिरूप,
  3. सिंचाई सुविधाओं की उपलब्धता,
  4. अपवाह,
  5. जल भराव,
  6. खारापन तथा क्षारीय स्तर
  7. वनस्पतियों का अंकन करना। इनका मानचित्र, कटाव के स्तर के आधार पर किया जाता है। परिणाम का विवेचन करते समय क्षेत्र में मिट्टी की दशा के सुधार हेतु विभिन्न रणनीतियों का सुझाव भी देना होता है।

सूखा तथा बाढ़ का अध्ययन (Study of Droughts and Floods)-
सूखा तथा बाढ़ अक्सर आते रहते हैं। इनमें भी मात्रा में जन-धन की हानि होती है। बाढ़ क्षेत्रों तथा सूखाग्रस्त क्षेत्रों के मानचित्र तथा इनके प्रभावों को कम करने वाली योजनाओं को तैयार करना आज का महत्त्वपूर्ण कार्य हो गया है।

मुख्य पक्ष (Main Aspects )-
इन योजनाओं के तीन मुख्य पक्ष होने चाहिए

  1. दिये गए मानक स्तर पर आधारित अधिकतम सीमा तक खतरों में कमी करना (Reduction of Risk),
  2. सीमाओं के भीतर खतरों में अनुकूलतम कमी (Optimum Risk Reduction),
  3. जीवन तथा सम्पत्ति की रक्षा (Saving lives and property)।

मापदंड-

  1. किसी प्राकृतिक (Disaster) विपदा द्वारा की जा सकने वाली अधिकतम क्षति का मात्रात्मक तथा गुणात्मक दोनों ही रूपों में आकलन किया जाना।
  2. किसी प्रदेश की अनुकूलतम वहन क्षमता (Carrying Capacity) का भी आकलन तथा गणना।
  3. उन क्रिया-कलापों का जिनसे आपदाएँ उत्पन्न हो सकती हैं, उनकी सीमाओं को भी निर्धारित किया जाना चाहिए।
  4. नियंत्रक तरीकों को भी विकसित किया जाना चाहिए जिससे आपदाओं में प्रभावशाली तरीके से कमी भी की जा सके।
  5. लोगों की सक्रिय भागीदारी महत्त्वपूर्ण है।
  6. तकनीकी तथा अतकनीकी उपायों दोनों पर ही बल दिया जाना चाहिए।
  7. आपदा प्रवण क्षेत्र सर्वेक्षण द्वारा सांख्यिकीय एवं आंकिक विधियों का कंप्यूटर की सहायता से बने सूक्ष्म मानचित्रों के द्वारा पूर्वानुमान करना चाहिए।

ऊर्जा संबंधी अध्ययन (Study of Energy Issues )-
विद्यार्थियों द्वारा ग्रामीण तथा नगरीय ऊर्जा उपभोग प्रारूप की निगरानी करने वाले सर्वेक्षण किए जा सकते हैं। अनेक पारिस्थितिकी दृष्टि से कमजोर क्षेत्रों में तथा पर्वतीय क्षेत्रों, पहाड़ियों तथा वन क्षेत्रों में जलाऊ लकड़ी (Fire Wood) ईंधन का अभी भी महत्त्वपूर्ण साधन है। बहुत-से शोधकार्य का निष्कर्ष है कि ग्रामीण ईंधन उपभोग निर्वनीकरण का (Deforestation) महत्त्वपूर्ण कारण नहीं था, बल्कि यह बहुत कुछ शाखाओं तथा टहनियों को तोड़ने तक सीमित था।

किंतु नगरीय लकड़ी जलाऊ लट्ठों के रूप में प्राप्त की जाती थी जिसने सीधे जंगलों पर दबाव डाला ऐसा भारत में वर्तमान स्थिति के बाद विशेषज्ञों की राय में ग्रामीण ईंधन उपभोग की वर्तमान स्थिति की समीक्षा के बाद कहा गया जो एक नई रोचक जानकारी है। ऐसे नए मुद्दों पर लगातार सर्वेक्षण किया जा सकता है तथा लोगों के वृक्षारोपण संबंधी कार्य का नियमित सर्वेक्षण किया जा सकता है। सर्वेक्षण का एक अति महत्त्वपूर्ण क्षेत्र ईंधन के मूल्यों से संबंधित भी होगा।

मौखिक परीक्षा के प्रश्न
(Questions For Viva-Voce)

प्रश्न 1.
क्षेत्र सर्वेक्षण से क्या अभिप्राय है?
उत्तर:
जब हम स्वयं किसी क्षेत्र में जाकर अध्ययन करते हैं तो उसे क्षेत्र सर्वेक्षण कहते हैं।

HBSE 12th Class Practical Work in Geography Solutions Chapter 5 क्षेत्रीय सर्वेक्षण

प्रश्न 2.
क्षेत्र सर्वेक्षण के दो चरण बताओ।
उत्तर:
आँकड़ों का संग्रहण तथा प्रसंस्करण |

प्रश्न 3.
स्थलाकृतिक मानचित्र क्या है?
उत्तर:
वे मानचित्र जो किसी क्षेत्र के धरातल, अपवाह तथा मानवीय लक्षणों को दिखाते हैं।

प्रश्न 4.
सैंपल सर्वेक्षण किसे कहते हैं?
उत्तर:
जब सारे क्षेत्र का सर्वेक्षण करने की बजाय उसके एक भाग का ही सर्वेक्षण करें, तो उसे सैंपल सर्वेक्षण कहते हैं।

प्रश्न 5.
मानचित्र दिक् विन्यास किसे कहते हैं?
उत्तर:
पृथ्वी की प्रमुख दिशाओं के अनुरूप मानचित्र सैट करना।

प्रश्न 6.
पर्यावरण के प्रमुख घटक बताओ।
उत्तर:
जल, स्थल, वायु, जीव-जंतु।

प्रश्न 7.
प्रदूषण के प्रमुख कारण बताओ।
उत्तर:
उद्योग, परिवहन, रसायन तथा अपशिष्ट पदार्थ।

प्रश्न 8.
मानचित्र दिक् विन्यास की तीन विधियां बताओ।
उत्तर:

  1. सूर्य की सहायता से
  2. ट्रफ कंपास की सहायता से
  3. वस्तुओं की सापेक्षिक तुलना से।

प्रश्न 9.
क्षेत्र सर्वेक्षण हेतु तीन उपकरण बताओ।
उत्तर

  1. नोट बुक
  2. स्थलाकृतिक मानचित्र
  3. कैमरा।

प्रश्न 10.
स्थिर तत्व के तीन उदाहरण दें।
उत्तर:
इमारतें, खेत, नहरें।

प्रश्न 11.
प्रश्नावलियों के चार प्रकार बताओ।
उत्तर:

  1. सरल प्रश्न
  2. बहुविकल्पी प्रश्न
  3. क्रममापक प्रश्न
  4. मुक्तांत प्रश्न।

प्रश्न 12.
आँकड़े निर्धारित करने की विधि बताओ।
उत्तर:
मिलान चिह्न।

HBSE 12th Class Practical Work in Geography Solutions Chapter 5 क्षेत्रीय सर्वेक्षण

प्रश्न 13.
भू-उपयोग में विभिन्न फसलें किस प्रकार दिखाई जाती हैं?
उत्तर:
रंगों तथा आभाओं द्वारा।

प्रश्न 14.
भौमजल स्तर किसे कहते हैं?
उत्तर:
भूमिगत जल की ऊपरी सतह।

प्रश्न 15.
प्राकृतिक आपदाओं के दो उदाहरण दो।
उत्तर:
सूखा तथा बाढ़।

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Haryana State Board HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Haryana Board 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

HBSE 10th Class Economics Globalisation and the Indian Economy Intext Questions and Answers

Let’s Work This Out (Page No. 57)

Economics Chapter 4 Class 10 Question Answers HBSE Question 1.
Complete the following statement to show how the production process in the garment industry is spread across countries.
The brand tag says ‘Made in Thailand’ but they are not Thai products. We dissect the manufacturing process and look for the best solution at each step. We are doing it globally. In making garments, the company may, for example, get cotton fibre from Korea,
Answer:
The brand tag says ‘Made in Thailand’, but they are not Thai products. We dissect the manufacturing process and look for the best solution at each step. We are doing it globally. In making garments, the company may, for example, get cotton fibre from Korea, China and India, which may be cheap manufacturing locations. India has highly skilled engineers, relevant to garments’ industry, who can understand the technical aspects of production. It also has educated, English- speaking youth, who can provide customer care services.

Let’s Work These Out (Page No. 59)

Read the following passage and answer the questions :
Ford Motors, an American Company, is one of the world’s largest automobile manufacturers with production spread over 26 countries of the world. Ford Motors came to India in 1995 and spent ₹ 1700 crore to set up a large plant near Chennai. This was done in collaboration with Mahindra and Mahindra, a major Indian manufacturer of jeeps and trucks. By the year 2017, Ford Motors was selling 88,000 cars in the Indian markets, while another 1,81,000 cars were exported from India to South Africa, Mexico and Brazil. The company wants to develop Ford India as a component supplying base for its other plants across the globe.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Class 10 Economics Chapter 4 Questions And Answers HBSE Question 1.
Would you say Ford Motors is a MNC? Why?
Answer:
Yes, Ford Motors is certainly an MNC, because it operates in many countries across the world, India being one of them. This multinational corporation is headquartered in the USA.

Globalisation and the Indian Economy Chapter 4 HBSE 10th Class Question 2.
What is foreign investment? How much did Ford Motors invest in India?
Answer:
The investment made by MNCs for production in other countries is called foreign investment. Ford Motprs has invested? 1700 crore in India.

Question 3.
By setting up their production plants in India, MNCs, such as Ford Motors, tap the advantage, not only of the large markets that countries such as India provide but also the lower costs of production. Explain the statement.
Answer:
Generally, MNCs set up production where it is close to the markets, where there is skilled and unskilled labour available at low prices, where the availability of other factors of production is assured and there are favourable government policies of related countries. India has become a favourite country of MNCs, due to availability of all the above facilities. That’s why, MNCs, such as Ford Motors, have set up their production plants in India, and gained profit.

Question 4.
Why do you think the company wants to develop India, as a base for manufacturing car components for its global operations? Discuss the following factors :
(a) cost of labour and other resources in India
(b) the presence of several local manufacturers who supply auto parts to Ford Motors
(c) closeness to a large number of buyers in India and China.
Answer:
The Ford Motors Company wants to develop India, as a base for manufacturing car components, for its global operations as –

  • The company can get skilled and unskilled labour at cheap rates in India. Besides, it can get other necessary resources of production at reasonable rates.
  • There are many small production units that have the efficiency to handle the cost, quality and labour conditions and can easily supply small parts to the company.
  • India and China are neighbouring countries. Both countries can provide a large market to the company.

Question 5.
In what ways will the production of cars by Ford Motors in India lead to interlinking of production?
Answer:
The production of cars, by Ford Motors in India, will lead to interlinking of production because this company is set up in India in collaboration with Mahindra and Mahindra. Mahindra and Mahindra is also a major Indian manufacturer of jeeps and trucks and several small companies of India can get a chance to work with such big companies.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Question 6.
In what ways is an MNC different from other companies?
Answer:
MNC is different from other companies in the following ways :

MNCs:

  • MNCs own or control the production in more than one country.
  • MNCs set up their offices and factories for production in other countries.
  • There is a high level of capital investment.
  • They earn huge profits due to the availability of resources at cheap rates.
  • MNCs produce at a large scale.
  •  MNCs compete globally.

Other companies:

  • Other companies own and control production only in one country.
  • Other companies set up their offices and factories for production in one country.
  • There is low level of capital investment.
  • They earn lesser profit due to lack of resources.
  • Other companies produce at small scale.
  • Other companies compete with, their local competitors.

Question 7.
Nearly all major multinationals are American, Japanese or European, such as Nike, Coca-cola, Pepsi, Honda, Nokia. Can you guess why?
Answer:
Almost all major multinationals are American, Japanese or European because these countries are developed countries. MNCs require a huge amount of money, latest technology, skilled management, entrepreneurial capability of high scale production etc., for expanding their production and markets in .other countries. Generally, poor countries do not have these resources. That’s why, nearly all major multinationals are American, Japanese or European.

Let’s Work These Out (Page No. 61)

Question 1.
What was the main channel connecting countries in the past ? How is it different now?
Answer:
Foreign trade was the main channel, connecting countries in the past.
Now, Foreign trade results in connecting the markets or integration of markets of different countries.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Question 2.
Distinguish between foreign trade and foreign investment.
Answer:
Foreign Trade: Foreign trade is a way of trading, in which, a market of a country is connected and integrated with the markets of different countries. It creates an opportunity for the producers to reach beyond the domestic markets.
Foreign Investment: Investment made by MNCs is called foreign investment. It is made with the hope, that these assets will earn profits.

Question 3.
in recent years China has been importing steel from India. Explain how the import of steel by China will affect –
(a) steel companies in China.
(b) steel companies in India.
(c) industries buying steel for production of other industrial goods in China.
Answer:
(a) Steel Companies in China: Steel companies in China will get cheap and
good quality steel.

(b) Steel Companies in India: Steel companies in India will earn good profit and extend their trades.! On the other hand, if export increases more, then Indian companies will suffer and face many problems, like-lack of raw materials, high cost of raw material and finished goods, etc.

(c) Industries buying steel for Production of other Industrial goods in China: Industries buying steel for production of other industrial goods in China will get cheap and sufficient raw material, as per their requirement. Therefore, total industrial production of China will increase.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Question 4.
How will the import of steel from India into the Chinese markets lead to integration of markets for steel in the two countries? Explain.
Answer:
The import of steel from India into the Chinese markets will lead to integration of markets for steel in the two countries in the following ways :
(i) It will help the Chinese steel market to get cheap and good quality raw material.
(ii) It will help the Indian steel companies to earn more foreign exchange.

Let’s Work These Out (Page No. 62)

Question 1.
What is the role of MNCs in the globalisation process?
Answer:
MNCs are playing an important role in the globalisation process. More and more goods and services are available to people. New techniques and technologies are moving from one country to another. People move from one country to another in search of better jobs, better education etc. Most regions of the world are coming in close contact with each other, just because of MNCs.

Question 2.
What are the various ways in which countries can be linked?
Answer:
The various ways in which countries can be linked are as follows :

  • Movement of people from one country to another.
  • Movement of goods and services between various countries.
  • Foreign trade between various countries.
  • By increasing the number of MNCs.
  • Movement of latest technology from one country to another.

Question 3.
Choose the correct option :
Globalisation, by connecting countries, shall result in :
(a) lesser competition among producers.
(b) greater competition among producers.
(c) no change in competition among producers.
Answer:
(b) greater competition among producers.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Let’s Work These Out (Page No. 63)

A news magazine published for London readers is to be designed and printed in Delhi. The text of the magazine is sent through Internet to the Delhi office. The designers in the Delhi office get orders on how to design the magazine from the office in London using telecommunication facilities. The designing is done on a computer. After printing, the magazines are sent by air to London. Even the payment of money for designing and printing from a bank in London to a bank iii Delhi is done instantly through the Internet (e-banking)!

Question 1.
In the above example, underline the words describing the use of technology in production. .
Answer:
A news magazine published for London readers is to be designed and printed in Delhi. The text of the magazine is sent through internet to the Delhi office. The designers in the Delhi office get orders on how to design the magazine from the office in London using telecommunication facilities. The designing is done on a computer. After printing, the magazines are sent by air to London. Even the payment of money for designing and printing from a bank in London to a bank in Delhi is done instantly through the Internet (e-banking)! . ‘

Question 2.
How is information technology connected with globalisation? Would globalisation have been possible without the expansion of IT?
Answer:
In modern times, technology, in the area of telecommunication, computers, internet, has been changing rapidly. Telecommunication facilities, such as telegraph, tele¬phone including mobile phones, fax, are used to contact one another around the world to access information instantly and to communicate in remote areas. This has been facilitated by satellite communication devices.

The computer has now entered almost every field of activity. Information and communication technology has played a major role in spreading out the production of services across countries. No, globalisation would have not been possible without the expansion of IT. In this modern world, business is not possible without information technology.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Let’s Work These Out (Page No. 64)

Question 1.
What do you understand by liberalisation of foreign trade?
Answer:
Liberalisation means removing unnecessary trade restrictions and making the economy more competitive. The policy of removing barriers and restrictions from exports and imports of government, is known as liberalisation of foreign trade.

Question 2.
Tax on imports is one type of trade barriers. The government could also place a limit on the number of goods that can be imported. This is known as quotas. Can you explain, using the example of Chinese toys, how quotas can be used as trade barriers? Do you think this should be used? Discuss.
Answer:
If Indian government implements import quota, then the importer country cannot buy Chinese toys more than the quota. Those who wish to import these toys, would have to pay tax on this. Because of the tax, buyers will have to pay a higher price for imported toys. Chinese toys will no longer be cheaper in the Indian markets and imports from China will automatically reduce. Indian toy makers will prosper. No, I don’t think it should be used, because now, the time has reached for Indian producers to compete with foreign producers, as it would improve the performance of producers within the country, since they would have to improve their quality.

Let’s Work These Out (Page No. 66)

Question 1.
Fill in the blanks :
WTO was started at the initiative ……………. of countries. The aim of the WTO is to ………….. WTO establishes rules regarding ……………. for all countries, and sees that ………….. In practice, trade between countries is not ………….. Developing countries like India have ………….. whereas developed countries, in many cases, have continued to provide protection to their producers.
Answer:
WTO was started at the initiative of developed countries. The aim of the WTO is to liberalise International Trade. WTO establishes rules regarding international Trade for all countries, and sees that these rules are obeyed or not. In practice, trade between countries is not fair and free. Developing countries like India have removed trade barriers, whereas developed countries, in many cases, have continued to provide protection to their producers.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Question 2.
What do you think can be done so that trade between countries is more fair?
Answer:
I think, the following attempts can be made, so that trade between countries is more fair :

  • Unnecessary restrictions on foreign trade and foreign investment should be removed.
  • Trade barriers should be removed.
  • Policy of liberalisation should be adopted.
  • All countries should follow the rules of WTO regarding trade.

Question 3.
In the above example, we saw that the US government gives massive sums of money to farmers for production. At times, governments also give support to promote the production of certain types of goods, such as those which are environmentally friendly. Discuss whether these are fair or not.
Answer:
No, these are unfair. The US government wants to capture the world market through industrial production, as well as agricultural production. For this, massive money was given to farmers for production. US farmers can sell farm products at the lowest prices. The surplus farm products are sold in other country markets at lower prices. This will adversely affect farmers in developing countries such as India.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Therefore, developing countries are asking the developed country governments, “We have reduced trade barriers as per WTO rules, but you have ignored the rules of WTO and have continued to pay your farmers vast sums of money. You have asked our governments to stop supporting our farmers, but you are doing that yourself. Is this free and fair trade?” Yes, this may be fair, if only monetary help is given for increment in production as per demand, but this condition should be applicable for all goods.

Let’s Work These Out (Page No. 67)

Question 1.
How has competition benefited people in India?
Answer:
Competition has benefited people in India in the following manner :

  • Due to competition, people are able to get goods at cheaper rate and with better quality.
  • Consumers, particularly the well-off sections in the urban areas, have a wide range of goods and services. They are enjoying variety of goods and services at cheaper rates.
  • People are enjoying much higher standards of living today.
  • MNCs have invested in industries, such as-cell phones, automobiles, electronics, soft drinks, fast food or services, like banking, in urban areas. In these industries and services, new jobs have been created.
  • Some companies in India, supplying raw materials etc. to MNCs, have prospered.
  • Several top Indian companies have invested in newer technology and production methods and raised their production standards.
  • Some companies have gained from successful collaborations with foreign companies.
  • Some large Indian companies have emerged as multinationals, such as – Tata Motors, Infosys, Ranbaxy, Asian Paints etc.
  • New opportunities have been created for companies, providing services, particularly those, involving IT.

Question 2.
Should more Indian companies emerge as MNCs? How would it benefit the people in the country?
Answer:
Yes, more Indian companies should emerge as MNCs. It would benefit the people of the country as follows:

  • It will provide employment opportunities to the people of the country.
  • It would make available, the goods at cheaper rates to the people, due to competition between companies.
  • It will improve the standard of goods because of the use of new technology and production methods.
  • These companies will earn more foreign exchange for the country.

Question 3.
Why does government try to attract more foreign investment?
Answer:
Government tries to attract more foreign investment because of the following reasons :

  • For building basic infrastructure of the country.
  • For industrial development.
  • For technological development.
  • For agricultural development.
  • For increasing job opportunities in the country.

Question 4.
In chapter 1, we saw what may be development for one may be destructive for others. The setting of SEZs has been opposed by some people in India. Find out who are these people and why are they opposing it.
Answer:
In recent years, the central and state governments in India have taken special steps to attract foreign companies to invest in India. In this reference, Special Economic Zones (SEZs) are being set up. Some people are opposed to the setting of SEZs. These people are farmers and tribals. They are opposing it because this may appropriate the land and disrupt the lives of people who are displaced.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Let’s Work These Out (Page No. 68)

Question 1.
What are the ways in which Ravi’s small production unit was affected by rising competition?
Answer:
Ravi took a loan from the bank, to start his own company producing capacitors, in the year 1992, at Hosur in Tamil Nadu. Within three years, he was able’ to expand production. His struggle to run his company started when the government removed restrictions on imports of capacitors, as per its agreement at WTO, in 2001.

However, competition from the MNC brands forced the Indian television companies to move into assembling activities for MNCs. Even when some of them bought capacitors, they would prefer to import, as the price of the imported item was half the price charged , by people like Ravi. Ravi now produces less than half the capacitors that he produced in the year 2000. Many of Ravi’s friends, in the same business, have closed their units.

Question 2.
Should producers such as Ravi stop production because their cost of production is higher compared to producers in other countries? What do you think?
Answer:
No, producers like Ravi should not stop production. They should improve the quality of their production by adopting latest technology and production methods. They should > reduce cost of production to compete with the producers of the other countries.

Question 3.
Recent studies point out that small producers in India need three things to compete .. better in the market
(a) better roads, power, water, raw materials, marketing and information network
(b) improvements and modernisation of technology
(c) timely availability of credit at reasonable interest rates.
Can you explain how these three things would help Indian producers?
Do you think MNCs will be interested in investing in these? Why?
Do you think the government has a role in making these facilities available? Why?
Can you think of any other step that the government could take? Discuss.
Answer:
(i) All these three things
(a) better roads, power, water, raw materials, marketing and information network,
(b) Improvements and modernisation of technology,
(c) timely availability of credit at reasonable interest rates, are necessary for Indian f>roducers.
(1) Better roads would help in transportation of raw materials and produced goods.
(2) Power, water, raw materials, would help in rapid production of goods.
(3) Marketing and information network would help in selling of produced goods.
(4) Improvements and modernisation of technology would help in quality production.
(5) Timely availability of credit at reasonable interest rates would inspire the Indian producers to invest in modem and high technology and production methods. It would reduce the prices of goods and make their quality standard of goods high.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

(ii) Yes, MNCs will definitely invest in these zones because they will get all the necessary facilities under one roof and these may prove to be cheaper for them.

(iii) Yes, I think the government has a major role in making these facilities available. These facilities require a huge amount of money. Such a large expense of money is possible only with the support of the government. It is very difficult for the private sector to make it easily possible.

(iv) Yes, the government can adopt following suggestions :

  • The government can liberalise its other trade rules.
  • It can decrease the paper work.
  • It can reduce other formalities.
  •  It can reduce corruption, prevalent in government offices.
  • It can invite NRIs to make investment in India.
  • It can avail more facilities to industrialists.

Let’s Work These Out (Page No. 70)

Question 1.
In what ways has competition affected workers, Indian exporters and foreign MNCs in the garment industry?
Answer:
Workers in the garment industry :

  • Now their jobs are not secure.
  • They are employed on temporary basis.
  • They have to put. in very long working hours.
  • They are paid low wages.
  • They work in night shifts on regular basis during the peak season.
  • They do not get fair share of benefits brought in by globalisation.

Indian exporters in the garment industry:

  • Indian exporters are getting large orders.
  • They try hard to cut their own costs to reduce production cost of the garment.
  • They try to cut labour costs to reduce the cost of raw materials.
  • They employ workers on a temporary basis, so that they do not have to pay workers for the whole year.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Foreign MNCs in the garpvent industry:

  • MNCs look for the cheapest goods in order to maximise their profits.
  • Competition among the garment exporters has allowed the MNCs to make large profits.

Question 2.
What can be done by each of the following so that the workers can get a fair share of benefits brought by globalisation?
(a) Government
(b) Employers at the exporting factories
(c) MNCs
(d) Workers
Answer:
The below-given measures can be adopted so that the workers can get a fair share of benefits brought by globalisation :
(a) Government:
The government can make some labour laws in favour of workers, such as, a permanent appointments for the whole year, regular wages and working hours etc. Government can force producers to implement these laws and can provide protection to workers. It can help the workers to get their rights.

(b) Employers at the exporting factories: They can help the workers by following the rules and regulations laid by government. They can provide them some benefits and facilities, such as – fair wages, job security, fixed working hours, overtime wages, health insurance, provident fund etc.

(c) MNCs: If MNCs want, they can help the government to make globalisation fair, by implementing the labour laws and other norms of the government. They should place orders to those exporters, who follow labour laws strictly.

(d) Workers: Workers should work honestly in interest of their employer company. They should avoid strikes, lockouts, industrial violence etc. They should establish labour unions, to settle their demands with government and employers.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Question 3.
One of the present issues of debate in India is, whether companies should have flexible policies for employment. Based on what you have read in the chapter, summarise the point of view of the employers and workers.
Answer:
One of the present issues of debate in India is whether companies should have flexible policies for employment.

Based on the chapter, the point of view of the employers and workers are as follows:
(i) The point of view of the employers: A large number of employers like to employ workers on a temporary basis. This means, that the jobs of workers are no longer secure. Employers try hard to reduce their costs, due to increased competition at the world level. They employ workers on a temporary basis so that they do not have to pay workers for the whole year.

(ii) The point of view of the workers: The lives of workers have changed by the pressure of competition and globalisation. Workers are not in favour of flexible policies of employment because their jobs are no longer secure just because of them. They do not get work for the whole year and they are forced to work overtime, to make both ends meet.

HBSE 10th Class Economic Globalisation and the Indian Economy Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What do you understand by globalisation? Explain in your own words.
Answer:
Globalisation is the process of rapid integration or inter-connection between countries. Globalisation encourages foreign trade and foreign investment. Under this, all barriers or restrictions on foreign trade are removed. Therefore, more and more goods and services, investments and technology move between countries, direct foreign investment increases, export and import increases. Therefore, level of production and productivity rises.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Question 2.
What were the reasons for putting barriers to foreign trade and foreign investment by the Indian Government? Why did it wish to remove these barriers?
Or
Why did Indian Government put barriers to foreign trade and investment?
Answer:
Government can use trade barriers to increase or decrease foreign trade and to decide what kinds of goods, and how much of each, should come into the country. The Indian government, after independence, had put barriers to foreign trade and foreign investment, to protect the producers within the country from foreign competition. Industries were just coming up in the 1950s and 1960s, and competition from imports at that stage, would not have allowed these industries to come up.

Thus, Indian government allowed imports of only essential items, such as – machinery, fertilisers, petroleum etc. and put barriers on foreign trade and foreign investment. The Indian Government wanted to remove these barriers, because in the starting of 1991, it was felt that the competition would improve the performance of producers within the country and help in economy’s growth. It had been decided, that the time had come for Indian producers, to compete with producers around the world.

Question 3.
How would flexibility in labour laws help companies?
Answer:
In the following way, flexibility in labour laws help companies :

  1. Companies employ workers only on a temporary basis, so that they do not have to pay workers for the whole year.
  2. It reduces the cost to employer because they pay less to the employees.
  3. Workers, also, have to put in very long working hours and work night shifts on a regular basis, during the peak season. In this way, companies make large profits.

Question 4.
What are the various ways in which MNCs set up, or control production in other countries?
Answer:
Following are the ways in which MNCs set up, or control production in other countries :
(i) By Joint Venture: Sometimes, MNCs make production in collaboration with domestic companies, within some other countries. Domestic company gets double profit by joint production – (1) MNCs can provide finance for investment, and (2) MNCs bring latest technology of production with them.
(ii) By Buying Domestic Companies: MNCs expand their production, by buying domestic companies.
(iii) By Ordering their Products from Small Producers: MNCs have another way to control production in other countries. MNCs, in developed countries, place order for production to small producers. Garments, footwear, sports items are examples of industries, where production is carried out by a large number of small producers around the world. These products are supplied to the MNCs, which sell these under them own brand name, to the customers.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Question 5.
Why do developed countries want developing countries to liberalise their trade and investment? What do you think should the developing countries demand in return?
Answer:
Developed countries want developing countries to liberalise their trade and investment, in order to expand their trade in developing countries, through foreign trade and foreign investment. To gain profit at the high rate, developed countries want to invest in developing countries. Yes, I think developing countries should demand free access to developed country’s market, removal of unfair trade barriers and more financial support. They should also demand to follow WTO rules regarding trade, so that they also can invest in developed countries.

Question 6.
“The impact of globalisation has not been uniform.” Explain this statement.
Answer:
The impact of globalisation has not been uniform. It is beneficial for some sections of society, while for some others, it has been harmful and bad. Many people have been deprived of profits of globalisation.

The above-mentioned statement can be explained as given below:
There are some positive and negative impacts of globalisation which are as follows:
1. Positive Impacts: There have been the following impacts of globalisation:
(i) There is greater competition among producers – Both, local and foreign producers, provide advantages to consumers. There is the greater choice before these consumers to enjoy the improved quality and lower prices for several products. Consequently, these people now enjoy much higher standards of living, than was possible earlier.

(ii) Globalisation has increased employment, comfort and improvised the lifestyle of the people. Thus, it has proved beneficial for some people of society.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

2. Negative Effects:

  • Some small industries have to bear a great loss, due to competition with multinational companies.
  • Many labourers have been unemployed because many factories have been closed.
  • Employment of workers has not been certain and safe.
  • Employers are reducing wages. They are taking more work from workers.
  • Globalisation has increased the difference between the poor and the rich.

Question 7.
How has the liberalisation of trade and investment policies helped the globalisation process?
Answer:
Liberalisation of trade and investment policies has helped the globalisation process in the following manner :

  • Liberalisation of trade removes barriers of trade, and due to this, import and export between countries has become easier. It helps in the process of globalisation.
  • Relaxation of rules and regulations encourages MNCs to invest in other countries, and this is a part of globalisation.
  • Liberalisation makes MNCs free, to expand their market in other countries. This is the process of globalisation.

Question 8.
How does foreign trade lead to the integration of markets across countries? Explain with an example other than those given here.
Answer:
Foreign trade leads to the integration of markets across countries as given below:

  • Almost all the countries have become dependent on each other. ‘
  • Every country has to export goods and services.
  • Foreign trade creates an opportunity beyond the domestic markets, i.e. markets of their own country.
  • Substitutes of goods get increasingly available in the market.

Example: There is a sufficient production of cotton and woollen clothes in India. If any country demands for it, India can export it to that country. On the other hand, there is a lack of mineral oil in India, therefore mineral oil can be imported from any mineral oil producing country. In this way, foreign trade leads to integration of markets, across countries.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Question 9.
Globalisation will continue in the future. Can you imagine what the world would be like twenty years from now? Give reasons for your answer.
Answer:
Undoubtedly, globalisation will continue in the future. The world would be like a big market, twenty years from now. The reasons are as follows :

  • There will be a global expansion of MNCs.
  • The world markets will be close to each other, due to the expansion of MNCs.
  • Foreign investment of MNCs will be increased.
  • Skilled and unskilled labourers will be spread out in the whole world, due to the mobility of labour.
  • Foreign trade will increase among various countries of the world.
  • The flow of more and more goods, services, investments and technology will increase among various countries.
  • employment will increase.
  • People will be in a position to buy quality goods at the cheapest rates. This will improve the standard of living of people.
  • MNCs will get benefited from the increased competition.
  • Cultural values will be exchanged.

Question 10.
Suppose you find two people arguing: One is saying globalisation has hurt our country’s development. The other is telling, that globalisation is helping India develop. How would you respond to these arguments?
Answer:
One, who is saying that globalisation has hurt our country’s development, is not right, because globalisation is very important for the development of an economy. Globalisation has created employment opportunities. It has benefited rich consumers, producers, and skilled and educated workers. Direct Foreign Investment has increased. Globalisation has made the Indian economy more competitive. It has made India capable to face foreign competition.

globalisation has some bad effects on our economy. Some small producers and workers suffered through competition, due to globalisation. Some small factories have been shut down. The government should make attempts for fair globalisation. Fair globalisation would create opportunities for all and also ensure, that the benefits of globalisation are shared better.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Question 11.
Fill in the blanks –
Indian buyers have a greater choice of goods than they did two decades back. This is closely associated with the process of ………….. Markets in India are selling goods produced in many other countries. This means there is increasing ……………… with other countries. Moreover, the rising number of brands that we see in the markets might be produced by MNCs in India. MNCs are investing in India because …………….. While
consumers have more choices in the market, and the effect of rising …………… and ………….. has meant greater …………….. among the producers.
Answer:
Indian buyers have a greater choice of goods than they did two decades back. This is closely associated with the process of globalisation Markets in India are selling goods produced in many other countries. This means there is increasing trade with other countries. Moreover, the rising number of brands that we see in the markets might be produced by MNCs in India. MNCs are investing in India because of cheaper production costa While consumers have more choices in the market, the effect of rising demand and purchasing power has meant greater competition among the producers.

Question 12.
Match the following :

(i) MNCs buy at cheap rates from small producers (a) Automobiles
(ii) Quotas and taxes on imports are used to regulate trade (b) Garments, footwear, sports items
(iii) Indian companies who have invested abroad (c) Call centres
(iv) IT has helped in spreading of production of services (d) Tata Motors, Infosys, Ranbaxy
(v) Several MNCs have invested in setting up factories in India for production (e) Trade barriers

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

(i) → (b)
(ii) → (e)
(iii) → (d)
(iv) → (c)
(v) → (a)

Question 13.
Choose the most appropriate option:
(i) The past two decades of globalisation has seen rapid movements in
(a) goods, services and people between countries.
(b) goods, services and investments between countries.
(c) goods, investments and people between countries.
Answer:
(b) goods, services and investments between countries.

(ii) The most common route for investments by MNCs in countries around the world
(a) set up new factories.
(b) buy existing local companies.
(c) form partnerships with local companies.
Answer:
(b) buy existing local companies.

(iii) Globalisation has led to improvement in living conditions –
(a) of all the people.
(b) of people in developed countries.
(c) of workers in developing countries.
(d) none of the above.
Answer:
(b) of people in the developed countries.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 4 Globalisation and the Indian Economy

Additional Activity/Project
Take some branded products that we use every day (soaps, toothpaste, garments, electronic goods, etc.) Check which of these are produced by MNCs.
Note:
Do it yourself.

Take any Indian industry or service of your choice. Collect information and photographs from newspapers, magazine clippings, books, television, internet. Interview with people on the following aspects of the industry:
(i) Various producers/companies in the industry
(ii) Is the product exported to other countries?
(iii) Are there MNCs among the producers?
(iv) Competition in the industry
(v) Conditions of work in the industry
(vi) Has there been any major change in the industry in the past 15 years?
(vii) Problems that people in the industry face.
Note:
Do it yourself.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 6 Political Parties

Haryana State Board HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 6 Political Parties Notes

Haryana Board 10th Class Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 6 Political Parties

  • In this chapter, we shall study the role of political parties in the rise of democracies, in electoral politics, and in the making and working of the government.

Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes HBSE

→ Why Do We Need Political Parties?

  • Political parties are one of the most visible institutions in a democracy; for ordinary citizens, democracy is equal to political parties. It is important to know the nature and workings of political parties.

→ Meaning of Political Parties

  • A political party is an organized group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government.
  • Political parties reflect fundamental political divisions in society.
  • A political party has three components:
    (i) The leaders
    (ii) The active members
    (iii) The followers and supporters.

→ Functions of Political Parties

  • Political parties contest elections.
  • Political parties put forward different policies and programmes and the voters choose the desired ones from among them.
  • Political parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country.
  • Political parties form and run governments.
  • The losing parties in the elections play the role of opposition to the parties in power.
  • Political parties shape public opinion.
  • Parties provide people access to government machinery and welfare schemes implemented by governments.

Class 10th Civics Chapter 6 Notes HBSE

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 6 Political Parties

→ Necessity of Political Parties

  • Without political parties, every candidate in the elections will be independent. So, no one will be able to make any promises to the people about any major policy changes.
  • The rise of political parties is linked to the emergence of representative democracies.
  • As societies became large and complex they also needed some agency to gather different views on various issues and to present these to the government. This need is fulfilled by the political parties.

→ How Many Parties Should We Have?

  • More than 750 parties are registered with the Election Commission of India.
  • In some countries, only one party is allowed to control and run the government. These are called one-party systems, e.g. China.
  • In some countries, power usually changes between two main parties. Such a party system is called two-party system, e.g. The United States of America (USA).
  • If several parties compete for power and more than two parties have a reasonable chance of coining to power either on their own strength or by alliance with others, we call it a multi-party system, e.g. India.
  • We have a multi-party system because this system allows a variety of interests and opinions to enjoy political representation.

→ National Parties

  • A party that secures at least six per cent of the total votes in Lok Sabha elections or Assembly elections in four states, and wins at least four seats in the Lok Sabha, is recognised as a national party.
  • There were seven national recognised parties in the country in the year 2018:
    (i) Indian National Congress (INC) is one of the oldest parties of the world. It was founded in 1885.
    (ii) Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) was founded in 1980 by reviving the erstwhile Bharatiya Jana Sangh.
    (iii) Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) was formed in 1984 under the leadership of Kanshi Ram.
    (iv) Communist Party of India-Marxist (CPI-M) was founded in 1964 and believes in Marxism-Leninism.
    (v) Communist Party of India (CPI) was formed in 1925 and believes in Marxism-Leninism, secularism and democracy.
    (vi) Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) was formed in 1999, following a split in the Congress party.
    (vii) All India Trinamool Congress (AITC) was formed in 1998 under the leadership of Mamata Baneijee.
  • All the national parties have been allotted well-known and permanent symbols by the Election Commission of India.

Chapter 6 Political Science Class 10 Notes HBSE

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 6 Political Parties

→ State Parties

  • A party, that secures at least six per cent of the total votes in an election to the Legislative Assembly of a State and wins at least two seats is recognised as a State Party.
  • Other than these seven parties, most of the major parties of the country are classified as state parties.
  • Some of these parties are Samajwadi Party, Shiromani Akali Dal, Janata Dal (U), Biju Janata Dal, Sikkim Democratic Front, Shiv Sena, DMK, ADMK, Jharkhand Mukti Morcha, etc.

→ Challenges to Political Parties

  • The first challenge is lack of internal democracy within parties.
  • The second challenge is that most political parties do not practise open and transparent procedures for their functioning. There are very few ways for an ordinary worker to rise to the top in a party.
  • The third challenge is about the growing role of money and muscle power in parties, especially during elections.
  • The fourth challenge is that very often, parties do not seem to offer a meaningful choice to the voters.

→ How can Parties be reformed?

  • The Constitution was amended to prevent elected MLAs and MPs from changing parties. If any MLA or MP changes parties after election, he or she will lose the seat in the legislature.
  • This new law has helped to bring down defection.
  • Now, it is mandatory for every candidate who contests elections to file an affidavit giving details of their property and criminal cases pending against them.
  • This has made a lot of information available to the public.
  • The Election Commission passed an order, making it necessary for political parties to hold their organisational elections and file their income tax returns.
  • Besides these, many suggestions are often made to reform political parties:
  • A law should be made to regulate the internal affairs of political parties.
  • It should be made compulsory for political parties to give a minimum number of tickets, about one-third to women candidates.
  • There should be state funding of elections.
  • People can put pressure on political parties through petitions, publicity, and agitations.

Civics Class 10 Chapter 6 Notes HBSE

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 6 Political Parties

→ Important Terms

1. Political Party: An organized group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government.

2. Partisan: A person who is strongly committed to a party, group or faction.

3. Partisanship: It is marked by a tendency to take a side and an inability to take a balanced view on an issue.

4. Ruling Party: A political party that runs the government.

5. Regional Party: A political party whose political activities are limited to a region.

6. Opposition: The political party or a group of parties that is a main part of the legislature but not a part of the government. It is opposed to the government.

7. Election Commission: An independent authority provided by the Constitution, to ensure free and fair elections in the country.

8. Single-Party System: In some countries, only one party is allowed to control and run the government. This is also called the one-party system.

9. Two-Party System: A system where two parties prevail in a country.

10. Multi-Party System: A political condition, in which many parties make a bid for power and have some chance of being successful.

11. Alliance: A political condition in a multi-party system, when several parties join hands for the purpose of contesting elections and winning power.

Civics Chapter 6 Class 10 HBSE

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 6 Political Parties

12. National Party: A party that has a wide base in a large part of the country is called a national party.

13. Rightist Party: Party is rigid in its approach to the past glory of the country and supporter of ethics and morals.

14. Leftist Party: Party ideologically radical and conservative.

15. State Party: A political party whose political activities are limited to a region. It is also called a regional party.

16. Defection: Changing party allegiance from the party under which a person got elected (to a legislative body) to a different party.

17. M.P.: Member of Parliament.

18. M.L.A.: Member of Legislative Assembly.

19. Affidavit: A signed document, submitted to an office where a person makes a sworn statement regarding his/her personal information.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Haryana State Board HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Haryana Board 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Economics Poverty as a Challenge Intext Questions and Answers

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Poverty As A Challenge HBSE 9th Class Question 1.
Why do different countries use different poverty lines?
Answer:
A person is considered poor if his or her income or consumption level falls below a given “minimum level” necessary to fulfill basic needs. What is necessary to satisfy basic needs is different at different times and in different countries. Therefore, poverty line may vary with.time and place. Each country uses an imaginary line that is considered appropriate for its existing level of development and its accepted minimum social norms.

Poverty As A Challenge Class 9 Exercise HBSE Question 2.
What do you think is the minimum necessary level in your locality?
Answer:
Students are required to do it themselves.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

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Important Questions Of Poverty As A Challenge Class 9 HBSE Question 1.
Study the Table 3.1 and answer the following questions.
Estimates of Poverty in India

Poverty ratio (%) Number of poor (in milliqns)
Year Ru-ral Ur-ban Com-bined Ru-ral Ur-ban Com-bined
1973-74 56.4. 49.0 54.9 261 60 321
1993-94 37.3 32.4 36.0 244 76 320
1999-00 27,1 23.6 26.1 193 67 260

Source:
Econnomic Survey 2002-03, Ministry of Finance, Government of India.
Even if poverty ratio declined between 1973-74 and 1993-94, why did the number of poor remain at about 320 million?

Are the dynamics of poverty reduction the same in rural and urban India?
Answer:
(i) The number of poor remain at about 320 million due to increasing population and shifting of people from rural to urban areas.
(ii) The dynamics of poverty reduction are not same in rural and urban India whereas as poverty level is continously declining in rural India it is not so in urban area’s. In the year 1993-94 poverty in urban areas infact increased.

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Observe some of the poor families around you and try to find the following:
(i) Which social and economic group do they belong to?
(ii) Who are the earning members in the family?
(iii) What is the condition of the old people in the family ?
(iv) Are all the children (boys and girls) attending schools?
Answer:
Students should do it themselves.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

(Page 36)

Question 1.
Study the graph 3.2 and do the following:
(i) Identify the three states where, the poverty ratio is the highest
HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge - 1
HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge - 2

(ii) Identify the three states where poverty ratio is lowest.
Note-See the graph on page No. 114
Answer:
(i) Poverty ratio is highest in Orissa, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh.
(ii) Poverty ratio is lowest in Jammu Kashmir, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh.

Question 2.
Study die graph 3.4 and do the following
(i) Identify the area of the world, where poverty ratios have declined.
(ii) Identify the area of the globe which has the largest concentration of poor.
Answer:
(i) Poverty has declined substantially in China and South-east Asian countries.
(ii) Sub-Saharan Africa, has the largest concentration of poor.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

(Page 40)

Question 1.
Describe how the poverty line is measured fat India. .
Answer:
In India while determining the poverty line, a minimum level of food requirement, clothing, footwear, fuel and light, educational andmedical requirements are determined for subsistence. These physical quantities are mulitplied by their prices in rupees. The present formula for food requirement while estimating the poverty line is based on the desired calories requirement. The calories needs vary depending on age, sex and thefype of work that a person does. The accepted calories requirement in India is 2400 calories per person per day in rural areas and 2100 calories per person per day in urban areas.

Poverty line is also measured on die basis of monetary expenditure per capita needed for buying these calorie requirements in terms of food-grains etc. On the basis of these calculations, for the year2000, the poverty line
for a person was fixed at Rs 328 per month for the rural areas and Rs 454 for the urban areas.

Question 2.
Do you think the present methodology for poverty estimation is appropriate.
Answer:
The present method of measuring poverty is not adequate. It takes into consideration the minimum subsistence level and not the reasonable level of living. There is need to broaden the concept of poverty. A large number of people may be able to feed themselves but they do not have access to other necessities like education, sanitation, health, job security etc. They may not be free from caste and gender discrimination etc. Thus definition of poverty should be changed. Apart from food all the above things should be brought into its preview.

Question 3.
Describe poverty trends in India since 1973.
Answer:
There is a Substantial decline fit- poverty ratios in India from about 55 percent in 1973 to 36 percent in 1993. The proportion of people below poverty line further came down to about 26 percent in 2000. If the trend continues, people below poverty line may come down to less than 20 percent in the next ew years. Although, the percentage erf people living below poverty has decUned in the earlier two decades the number of poor remained stable around 320 million for a fairly long period. The latest estimates indicate a significant reduction in the number of poor to about 260 million.

Question 4.
Discuss the major reasons for poverty tit India.
Answer:
There are various reasons for poverty in India. Few of them ate listed below.
(i) British policy-The historical reason is the low level of economic development under the British colonial administration. The policies of colonial government ruined the traditipnal handicrafts and discouraged development of industries like textiles.

(ii) Tow economic growth rate-The low rate of growth persisted until the nineteen eighties. This resulted in less job opportunities ‘ and low growth rate of incomes.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

(iii) High growth rate of the population-The growth rate of population was very high. It combined with low economic growth rate to make the growth rate of percent income very low.

(iv) Migration of people from rural to urban , areas-Due to heavy pressure on agricultural land and absence of alternative occupation in rural areas people started migrating to urban areas. This intensified the problem of urban poverty. These people could not find job with adequate income therefore, started living in slums and under unhygienic conditions.

(v) Unequal distribution of income and wealth-One of the major reasons of poverty” is the high income in equalities. The main cause of it is the unequal distribution of land. Land reforms that aimed at the redistribution of assets and improvement of the poor in rural areas were not implemented effectively.

(vi) Social factors like-illiteracy-Large size of family, law of inheritance, and caste system are, also responsible for prevalence of poverty-ridden people.

Question 5.
Identify the social and economic groups which are most vulnerable to poverty in India.
Answer:
The proportion of people below poverty line is not same for all social groups and. economic categories in India. Social groups which are most vulnerable to poverty. are scheduled castes and scheduled tribe households. Similarly, among the economic groups the most vulnerable groups are the rural agricultural labour households and the urban casual labour households.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Question 6.
Give an account of interstate disparities in poverty in India.
Answer:
The proportion of poor people is not the same in every state. Though there is a decline in state level poverty, the success rate of reducing poverty varies from state to state. Recent estimates show that in 20 states and union territories, the poverty ratio is less than the national average. On the other hard, poverty is still a serious problem in Orissa, Bihar, Assam, Tripura arid Uttar. Pradesh: Orissa and Bihar ate the poorest state with poverty ratios of 47 and 43 percent respectively. Along with rural poverty, urban poverty is also high in Orissa, Madhya Pradesh) Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.

In comparison, there has been a significant decline in poverty, in Kerala, Jammu and Kashmir;’Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and West Bengal. States like Punjab arid Haryana have traditionally succeeded in reducing poverty with The help of high agricultural growth rates. They have succeeded in reducing poverty due to human resource development. In West Bengal, land reform measures have helped in bringing down poverty levels. In Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu public distribution system have been responsible for the improvement.

Question 7.
Describe global poverty trends.
Answer:
The proportion of people in developing countries living in extreme economic poverty-defined by the World Bank as living on less than $ 1 per day – has fallen from 28 per cent in 1990 to 21 per Cent in 2001. Although there has been a substantial reduction in global poverty, it is marked with great regional differences. Poverty declined substantially in China and Southeast Asian countries as a result of rapid economic growth and massive investments in human resource development.

Number of poors in China has come down from 606 million in 1981 to 212 million in 2001; Dt fhe countries of South Asia (India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan) the decline has notbeen as rapid. Despite decline in the percentage of the poor, the number of poor has declined marginally from 475 million in 1981 to 428 million in 2001. Because of different poverty

line definition, poverty in India is also shown higher than, the national estimates. In sub-Saharan Africa, poverty in fact rose from 41 per cent in 1981 to 46 per cent in 2001. In Latin America, the ratio of poverty remained the same. Poverty has also resurfaced in some of the former socialist countries like Russia, where officially it was non-existent earlier. The Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations calls for reducing the proportion of people living on less than $ 1 a day to half, the 1990 level by 2015.

Question 8.
Describe current government strategy of poverty alleviation.
Answer:
The currentanti-poverty strategy of the government is bajjed broadly on two planks-
(i) promotion of economic growth.
(ii) targeted anti-poverty programmes:

(i) Promotion of economic growth:
for a long period percentage of poor (45) remained stagnant. It started falling with tire increase in economic growth rate in eighties. The growth rate increased from 3.5 percent in 1970’s to about 6 percent during 1980’s and 1990’s The higher growth, rates have helped significantly in the reduction of poverty.

Thus; there is a strong link between economic growth and poverty reduction. Economic growth widens opportunities and provides the resources needed to invest in human development. This also encourages people to send their children, including girls, to schools in the hope of getting better economic returns from investing in education.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

(ii) Targeted anti-poverty programmes:
The poor are not able to take advantage from the opportunities created by economic growth. Moreover growth in agriculture is much below expectations. Therefore, there is a clear need for targetted anti-poverty programmes. Some of these are as follows:

(iii) National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (2005)-It was passed in September 2005. The act provides 100 days assured employment every year to every rural household in 200 districts. Later, the scheme will be extended to 600 districts. One-third of the proposed jobs would be reserved for. women.

(b) National Food for Work Programme:
It was launched in 2004 in 150 most backward districts of the country. The programme is open to all rural poor who are in need of wage employment and desire to do manual work. It is implemented as a 100 percent centrally sponsored, scheme and food-grains are provided free of cost to the states.

(iii) Prime Minister Rozgar Yozana-It was started in 1993. In it youths are helped in settiiig up small business and industries in rural areas and small towns.

(iv) Rural Employment Generation Programme-It was launched in 1995. The aim of the programme is to create self employment opportunities in rural areas and small towns. A target of creating 25 lakh hew jobs has. been set up for the programme under the tenth five-year plan.

(v) Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana-It was launched in 1999. The programme aims at bringing the assisted poor families above the poverty line by organising them into self help groups through a mix of bank credit and government subsidy.

(vi) Pradhan Mantri Gramoda/a Yozana – It was launched In 2000, additional central assistance is given to-states for basic services such as primary health, primary education, rural shelter, rural drinking water and rural electrification.

Question 9.
Answer file following questions briefly-
(i) What do you understand by human poverty.
(ii) Who are the poorest of the poor ?
(iii) What are the main features of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005?
Answer:
(i) Today many scholars advocate that one must broaden the concept of poverty into human poverty. By it they mean that while measuring poverty instead of minimum subsistence level we must consider reasonable 5 level of living. It must include in its purview availability of basic education, health care, sanitation, job security gender equality etc.

(ii) Women, children and old people are poorest of file poor.
(iii) Main features of National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 are:
(a) It provides 100 days assured employment every year to every rural household in 200 districts.
(b) One-third of the proposed jobs would be reserved for’ women.
(c) If the.applicant is not provided employment within fifteen days he/she will be entitled to a daily unemployment allowance.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Economics Poverty as a Challenge Important Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is poverty ?
Or
Explain the term ‘poverty’.
Answer:
Poverty means a situation in which a person is unable to get minimum basic necessities of life i:e. food, clothing and shelter for his or her sustenance.

Question 2.
What is poverty line?
Answer:
Poverty line is referred to as minimum requirement for basic necessities.

Question 3.
Mention two measures to alleviate poverty in India.
Answer:
Measures to reduce poverty in India are-
(a) to create more employment opportunities.
(b) to check the growth of population.

Question 4.
How social scientists look at poverty ?
Answer:
Social scientists look at poverty through a variety of indicators. Usually the indicators used relate to the levels of income and consumption. But now the poverty is looked through other social indicators like illiteracy level, lack of general resistance due to malnutrition, lack of access to health care, lack of job opportunities, lack of access to safe drinking water etc

Question 5.
Who estimates poverty line in India?
Answer:
National-sample survey organisation.

Question 6.
What is the poverty line for a person according to the 2000 census?
Answer:
According to the year 2000, the poverty line of a person is Rs. 328 per month, for the rural areas and Rs. 454 for urban areas.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Question 7.
Mention the three most poor states of India.
Answer:
The there most poor states of India are Orissa, Bihar and Mahdya Pradesh.

Question 8.
What is the poverty line an defined by the World Bank?
Answer:
Poverty line as defined by the world bank is the people living on less than $ 1 per day:

Question 9.
How does growth rate in population increase poverty in a country? Explain.
Answer:
Population growth is one of the major causes of unemployment in India: When the. number of people increases in a country much faster than the increase in employment opportunities, that situation may lead to unemployment. Since the pressure of population on agriculture/primary sector is already very high, the responsibility of creating new jobs is to be borne and shared by the secondary and tertiary sector.

Question 10.
Explain the term ‘poverty7?
Answer:
Poverty is a situation in which a person is unable to get minimum basic necessities of life, i.e. food, clothing and shelter for his or her sustenance. Such people are called as poverty ridden or people living below poverty line. When a larger section of the people in an economy is deprived of these basic necessities that economy is said to be in mass poverty. During 1999-2000, approximately 26 crore people in India were reported to be poverty ridden.

Question 11.
Explain any four causes of poverty.
Answer:
Four causes of poverty are-
(i) Unemployment-When With the increase in population, employment opporhihities does not grow at the same rate, it results in poverty

(ii) Social factors-Social factors like illiteracy, ignorance; fatalism and joint family system have stopped from adopting modem ideas and techniques so that they could not increase their income.

(iii) Underutilised natural resources-The resources have not been, fully utilised. The bulk of our resources are still lying unused.

(iv) Backward agriculture-There is lack of basic facilities like water, fertiliser, pesticides etc. The productivity is low’and Indian farmer remains poor.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Question 12.
Explain structural aitd cyclical unemployment. Give one example of each.
Answer:
Structural unemployment-If in an economy, there is no capital or resources to provide employment to all the labour force that situation is referred to as structural unemployment. The nature of unemployment in India is parly structural. “India does not have sufficient capital to employ labourers working in agriculture. Cyclical unemployment-When there is unemployment due to shortage of demand for %oods, it is referred to as cyclical unemployment. It generally occurs in capitalist countries.

Question 13.
Explain any two measures undertaken by government to alleviate poverty in rural India.
Answer:
Programmes started by government to alleviate poverty in rural/ areas are as follows –
(i) Swaranjayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana-The objective of the programme is to help the existing poor families to come above the poverty line. It is actually a sponsored scheme and is in operation in all – the development blocks of the country since 1980. Under it families below poverty line are provided financial assistance.

The objectives of the programme is, to give employment, to those, men and women who do not get sufficient days of employment in rural areas. This programme aims at creation of community assets such as Social forestry/ soil conservation, minor irrigation projects, and renovation of village wells, rural roads, schools etc.

Question 14.
What are the methods to measure poverty* line?
Answer:
Methods to measure poverty line-
(i) Expenditure method-Firstly, for each person the minimum nutritional food requirement for survival is measured. Then it is converted into equivalent money value i.e. rupees. Apart from food, money required for other items is also added into it. This total equivalent amount is considered as poverty line. An those families which spend less than the poverty line, are considered as below poverty line families.

(ii) Income method-In this method, all those families whose total income in a month is less than foe poverty line as fixed- by the government are considered to be belowpoverty line.families.

Question 15.
How did government table problems of poverty in foe initial stages of economic planning.
Answer:
In the initial, stages of. economic of poverty from four dimensions, as given below—
(i) The government believed that efforts towards developing foe heavy industries and green revolution would create employment opportunities and incomes, which would lead to rapid economic development
(ii) Several land reform measures such as abolition of zamindari system, security of tenant farmers against eviction, fixation of rents, ceilings on land holdings and distribution of surplus land etc.
(iii) Small scale and cottage industries were encouraged.
(iv) An attempt was made to reduce gap between rich and poor through income and wealth redistribution.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Question 16.
Explain social exclusion concept of poverty.
Answer:
According to this concept, poverty must bee seen in terms of the poor having to -live only in a poor surroundings with other poor people, excluded from enjoying social equality of better off people in better surroundings. Social exclusion can be both a cause as well as a consequence of poverty in foe usual sense. Broadly, it is a process-through which individuals or groups are excluded from facilities, benefits and opportunities that others enjoy.

Question 17.
What is vulnerability ?
Or
Explain the concept of vulnerability.
Answer:
Vulnerability to poverty is a measure which describes the greater probability of certain communities or individuals of becoming or remaining poor in the coming years. Vulnerability is determined by the finding an alternative living in terms ojf assets, education, health and job opportunities. Further it is analysed on the basis of greater risks these groups face at the time of natural disasters. Additional analysis is made of their social and economic ability to handle these risks.

Question 18.
How indebtedness of farmers is responsible for poverty ?
Or
How indebtedness of fanners is both the cause and effect of poverty ?
Answer:
Small farmers need money to buy agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizer, pesticides etc. Since poor people hardly have any savings, they borrow from money- 7 lenders. Money-lenders give them loan at very high interest rates. Therefore, they are unable to repay these’ loans because of poverty. They become victims, of indebtedness. So the high level of indebtedness is both the cause and effect of poverty.

HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge

Question 19.
Examine the causes of poverty and explain any three measures adopted to remove poverty in India. r
Answer:
Causes of poverty-
(i) Britishers adopted the policy to discourage traditional industries. This has left millions of weavers poor.
(ii) Excessive dependency on agriculture has resulted in low ievel of income for the rural masses.
(iii) Majority of the rural poor do not have enough land and machinery. They are mostly landless labourers and people without work.
(iv) Social factors like illiteracy, large size of family, law of inheritance and caste system are also responsible for prevalence of poverty ridden people.

Poverty alleviation programmes-
(i) Swarnajayanti Grain Swarojgar Yojana-It is a centrally sponsored scheme which is in operation since 1980. It provides financial assistance to rural poor.

(ii) JawaharGram Samriddhi Yojana-Its objective is to generate employment for those men and women who do not get sufficient days, of employment in rural areas.

(iii) Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana and Swarnajayanti Shahari Rojgar Yojana-These schemes are aimed at the welfare of the educated unemployed in urban areas. It aims to provide self employment to the educated unemployed in the age group of 18 to 35, particularly, in the urban areas. Employment Assurance Scheme and Pradhanmantri Gramodaya Yojana were launched in 1999 and 2000-01.

Some Important Facts

1. Poverty-It is a situation in which a person is unable to get minimum basic necessities of life.
2. Poverty line-It is the minimum requirement for basic necessities.

HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

Haryana State Board HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Haryana Board 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

HBSE 12th Class English Deep Water Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
How does Douglas make clear to the reader the sense of panic that gripped him as he almost drowned? Describe the details that have made the description vivid. (डगलस ने पाठकों को किस प्रकार अपने भय की वह भावना स्पष्ट की जिसने उसे उस समय जकड़ लिया जब वह लगभग डूब गया था ? उस विस्तार का वर्णन करो जो इसे स्पष्ट बनाता है।)
Or
Narrate briefly the writer’s emotions and fears when he was thrown into the pool ? What plans did he make to come to the surface ? (लेखक की भावनाओं और उसके भयों का वर्णन करो जब उसे पानी में फेंक दिया गया ? उसने सतह पर आने के लिए क्या योजनाएँ बनाई ?)
Answer:
Douglas was alone at the pool. He sat at the edge of the pool. He could not imagine what was going to happen to him. Suddenly a big boy came and threw him into the pool. He landed at the bottom of the pool in its deepest part. Douglas was greatly frightened. But still he had not lost his presence of mind. He was planned to touch the bottom of the pool with his feet and jump upwards. He thought that he then swim on the surface of the water towards the edge of the pool. But it took a long time going down. The nine feet appeared to be more than ninety. His feet touched the bottom.

As planned, he hit the bottom with his feet and started coming up. But he was coming up very slowly. He opened his eyes and saw nothing but water. He grew panicky. It appeared to him as if a great force was pulling him down. His leg seemed to be paralyzed. He made another jump upwards. But that made no difference. He thought that he was going to die. He called for help, but nothing happened. When he came to his senses, he was lying beside the pool, vomiting. Someone had saved him from drowning.

(डगलस ताल के पास अकेला था। वह ताल के किनारे पर बैठा था। वह इस बात की कल्पना नहीं कर सकता था कि उसके साथ क्या होने जा रहा था। अचानक ही एक बड़ा लड़का आया और उसे ताल में फेंक दिया। वह तालाब के सबसे गहरे सिरे में ताल के तल पर जा गिरा। डगलस बहुत अधिक डर गया था। लेकिन फिर भी उसने अपनी बुद्धि को नहीं खोया था। वह नीचे जा रहा था, उसने योजना बनाई कि जब वह अपने पैरों के साथ ताल के तल को स्पर्श करेगा तो वह ऊपर की ओर छलाँग लगाएगा। उसने सोचा कि वह पानी से बाहर आ जाएगा। तब वह पानी की सतह पर तैर कर ताल के सिरे तक आ जाएगा।

लेकिन नीचे जाने में काफी समय लगा। नौं फुट, नब्बे फुट से भी गहरे प्रतीत हो रहे थे। उसके पैरों ने तल को स्पर्श किया। योजना के अनुसार, उसने अपने पैरों के साथ तल पर प्रहार किया और ऊपर आना शुरू कर दिया। लेकिन वह बहुत धीरे-धीरे ऊपर आ रहा था। उसने अपनी आँखें खोली और उसे पानी के सिवाय और कुछ भी दिखाई नहीं दिया। वह भयभीत हो गया। उसे ऐसा लगा कि कोई बहुत बड़ी ताकत उसे नीचे की ओर खींच रही थी। उसकी टाँगें सुन्न हो गई थीं। उसने ऊपर की ओर एक और छलाँग लगाई। लेकिन उससे भी कोई फर्क नहीं पड़ा। उसने सोचा कि अब वह मर जाएगा। वह मदद के लिए चिल्लाया लेकिन कुछ भी नहीं हुआ। जब उसे होश आया, तो वह ताल के पास में पड़ा हुआ उल्टियाँ कर रहा था। किसी ने उसे डूबने से बचा लिया था।)

HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

Question 2.
How did Douglas overcome his fear of water? [H.B.S.E. 2017 (Set-A)] (डगलस ने पानी के प्रति अपने भय पर किस प्रकार काबू पाया ?)
Answer:
After that incident, a haunting fear remained in his heart. He never went back to the pool. He feared water and tried to avoid it. The fear of water remained with him as years rolled by. He tried his best to overcome this fear but it remained with him. Finally, one October, he got an instructor. With him he practiced for five days a week. The instructor taught him step by step how to swim. He taught him how to put his face under water and exhale. And then how to raise his nose and inhale. He repeated the exercises hundreds of time.

Still, he wondered whether he would be terrified when he would be alone in a pool. In order to overcome his fear, the author went to Lake Wentworth in New Hampshire. He dived off a dock at Triggs Island. He swam two miles across the lake to Stamp Act Island. Only once he felt some fear when he was in the middle of the lake. But soon he overcame that fear. Then he swam back. He shouted with joy. Thus finally, he was able to conquer his fear of water and swimming.

(उस दुर्घटना के पश्चात्, उसके मन में डर रहने लगा। वह फिर कभी ताल पर नहीं गया। वह पानी से डरता था और उससे दूर रहने का प्रयास करता था। जैसे-जैसे वर्ष बीतते गए उसके अंदर पानी का डर उसी प्रकार से बना रहा। उसने अपने डर के ऊपर काबू पाने का पूरा प्रयास किया लेकिन यह डर उसके अंदर बना ही रहा। अंततः एक अक्तूबर मास में उसे एक प्रशिक्षक मिला। उसके साथ उसने सप्ताह में पाँच दिन अभ्यास किया। प्रशिक्षक ने उसे क्रमवार सिखाया कि कैसे तैरा जाता है। उसने उसे बताया कि पानी के अन्दर मुँह से कैसे साँस छोड़ना है। और फिर कैसे अपनी नाक ऊपर करके साँस लेना है।

उसने इन अभ्यासों को सैंकड़ों बार दोहराया। फिर भी वह हैरान था कि जब कभी वह ताल में अकेला होगा तो उसे फिर भी डर लगेगा। अपने डर पर विजय हासिल करने के उद्देश्य से, लेखक न्यू हैम्पशायर में वेंटवर्थ झील पर गया। उसने एक डॉक से ट्रिग्स आइलैंड पर छलाँग लगा दी। वह झील में स्टैम्प एक्ट आइलैंड तक दो मील तक तैरता रहा। केवल एक बार उसे कुछ डर लगा। जब वह झील के मध्य में था। लेकिन शीघ्र ही उसने उस डर पर विजय हासिल कर ली। तब वह तैर कर वापस आया। वह खुशी से चिल्ला उठा। इस तरह अंततः वह पानी से भय और तैराकी पर विजय हासिल करने में सफल रहा।)

Question 3.
Why does Douglas as an adult recount a childhood experience of terror and his conquering of it? What larger meaning does he draw from this experience? (वयस्क होने पर डगलस अपने बचपन के भय के अनुभव और उस पर काबू पाने का वर्णन क्यों करता है ? वह इस अनुभव से क्या वृहत अर्थ निकालता है ?)
Answer:
In ‘Deep Water’, Douglas recounts a childhood experience of terror. He was almost drowned in a pool. Douglas also tells us about his determination to overcome his fear of water. When he was a boy, one day William Douglas went to a swimming pool. He sat at the edge of the pool. Suddenly a muscular boy came and threw him into the pool. Douglas was nearly drowned in the water. That incident created a fear of water in him.

That fear remained with him till he grew up. Then he decided to overcome that fear. He made determined efforts and learnt swimming. In the end, he was able to overcome his fear of water and swimming. This experience has a symbolic meaning. Douglas wants to convey the idea those persons can appreciate an experience who have gone through it. Secondly his experience tells us that with determination we can overcome our fears.

The fear of water was created in Douglas’ mind after a boyhood experience. One day a big boy threw him into a swimming pool. He was nearly drowned. That fear remained with him as he grew up. Finally he made up his mind to get rid of that fear. He got a swimming instructor. He taught Douglas how to swim. Still he was not fully free from fear. Then one day, he went to Lake Wentworth in New Hampshire.

He dived off a dock at Triggs Island. He swam two miles across the lake to Stamp Act Island. Only once he felt some fear when he was in the middle of the lake. But soon he overcame that fear. Then he swam back. He shouted with joy. Thus finally, he was able to conquer his fear of water and swimming.

(‘डीप वॉटर’ अध्याय में डगलस बचपन की अति आतंकित करने वाली बचपन की एक घटना याद करता है। वह एक ताल में लगभग डूब ही गया था। डगलस हमें पानी से लगने वाले डर पर विजय पाने के अपने दृढ़ निश्चय के बारे में बताता है। जब वह एक लड़का था, एक दिन विलियम डगलस एक तरणताल पर गया। वह ताल के किनारे पर बैठा था। अचानक ही एक हृष्ट-पुष्ट लड़का आया और उसने डगलस को पानी में फेंक दिया। डगलस पानी में लगभग डूब ही चुका था। इस घटना ने उसके अंदर भय पैदा कर दिया। यह भय उसके अंदर बड़ा होने तक भी बना रहा। तब उसने इस डर पर विजय हासिल करने का निर्णय लिया। उसने दृढ़-निश्चय भरे प्रयास किए और तैरना सीख लिया। अंत में, वह पानी और तैराकी से लगने वाले डर पर काबू पाने में सफल रहा।

इस अनुभव का एक सांकेतिक अर्थ है। डगलस इस विचार को प्रसारित करना चाहता है कि जो लोग किसी अनुभव से गुजरते हैं वे लोग ही उस अनुभव की प्रशंसा कर सकते हैं। दूसरी बात यह अनुभव हमें बताता है कि दृढ़-निश्चय के साथ हम अपने डर पर काबू पा सकते हैं। पानी से डर लगने की बात डगलस के मन में बचपन के एक अनुभव के बाद पैदा हुई थी। एक दिन एक बड़े लड़के ने उसको एक तरणताल में फेंक दिया। वह लगभग डूब ही चुका था। यह डर उसके अन्दर तब भी बना रहा जब वह बड़ा हो गया। आखिरकार उसने इस डर से छुटकारा पाने का निर्णय कर लिया। वह एक तैराकी प्रशिक्षक से मिला। उसने डगलस को तैरना सिखाया, लेकिन अभी भी वह पूरी तरह डर से मुक्त नहीं हुआ था। तब एक दिन वह न्यू हैम्पशायर में वेंटवर्थ लेक पर गया। वहाँ उसने एक डॉक से ट्रिग्स आइलैंड पर छलाँग लगा दी। वह स्टैम्प एक्ट आइलैंड तक दो मील तक झील में तैर कर गया। केवल एक बार उसे डर लगा जब वह झील के मध्य में था। लेकिन शीघ्र ही उसने उस डर पर काबू पा लिया। तब वह तैर कर वापस आया। वह खुशी से चिल्ला उठा। अंततः वह पानी और तैराकी से डर पर काबू पाने में सफल रहा।)

HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

Think As You Read

Question 1.
What is the “misadventure” that William Douglas speaks about? (विलियम डगलस किस “दुर्घटना” का वर्णन करता है ?) [H.B.S.E. 2017 (Set-C)]
Answer:
When he was a boy, William Douglas went to the YMCA swimming pool. He was alone there. Just then a big boy came there. He was physically stronger than the author. He picked up the author and threw him into the deep end of the pool. William Douglas went at once to the bottom of the pool. He feared that he would be drowned. However, some people saved him. This is the misadventure, he speaks about.

(जब विलियम डगलस एक बालक था, तो वह YMCA के तरणताल गया। वह वहाँ अकेला था। तभी वहाँ एक बहुत बड़ा लड़का आया। वह लेखक की तुलना में शारीरिक रूप से अधिक शक्तिशाली था। उसने लेखक को ऊपर उठाया और ताल के गहरे वाले सिरे में फेंक दिया। विलियम डगलस एकदम से ताल के गहरे तल में चला गया। वह भयभीत था कि वह डूब जाएगा। हालाँकि कुछ लोगों ने उसे बचा लिया। यह वही दुर्घटना है, जिसके बारे में वह बात कर रहा है।)

Question 2.
What were the series of emotions and fears that Douglas experienced when he was thrown into the pool? What plans did he make to come to the surface?
(जब डगलस को ताल में फेंक दिया गया तो उसने किन भावनाओं एवं भय का अनुभव किया ? उसने सतह पर आने के लिए क्या योजनाएँ बनाईं ?)
Answer:
A big boy threw Douglas into the pool. He landed in a sitting position at the bottom. He was frightened. But he did not lose heart. He planned that as soon as his feet touched the bottom, he would make a big jump upwards. It would bring him to the surface. He would float on the surface and then would paddle to the edge of the pool.

(एक बड़े लड़के ने डगलस को ताल में फेंक दिया। वह तल पर बैठने की स्थिति में पहुँच गया। वह डरा हुआ था। लेकिन उसने हिम्मत नहीं हारी। उसने योजना बना ली थी कि जैसे ही उसके पाँव तल को छूएँगे, तो वह ऊपर की ओर एक बड़ी छलाँग लगाएगा। इससे वह सतह पर आ जाएगा। वह सतह के ऊपर तैर जाएगा और वहाँ से तैरते हुए वह ताल के किनारे तक पहुंच जाएगा।)

Question 3.
How did this experience affect him? [H.B.S.E. March, 2018 (Set-A)] (इस अनुभव ने उसे किस प्रकार प्रभावित किया ?)
Or
Mention any two long term consequences of the drowing incident on Douglas. (डगलस पर डूबने की घटना के किसी भी दो दीर्घावधिक परिणामों का उल्लेख करें।) [H.B.S.E. 2019 (Set-D)]
Answer:
Douglas was nearly drowned in the swimming pool. This experience greatly affected him. He was afraid of water. He never went back to the pool. He tried to avoid it whenever he could. Whenever he tried to swim, the memory of that painful experience came back to him. His fear would return. Then he started trembling and his legs were paralyzed.

(डगलस तरणताल में लगभग डूब ही चुका था। उसके इस अनुभव ने उसको बुरी तरह प्रभावित किया। उसे पानी से डर लगने लगा। वह फिर कभी ताल पर नहीं गया। जब भी कभी मौका होता था तो वह वहाँ जाने से बचता था। जब कभी वह तैरने का प्रयास करता था तो उस भयानक अनुभव की यादें उसे ताजा हो जाती थीं। उसका डर लौट आता था। तब वह काँपने लग जाता था और जैसे उसकी टाँगें तो सुन्न हो जाती थीं।)

Question 4.
Why was Douglas determined to get over his fear of water? [H.B.S.E. 2017, 2018 (Set-B)] (डगलस पानी के प्रति अपने भय पर काबू पाने के लिए दृढ़ संकल्प क्यों था ?)
Answer:
In his boyhood, Douglas was nearly drowned in a pool. That incident created in him a fear of water. This fear stayed with him as the years rolled by. That fear ruined his joy of boating, fishing and swimming. So he was determined to get rid of this fear of water.

(बचपन में, डगलस एक ताल में लगभग डूब ही गया था। उस घटना ने उसके मन में पानी के प्रति एक भय पैदा कर दिया था। जैसे-जैसे साल बीतते गए उसका डर उसके साथ बना रहा। उस डर ने उसके नौका चालन करने, मछली पकड़ने और तैरने का मजा लेने को समाप्त कर दिया था। इसलिए उसने पानी के डर से मुक्ति पाने का पक्का निश्चय कर लिया था।)

Question 5.
How did the instructor “build a swimmer” out of Douglas? (प्रशिक्षक ने डगलस को किस प्रकार तैराक बना दिया ?) Or What special method did the instructor use to teach the writer (Douglas) to swim? (प्रशिक्षक ने लेखक (डगलस) को तैराकी सिखाने के लिए कौन-सा तरीका अपनाया?) [H.B.S.E. 2020 (Set-B)]
Answer:
Douglas got an instructor to teach him how to swim. The instructor put a belt around him. A rope was attached to this belt. It went through a pulley that ran on an overhead cable. Thus Douglas was able to go back and forth across the pool. He was taught to put his face under water and exhale and to raise his nose and exhale. Gradually Douglas shed his fear of water. In this way the instructor built a swimmer out of Douglas.

(डगलस को तैराकी सिखाने वाला एक प्रशिक्षक मिला। प्रशिक्षक ने उसके चारों ओर एक बेल्ट बाँध दी। उसकी बेल्ट से एक रस्सी बंधी हुई थी। यह एक पुली से होकर ऊपर बंधी केबल तक जाती थी। इस तरह से डगलस ताल में अंदर-बाहर जाता रहा और पुल को पार करने लायक हो गया। उसे पानी के अन्दर मुँह डालकर साँस छोड़ना और नाक ऊपर उठाकर साँस लेना सिखाया गया। धीरे-धीरे डगलस का पानी के प्रति भय समाप्त हो गया। इस तरह से प्रशिक्षण ने डगलस को एक तैराक के रूप में तैयार कर दिया।)

HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

Question 6.
How did Douglas make sure that he conquered his old terror? (डगलस ने यह किस प्रकार सुनिश्चित किया कि उसने अपने पुराने भय पर काबू पा लिया है?) Or Why did Douglas go to Lake Wentworth in New Hampshire?[H.B.S.E.2019 (Set-A), 2020 (Set-D)] (डगलस न्यू हैम्पशायर में लेक वेटवर्थ पर क्यों गया?)
Answer:
Douglas learnt how to swim. But whenever he was alone in the pool, the memories of the old terror were revived. He was still not fully confident. He wanted to make sure that he was free from fear. For this purpose, he went to Lake Wentworth. There he dived off a dock at Triggs Island. He swam for two miles. In this way he conquered his fear of water.

(डगलस ने तैरना सीख लिया। लेकिन जब कभी वह ताल में अकेला होता था, तो पुराने वाले भय की यादें ताजा हो जाती थीं। वह अभी भी पूरी तरह से विश्वास से भरा हुआ नहीं था। वह इस बात का यकीन करना चाहता था कि वह भय से मुक्त था। इस लक्ष्य को लेकर वह वेंटवर्थ झील पर गया। वहाँ उसने ट्रिग्स आइलैंड पर डॉक से छलाँग लगा दी। वह दो मील तक तैरता रहा। इस तरह से उसने अपने भय पर विजय हासिल कर ली।)

Talking About The Text

Question 1.
“All we have to fear is fear itself.” Have you ever had a fear that you have now overcome? Share your experience with your partner. (“हमें जिससे डरना है वह केवल डर है।” क्या आपको कभी कोई भय हुआ है, जिस पर आपने काबू पा लिया है ? अपने अनुभव को अपने मित्र के साथ बांटिए।)
Answer:
Roosevelt rightly said, “All we have to fear is fear itself.” These words have a deeper meaning. Often some fears remain with us for a long time. But if we take courage and face them, we find that most of our fears are baseless. As a child, I was afraid of darkness and ghosts. I had often heard the stories that there are ghosts in the darkness. As a result, I could not sleep in the darkness. My parents tried their best to remove that fear. As the years passed, I was able to sleep in the dark in the presence of others. But I could never sleep alone in a dark room.

One day, my parents had to go to Delhi because of the death of some relative. I could not go as my exams were to start the next day. They told me that they would come the next day and I would have to remain alone. As the night came, my fear of the dark returned. I slept in my room with the lights on. But at about midnight, the lights went off and I woke up. I started trembling with fear. I looked out of the window.

There was a tree in our courtyard. I saw something white on it. I thought that it was a ghost. I tried to cry, but could not. I kept trembling for the whole night. As the day dawned, I looked out of the window again. There was a white shirt on the tree. It had been flown into the tree by the wind. I laughed at my folly. After that I was determined to overcome that fear. I started sleeping with lights off. At first, I felt fear. But with the passage of time, I was able to overcome that fear.

(रूजवेल्ट ने ठीक कहा था, “हमें जिससे डरना है वह केवल डर है।” इन शब्दों का एक बहुत गहरा अर्थ है। प्रायः कुछ डर एक लंबे समय तक हमारे अंदर बने रहते हैं। लेकिन यदि हम हिम्मत दिखाते हैं और उनका सामना करते हैं, तो हम पाते हैं कि हमारे अधिकतर डर आधारहीन होते हैं। जब मैं बच्चा था, तो मुझे भी अंधेरे और भूतों से डर लगता था। मैने हमेशा ऐसी कहानियाँ सुनी थीं कि अंधेरे में भूत होते हैं। फलस्वरूप, मैं अंधेरे में नहीं सो सकता था।

मेरे माता-पिता ने इस डर को दूर करने का पूरा प्रयास किया। जैसे-जैसे साल बीतते गए, तो मैं दूसरे लोगों के साथ में अंधेरे में सोने लग गया था। लेकिन मैं कभी भी अकेला अंधेरे कमरे में नहीं सो सकता था। एक दिन किसी रिश्तेदार की मृत्यु हो जाने की वजह से मेरे माता-पिता को दिल्ली जाना पड़ा।

लेकिन मैं नहीं जा सकता था क्योंकि अगले दिन मेरी परीक्षा शुरू होनी थी। उन्होंने मुझे बताया कि वे अगले दिन आएँगे और मुझे अकेले रहना होगा। जैसे ही रात हुई, तो अंधेरे से लगने वाला डर मुझ में लौट आया। मैं अपने कमरे में लाइट जगाकर सो गया। परन्तु लगभग आधी रात को लाइट चली गई और मैं उठ गया। मैं डर के मारे काँपने लगा। मैंने खिड़की में से बाहर देखा। हमारे आँगन में एक पेड़ था। मैंने उस पेड़ पर कोई सफेद-सी चीज देखी। मैंने सोचा कि वह भूत था।

मैंने चीखने का प्रयास किया, लेकिन चीख नहीं पाया। मैं सारी रात काँपता रहा। जब दिन निकला, मैंने फिर से खिड़की के बाहर देखा। पेड़ के ऊपर एक सफेद कमीज थी। वह हवा के साथ उड़कर पेड़ में आ अटकी थी। मैं अपनी मूर्खता पर हँसा। उसके बाद से मैंने उस डर पर काबू पाने का दृढ़-निश्चय कर लिया। मैंने लाइटें बंद करके सोना शुरू कर दिया। पहले तो मुझे डर लगता था। लेकिन समय के साथ-साथ, मैं उस डर पर काबू पाने में सफल रहा।)

Question 2.
Find and narrate other stories about conquest of fear and what people have said about courage. For example, you can recall Nelson Mandela’s struggle for freedom, his perseverance to achieve his mission, to liberate the oppressed and the oppressor as depicted in his autobiography. The story We’re Not Afraid To Die, which you have read in Class XI, is an apt example of how courage and optimism that helped a family survive under the direst stress.
(भय पर काबू पाने के बारे में और लोग साहस के बारे में क्या कहते हैं, के बारे में अन्य कहानियाँ ढूंढिए और वर्णन कीजिए। उदाहरण के तौर पर आप नेल्सन मंडेला के आजादी के बारे में संघर्ष, अपने लक्ष्य को पाने के बारे में उसके धैर्य, दलित लोगों को आजाद करवाना आदि जैसा कि उसकी आत्मकथा में लिखा है, का वर्णन कर सकते हैं। कहानी ‘हम मरने से नहीं डरते’ जो तुमने कक्षा 11 में पढ़ी है इस बात का सही उदाहरण है कि किस प्रकार साहस एवं आशा ने एक परिवार को खतरे का सामना करने की हिम्मत दी।)
Answer:
It is said that fortune favours the brave. History is full of stories of human courage and conquest of fear. Brave people as Mahatma Gandhi and Nelson Mandela are two examples of conquest of fear. They both fought against the British for freedom of their countries. Gandhi told the peasants and the common people of India not to fear the British. Fear is the main culprit, he told the people. Himself was fearless. Many a time, he was thrown into the jail. But he never lost courage. In the end, his efforts brought fruit and the British left India.

In the same way, Nelson Mandela fought for the freedom of his country. He was put into jail for demanding freedom for the black people of his country. But he did not lose courage. His courage affected others. The blacks of South Africa became united and rose against the white rulers. Mandela spent all his youth in prison. In the end, he was freed. It was because of his courage and fearlessness that the blacks of South Africa got their rights. In this way, the stories of great men remind us that we should not be afraid. We must shed our fear if we want to forge ahead in life.

(ऐसा कहा जाता है कि भाग्य बहादुरों का साथ देता है। इतिहास मानव के शौर्य और डर पर विजयों की कहानियों से भरा पड़ा है। महात्मा गाँधी और नेल्सन मंडेला डर पर विजय पाने वाले बहादुर लोगों के दो उदाहरण हैं। वे अपने देशों की स्वतंत्रता के लिए अंग्रेजों के साथ लड़े। गाँधी ने किसानों और भारत के जन साधारण से कहा कि वे अंग्रेजों से न डरें। उन्होंने लोगों को बताया कि मुख्य अपराधी डर है। वह स्वयं भी निडर था। उसको कई बार जेल में डाला गया। लेकिन उसने कभी भी हिम्मत नहीं हारी। अंत में, उनके प्रयास सफल रहे और अंग्रेज भारत को छोड़कर चले गए।

इसी तरह से, नेल्सन मंडेला भी अपने देश की स्वतंत्रता के लिए लड़े। अपने देश के काले लोगों की स्वतंत्रता की माँग करने के कारण उन्हें जेल में डाल दिया गया। लेकिन उसने हिम्मत नहीं हारी। उसके साहस ने दूसरों को प्रभावित किया। दक्षिण अफ्रीका के अश्वेत लोग संगठित हो गए और श्वेत शासकों के खिलाफ उठ खड़े हुए। मंडेला ने अपनी सारी जवानी जेल में बिता दी। अंत में, उसे स्वतंत्र कर दिया गया। यह सिर्फ उसके साहस और निडरता की वजह से हुआ कि दक्षिण अफ्रीका के अश्वत लोगों को उनके अधिकार मिल सकें। इस तरह से महान् लोगों की कहानियाँ हमें याद दिलाती हैं कि हमें डरना नहीं चाहिए। हमें अपने डर को दूर भगा देना चाहिए यदि हम जीवन में आगे बढ़ना चाहते हैं।)

HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

Thinking About Language

Question 1.
If someone else had narrated Douglas’s experience, how would it have different from this account? Write out a sample paragraph or paragraphs from this text from the point of view of a third person or observer, to find out which style of narration would you consider to be more effective? Why? (अगर डगलस के अनुभव का वर्णन कोई अन्य व्यक्ति करता तो वह उसके स्वयं के वर्णन से कैसे अलग होता ? तीसरे व्यक्ति या पर्यवेक्षक के दृष्टिकोण से एक या अधिक गद्यांश लिखो ताकि पता लगे कि आप किस वर्णन को अधिक प्रभावशाली 9 ? R ?)
Answer:
If someone else had narrated Douglas’s experience, it would have been in the third person narrative. The first-person narrative is the best form for expressing one’s experiences. Sample Paragraph Douglas was alone at the pool. He sat at the edge of the pool. He could not imagine what was going to happen to him. Suddenly a big boy came and threw him into the pool. He landed at the bottom of the pool in its deepest part. Douglas was greatly frightened.

But still, he had not lost his presence of mind. As he was going down, he planned to touch the bottom of the pool with his feet and jump upwards. But it took a long time going down. The nine feet appeared to be more than ninety. His feet touched the bottom. As planned, he hit the bottom with his feet and started coming up. But he was coming up very slowly. He opened his eyes and saw nothing but water. He grew panicky.

He called for help, but nothing happened. When he came to his senses, he was lying beside the pool, vomiting. Someone had saved him from drowning. That fear remained with him as he grew up. Finally, he made up his mind to get rid of that fear. He got a swimming instructor. He taught Douglas how to swim. Still, he was not fully free from fear. Then one day, he went to Lake Wentworth in New Hampshire.

He dived off a dock at Triggs Island. He swam two miles across the lake to Stamp Act Island. Only once he felt some fear when he was in the middle of the lake. But soon he overcame that fear. Then he swam back. He shouted with joy. Thus finally, he was able to conquer his fear of water and swimming.

Writing
Question 1.
Doing well in any activity, for example, a sport, music, dance or painting, riding a motorcycle or a car, involves a great deal of struggle. Most of us are very nervous to begin with until gradually we overcome our fears and perform well. Write an essay of about five paragraphs recounting such an experience. Try to recollect minute details of what caused the fear, your feelings, the encouragement you got from others or the criticism. You could begin with the last sentence of the essay you have just read: “At last, I felt released-free to walk the trails and climb the peaks and to brush aside fear.”
(किसी भी काम में विलक्षणता दिखाना, उदाहरणतया, खेल, संगीत, नाच या चित्रकला, मोटरसाइकिल या कार चलाना, में बहुत संघर्ष की जरूरत पड़ती है। हममें से अधिकतर आरम्भ में बहुत घबराते हैं मगर धीरे-धीरे हम अपने भय पर काबू पा लेते हैं और सही काम करते हैं। लगभग पाँच गद्यांशों का निबन्ध लिखिए जिसमें ऐसे अनुभव का वर्णन करो। प्रयत्न करो कि उन बातों का गहन वर्णन हो जिनसे आपको भय हुआ, तुम्हारी भावनाएँ, तुम्हें अन्य लोगों से जो प्रोत्साहन या आलोचना मिली। आप इस पाठ के अन्तिम वाक्य से आरम्भ कर सकते हो जो आपने अभी-अभी पढ़ा है।)
Answer:
“At last I felt released-free to walk the trails and climb into peaks and to brush aside fear.” This statement of Douglas fits my experience. When I was in tenth class, I wanted to learn how to drive a scooter. I told my elder brother to teach me scooter driving. He agreed. One Sunday, he took me to the grounds outside the city. He gave me preliminary verbal lessons about the various functions of the scooter.

Then I sat on the seat and he sat behind me. I placed my hands on the handlebars. I drove scooter three or four days with my brother behind me. Then it was time for me to go solo. With a trembling heart, I kicked, started the scooter, and sat on it. My brother encouraged me. I started driving. My heart was trembling with fear, but I drove on. Soon I was at the end of the ground. Then instead of turning back, I went on as I could neither turn back nor apply brakes. I came on the road and suddenly a car came from left. I tried my best, but I was paralyzed. Luckily the car driver slowed down but it collided against my scooter and I was injured. I remained on bed for one week.

Now the fear of driving entered my mind. I gave up the idea of learning how to drive the scooter. But my friends laughed at me and called me a coward. At last I decided that I would have to come out of that fear. I knew the technique. I had only to fight my fear. I started the scooter and immediately came on the road. With great courage I kept driving and avoiding the other vehicles. After about one hour, my fear was gone. I could now drive with confidence.

Question 2.
Write a short letter to someone you know about your having learnt something new. (अपने किसी परिचित को संक्षिप्त पत्र लिखो जिसमें किसी नई चीज़ को सीखने पर अपनी भावनाएँ बताओ।)
Answer:
275 Gandhi Nagar
Pathankot
September 21, ….
My Dear Rishi.

You will be glad to know I have learnt something new. It is paper pulp modeling. For this purpose, I collected small bits of rough paper. I put them down in an earthen pot and covered it them with water. After a few days, the paper pieces became soft. I took them out and beat them into a pulp. Then I added some Multani clay and added more water. Now I kneaded it like dough. It became a fine pulp.

Then I took an earthen vase. I covered it all around with a fine layer of the pulp prepared by me. After it had dried, I cut it out with a knife. I joined the cut edges with fevicol. Then I made it smooth with sandpaper. hite paint on it. Then I painted a picture on it. It became a fine piece of art. Everyone praised my effort. Since then I have made three more such pieces. I will show you my creations when we meet next.

Yours sincerely,
Abhishek Shrivastava

Things To Do

Question 1.
Are there any water sports in India? Find out about the areas or places which are known for water sports. (क्या भारत में पानी के खेल हैं ? ऐसे स्थानों का पता लगाओ जहाँ पर ऐसे खेल होते हैं।)
Answer:
For self-attempt with the help of the teacher.

HBSE 12th Class English Deep Water Important Questions and Answers

Short Answer Type Questions
Answer the following questions in about 20-25 words : 

Question 1.
What did the author’s mother tell him about the Yakima river? (लेखक की माता ने उसे याकीमा नदी के बारे में क्या बताया ?)
Answer:
When he was ten or eleven years old, the author decided to learn how to swim. He could learn swimming in the Yakima River. But his mother forbade him to do so. She told him that the Yakima River was treacherous. She reminded him about the details of each drowning in the river.
(जब लेखक दस या ग्यारह वर्ष का था तो उसने तैराकी सीखने का निर्णय लिया। वह याकीमा नदी में तैराकी सीख सकता था। लेकिन उसकी माँ ने उसे ऐसा करने से मना कर दिया। उसने उसे बताया कि याकीमा नदी खतरनाक है। उसने उसको नदी में डूबने की घटनाओं के बारे में विस्तार से बताया।)

Question 2.
Why did Douglas think that the YMCA pool was safe? [H.B.S.E. 2017 (Set-D)] (डगलस ने ऐसा क्यों सोचा कि YMCA पूल सुरक्षित है ?) Or
When did the writer join the YMCA pool and why? [H.B.S.E. 2020 (Set-A)] (लेखक YMCA ताल से कब और क्यों जुड़ा?)
Answer:
Douglas wanted to learn how to swim. He decided to learn swimming in the YMCA pool. He felt that it was a safe pool. This pool was only two or three feet deep at the shallow end. It was nine feet deep at the other end. But the drop was gradual.
(डगलस तैराकी सीखना चाहता था। उसने YMCA के ताल में तैराकी सीखने का निर्णय लिया। उसने महसूस किया कि वह एक सुरक्षित ताल था। यह ताल उथले सिरों की ओर केवल दो या तीन फुट गहरा था। दूसरे सिरे की ओर यह नौ फुट गहरा था। लेकिन ताल की गहराई धीरे-धीरे बढ़ती थी।)

HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

Question 3.
What misadventure took place when Douglas was ten or eleven years old? (जब डगलस दस या ग्यारह साल का था तो क्या दुर्घटना हुई ?)
Answer:
One day, Douglas went to the Y.M.C.A. swimming pool. He was alone at the pool. He sat at the edge of the pool. Suddenly, a big boy came. He picked up Douglas and threw him into the pool. Douglas landed at the deepest part of the pool. He was nearly drowned in the pool. That incident created a fear of water in him. It took him many years to get rid of that fear.

(एक दिन डगलस YMCA के तरणताल पर गया। वह ताल पर अकेला था। वह ताल के तट पर बैठा था। अचानक ही एक बड़ा लड़का आया। उसने डगलस को ऊपर उठाया और उसको ताल के अन्दर फेंक दिया। डगलस ताल के सबसे अधिक गहरे भाग में गिरा। वह ताल में लगभग डूब ही चुका था। इस घटना ने उसके मन में पानी से भय पैदा कर दिया। इस भय पर काबू पाने में उसे कई साल लग गए।)

Question 4.
When and why did Douglas develop an aversion for water when he was in it? (पानी में होने पर डगलस को कब और क्यों पानी से नफरत हो गई ?)
Answer:
When Douglas was three or four years old, his father took him to the beach in California. They stood together in the surf. Suddenly the waves came and swept over him. He was knocked down. He was frightened. Then Douglas developed aversion for water when he was in it.

(जब डगलस तीन या चार साल का था तो उसका पिता उसे कैलिफोर्निया के समुद्री तट पर ले गया। वे पानी की लहरों से उठने वाली झाग में इकट्ठे खड़े थे। अचानक ही लहरें आई और उसे बहा दिया। लहरों के प्रहार से वह नीचे गिर गया। वह डर गया। इस तरह से डगलस जब भी पानी के अंदर होता था तो उसके मन में पानी के प्रति नफरत पैदा हो गई।)

Question 5.
What did Douglas do when once he went to the swimming pool when no one was there? (जब डगलस स्विमिंग पूल में गया तब वहाँ कोई नहीं था तो उसने क्या किया ?)
Answer:
One day, Douglas went to the Y.M.C.A swimming pool. He found that there was no one there. The water was still and the tiled floor of the swimming pool was clean. He was alone to go into the water alone. So he sat on the side of the pool and waited for others.

(एक दिन डगलस YMCA के तरणताल पर गया। उसने देखा कि वहाँ पर कोई भी नहीं था। पानी शांत था और ताल का पक्का फर्श बिल्कुल साफ था। वह पानी के अन्दर जाने के लिए बिल्कुल अकेला था। इसलिए वह ताल के किनारे बैठकर किसी अन्य के आने का इन्तजार करने लगा।)

Question 6.
What did Douglas plan to do when the big boy threw him into the pool? (जब बड़े लड़के ने उसे पूल में फेंक दिया तो डगलस ने क्या योजना बनाई ?)
Answer:
A big boy threw Douglas into the pool. He was frightened. But he did not lose his presence of mind. He planned that when his feet hit the bottom of the pool, he would make a big jump upwards and come to the surface. Then he would lie flat on the surface for some time. After that he would paddle to the edge of the pool.

(एक बड़े लड़के ने डगलस को ताल के अन्दर फेंक दिया। वह डर गया। लेकिन उसने अपनी बुद्धि को नहीं खोया। उसने योजना बनाई कि जैसे ही उसके पाँव ताल को स्पर्श करेंगे तो वह ऊपर की ओर छलाँग लगाएगा और पानी की सतह पर आ जाएगा। तब वह कुछ समय तक पानी की सतह पर चपटा पड़ा रहेगा। उसके बाद वह तैरते हुए ताल के तट तक आ जाएगा।)

Question 7.
How did Douglas feel when he went down in the water and there was water all around him? (जब डगलस पानी के नीचे गया और उसके चारों तरफ पानी था तो उसने क्या महसूस किया ?)
Answer:
When he was in the water, he opened his eyes. He saw water all around him. He was not coming up quickly. He was seized with terror. He felt that he would die. He started shrieking. But even his screams were frozen in his throat. He felt alive only because he could hear the beating of his heart and the pounding in his head.’
(जब वह पानी के अन्दर था तो उसने अपनी आँखें खोली। उसने अपने चारों ओर पानी देखा। वह तेजी से ऊपर की ओर नहीं आ रहा था। वह डर से भरा हुआ था। उसने महसूस किया कि वह मर जाएगा। उसने चीखना शुरू कर दिया। लेकिन उसकी चीखें भी उसके गले में जमकर रह गई थीं। उसे अपने जिंदा होने का मात्र एहसास हो रहा था क्योंकि वह अपने हृदय तथा सिर की धड़कन को सुन सकता था।)

Question 8.
Who threw Douglas into the swimming pool? [H.B.S.E. 2017 (Set-A)] (डगलस को स्विमिंग पूल में किसने फेंका ?)
Answer:
Douglas was sitting alone at the edge of the swimming pool. He did not want to go into the water alone. Suddenly an eighteen-year-old boy came there. He was strongly built. He had strong muscles on his arms and legs. He called Douglas skinny. Then he lifted Douglas and threw him into the deep end of the pool.

(डगलस तरणताल के तट पर अकेला बैठा था। वह पानी के अन्दर अकेला नहीं जाना चाहता था। अचानक ही एक अठारह वर्ष की आयु का लड़का वहाँ आया। वह मजबूत शरीर वाला था। उसकी बाँहों और टाँगों की माँसपेशियाँ बहुत मजबूत थीं। उसने डगलस को दुबला कहा। तब उसने डगलस को ऊपर उठाया और उसे ताल के गहरे वाले सिरे में फेंक दिया।)

HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

Question 9.
What was Douglas’s condition when he was under water in the pool? . (जब वह पूल में पानी के नीचे था तो डगलस की अवस्था कैसी थी ?)
Answer:
Douglas made a jump upwards. But he was coming very slowly. He opened his eyes. He found only water around him. Once his eyes and nose came out of the water. But then he went down again. He felt suffocating under the water. He tried to bring his legs up. But they seemed lifeless and paralyzed. His lungs ached and his head throbbed. He thought that he was going to die.

(डगलस ने ऊपर की ओर छलाँग लगाई। लेकिन वह बहुत धीरे-धीरे ऊपर आ रहा था। उसने अपनी आँखें खोलीं। उसने अपने चारों ओर केवल पानी ही पानी पाया। एक बार उसकी आँखें और नाक पानी से बाहर आए। लेकिन वह फिर से पानी के नीचे चला गया। पानी के अन्दर उसका दम घुट रहा था। उसने अपनी टाँगों को ऊपर लाने का प्रयास किया। लेकिन वे बेजान और सुन्न प्रतीत हो रही थीं। उसके फेफड़े पीड़ा कर रहे थे तथा सिर धक-धक कर रहा था। उसने सोचा कि वह मर जाएगा।)

Question 10.
What did Douglas do to save himself? Did he succeed? (डगलस ने स्वयं को बचाने के लिए क्या किया ? क्या वह सफल हुआ ?)
Answer:
Douglas was seized with fear. He felt paralyzed. Suddenly, an idea came to him. He planned to make a jump when his feet touched the bottom. He jumped with all his energy. But the jump made no difference. Now fear seized him. He cried and called for help. But nothing happened.

(डगलस अति भयभीत था। वह सुन्न हो चुका था। अचानक ही उसे एक विचार सूझा। उसने योजना बनाई कि जब उसके पाँव तल को स्पर्श करेंगे तो वह ऊपर की ओर एक छलाँग लगाएगा। उसने अपनी पूरी ताकत के साथ छलाँग लगाई। लेकिन इस छलाँग का कोई असर नहीं पड़ा। अब उसका डर और अधिक बढ़ गया। वह चिल्लाया और मदद के लिए पुकारा। लेकिन कुछ भी नहीं हुआ।)

Question 11.
What did Douglas find when he became conscious? . (जब उसे होश आया तो डगलस ने क्या देखा ?)
Answer:
When Douglas went down for the third time, he felt that he would die. All efforts seized. A blackness swept over him. Now there was no panic. All was quiet and peaceful. He crossed into oblivious. When he came to his senses, he found that he was lying on his stomach by the side of the pool and was vomiting.

(जब डगलस तीसरी बार नीचे गया, तो उसे लगा कि वह मर जाएगा। सारे प्रयास थम चुके थे। उसके ऊपर अंधेरा-छा चुका था। अब कोई भय शेष नहीं बवा था। सब कुछ एक दम से शांत हो चुका था। वह सब कुछ भूल जाने की स्थिति में आ चुका था। जब उसे होश आया तो उसने पाया कि वह ताल के पास में अपने पेट के बल लेटा हुआ पड़ा था और उल्टियां कर रहा था।)

Question 12.
Why did the boy who had thrown him into the pool say in the end? (अन्त में उस लड़के ने क्या कहा जिसने उसे पूल में फेंका था ?)
Answer:
A big boy threw Douglas into the pool. He was nearly drowned in the pool. When he came to his senses, he found the big boy standing by him. He defended himself by saying that he was only ‘fooling’. Someone told him, “The kid nearly died.’
(एक बड़े लड़के ने डगलस को ताल के अन्दर फेंक दिया। वह ताल में लगभग डूब ही चुका था। जब उसे होश आया, तो उसने उस बड़े लड़के को अपने पास खड़े पाया। उसने यह कहते हुए अपना बचाव किया कि वह तो केवल मजाक कर रहा था। किसी ने उसे बताया, “बच्चा तो लगभग मर ही चुका था’।)

Question 13.
How did Douglas feel when he wanted to get into the waters of the Cascades? (जब डगलस जलप्रपातों के पानी में जाना चाहता था तो उसने क्या महसूस किया ?)
Answer:
Douglas’s boyhood misadventure created a fear of water in him. Whenever he wanted to get into the waters of the Cascades or other places, the old fear came back. It would take possession of him completely.
(डगलस की बचपन की दुर्घटना ने उसके अन्दर पानी के प्रति एक भय पैदा कर दिया। वह जब कभी भी झरने या किसी अन्य स्थान पर जल के अन्दर प्रवेश करने का प्रयास करता था, तो वहीं पुराना डर उसके अन्दर लौट आता था। वह डर उसके ऊपर पूरी तरह से काबू पा लेता था।)

HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

Question 14.
How did the fear of water ruin Douglas’s trips and other joys? (पानी के डर ने डगलस की यात्राओं एवं अन्य खुशियों को कैसे बर्बाद कर दिया ?)
Answer:
The fear of water stayed with Douglas as he grew up. Wherever he went, this fear accompanied him. In canoes on the Maine Lakes or fishing for trout and salmon, he always felt the old fear. It ruined his fishing trips. It deprived him of the joys of swimming and boating.
(जब डगलस बड़ा हो गया तो पानी से लगने वाला डर फिर भी उसके अन्दर बना रहा। जब कभी भी वह पानी के पास जाता तो उसका डर भी उसके साथ ही रहता। मेन की झीलों में नौका चालन करने या ट्राउट और सेलमन मछली पकड़ते समय, उसे हमेशा ही पुराने डर का एहसास होता था। उसने उसकी मछली पकड़ने की यात्राओं का मजा ही खो दिया था। इसने उसके तैराकी करने और नौका चालन करने के मजे को भी खो दिया था।)

Question 15.
What did Douglas do get rid of his fear of the water? Did he succeed? (डगलस ने स्वयं को पानी के भय से छुटकारा दिलाने के लिए क्या किया ? क्या वह सफल हुआ ?) Or Where did Douglas finally learn to Swim? [H.B.S.E. March, 2018 (Set-D)] (आखिर डगलस ने तैरना कहाँ सीखा?)
Answer:
Douglas tried his best to overcome his fear of the water. But he did not get much success. Finally, one October, he got an instructor and decided to learn how to swim. He went to a pool and practiced five days a week, an hour each day. Douglas succeeded in overcoming his fear of water. He became a swimmer.
(डगलस ने पानी से लगने वाले डर पर काबू पाने के लिए अपना पूरा प्रयास किया। लेकिन उसे कोई अधिक सफलता नहीं मिली। अंततः ‘एक अक्तूबर मास में’ वह एक प्रशिक्षक से मिला और तैराकी सीखने का निर्णय ले लिया। वह एक ताल पर गया और वहाँ सप्ताह में पाँच दिन और हर दिन एक घंटा अभ्यास करने लगा। डगलस पानी से लगने वाले भय पर काबू पाने में सफल रहा। वह एक तैराक बन गया।)

Question 16.
How did Douglas finally overcome his fear of the water? (आखिर डगलस ने पानी के भय से छुटकारा कैसे पा लिया ?)
Answer:
The instructor made Douglas a perfect swimmer. Yet he was not satisfied. He was not sure whether the fear of water had completely left him. So he went to Lake Wentworth and dived off a dock at Triggs Island. He swam for two hours across the lake. Only once did he feel afraid of the water. But it fled soon and he swam on. In this way, he conquered his fear of the water.
(प्रशिक्षक ने डगलस को एक संपूर्ण तैराक बना दिया। लेकिन फिर भी वह संतुष्ट नहीं था। उसे इस बात का अभी भी पक्का यकीन नहीं था कि उसका पानी से लगने वाला डर पूरी तरह से समाप्त हो चुका था। इसलिए वह वेंटवर्थ लेक पर गया और एक डॉक से ट्रिग्स आइलैंड पर छलाँग लगा दी। वह पूरे दो घंटे तक झील में तैरता रहा। उसे केवल एक बार ही पानी से डर लगा। लेकिन उसका यह डर शीघ्र ही भाग गया और वह तैरता गया। इस तरह से, उसने पानी से लगने वाले भय पर काबू पा लिया।)

Question 17.
What message does Douglas convey in this lesson ? (इस पाठ में डगलस क्या सन्देश देता है ?)
Answer:
Douglas conveys the message that all we have to fear is fear itself. All fears and terrors are only in the mind. A determined man does not feel any fear. Douglas felt fear of water only till he had not made up his mind to get rid of it. Finally, he was able to overcome his fear of the water.
(डगलस हमें संदेश देता है कि हमें जिस चीज से डरना है वह है स्वयं डर। सारे डर और दहशत सिर्फ मन के अन्दर होते हैं। एक दृढ़-निश्चय वाला आदमी किसी भी डर से नहीं डरता। डगलस को पानी से केवल तभी तक डर लगा जब तक कि उसने अपने मन को इस डर से मुक्त कराने का इरादा नहीं कर लिया। अंततः वह अपने इस भय पर काबू पाने में सफल रहा।)

Long Answer Type Questions
Answer the following questions in about 80 words

Question 1.
How did Douglas develop an aversion and then fear of water? How did he overcome his fear of water? [HB.S.E. March, 2019 (Set-A)] (डगलस को पानी के प्रति घृणा और फिर डर कैसे पैदा हो गया ? उसने इस डर पर काबू कैसे पाया ?)
Answer:
Douglas developed an aversion for water when he was only three or four years old. One day his father took him to the California Beach. They stood in the surf. Suddenly a huge wave came and swept over him. He was knocked down. He developed an aversion for water. Then a boyhood ‘misadventure’ changed that aversion into fear. One day when he was ten or eleven years old, he went to the Y.M.C.A. swimming pool.

He sat at the edge of the pool. A big boy came and threw him into the pool. He was nearly drowned in the pool. Now the fear of water seized him. This fear remained with him as he grew up. Finally, he made up his mind to get rid of that fear. He engaged an instructor to teach him how to swim. He practiced swimming one hour daily for fives days a week. The instructor made him a perfect swimmer. Yet the writer was not completely sure that the fear had left him. So he went to Lake Wentworth and dived off a dock at Triggs Island. He swam for two hours across the lake. Only once did he feel afraid of the water. But it fled soon and he swam on. In this way, he conquered his fear of the water.

(जब डगलस केवल तीन या चार साल का था तो उसके मन में पानी के प्रति नफरत पैदा हो गई। एक दिन उसका पिता उसको कैलिफोर्निया के समुद्री तट पर ले गया। वे लहरों के बीच खड़े थे। अचानक ही एक बड़ी लहर आई और उसके ऊपर से बह गई। वह नीचे गिर गया। उसके मन में पानी के प्रति नफरत पैदा हो गई। बालपन की दुर्घटना की यह नफरत डर में बदल गई। एक दिन जब वह दस या ग्यारह वर्ष का था तो वह YMCA के तरणताल पर गया। वह ताल के एक सिरे पर बैठा था। एक बड़ा लड़का आया और उसने उसे ताल के अंदर फेंक दिया। वह ताल के अन्दर लगभग डूब ही चुका था। तब पानी से लगने वाले डर ने उसे जकड़ लिया। यह डर उसके अंदर तब भी बना रहा जब वह बड़ा हुआ। अंततः, उसने उस डर से छुटकारा पाने के लिए अपना मन पक्का कर लिया।

उसने एक प्रशिक्षक की व्यवस्था की जो उसे तैराकी सिखा सके। वह सप्ताह के पाँच दिन हर रोज एक घंटे तक तैराकी का अभ्यास करता था। प्रशिक्षक ने उसको एक संपूर्ण तैराक बना दिया। लेकिन लेखक को इस बात का अभी भी पूरा यकीन नहीं था कि उसका भय उसको छोड़ चुका था। इसलिए वह वेंटवर्थ लेक पर गया और वहाँ एक डॉक के ऊपर से ट्रिग्स आइलैंड पर छलाँग लगा दी। वह दो घंटे तक झील में तैरता रहा। उसे केवल एक बार तो पानी से डर लगा। लेकिन वह डर जल्दी ही भाग गया और वह तैरता रहा। इस तरह से, उसने पानी से लगने वाले अपने डर पर विजय हासिल कर ली।)

Question 2.
Describe the ‘misadventure’ of Douglas and how he survived it. (डगलस की दुर्घटना का वर्णन करो और वह कैसे इससे बचा।) Or What was misadventure at the Y.M.C.A. pool that the writer William Douglas speaks about? (Y.M.C.A. ताल में लेखक विलियम डगलस के साथ क्या घटित हुआ जिसका वह वर्णन करता है?) [2020 (Set-C)]
Answer:
Douglas describes a ‘misadventure’ of his boyhood days. One day, when he was ten or eleven years old, Douglas went to the Y.M.C.A. swimming pool. He was alone there and sat at the edge of the pool. Suddenly a big boy came and threw him into the pool. He landed at the bottom of the pool in its deepest part. Douglas was greatly frightened. But still, he had not lost his presence of mind. He was going down, he planned to touch the bottom of the pool with his feet and jump upwards. He thought that he would come out of the water. He would then swim on the surface of the water towards the edge of the pool. But it took a long time going down.

The nine feet appeared to be more than ninety. His feet touched the bottom. As planned, he hit the bottom with his feet and started coming up. But he was coming up very slowly. He opened his eyes and saw nothing but water. He grew panicky. It appeared to him as if a great force was pulling him down. His leg seemed to be paralyzed. He made another jump upwards. But that made no difference. He thought that he was going to die. He called for help, but nothing happened. When he came to his senses, he was lying beside the pool, vomiting. The boy who had thrown him into the water was standing near. He said that he had only been ‘fooling’ with Douglas.

(डगलस अपने बचपन के दिनों की एक दुर्घटना का वर्णन करता है। एक दिन, जब वह दस या ग्यारह वर्ष की उम्र का था, डगलस YMCA के तरणताल पर गया। वह वहाँ अकेला था और ताल के एक किनारे पर बैठ गया। अचानक ही एक बडा लडका आया और उसने उसे ताल के अन्दर फेंक दिया। वह ताल के सबसे गहरे हिस्से में ताल के तल पर जा गिरा। डगलस बुरी तरह से डर गया था। लेकिन फिर भी उसने अपनी बुद्धि को नहीं खोया था। जब वह नीचे की ओर जा रहा था तो उसने ताल के तल को अपने पैरों से छकर ऊपर की ओर छलाँग लगाने की योजना बनाई। उसने सोचा कि वह पानी से बाहर आ जाएगा।

तब वह पानी की सतह पर तैरकर ताल के सिरे तक आ जाएगा। लेकिन नीचे जाने में उसे बहुत लंबा समय लगा। नौ फुट की दूरी नब्बे फुट से भी अधिक प्रतीत हो रही थी। उसके पाँवों ने तल के छूआ। योजना के अनुसार, उसने अपने पैरों से तल पर प्रहार किया और ऊपर आना शुरू कर दिया। लेकिन वह बहुत ही धीरे-धीरे ऊपर आ रहा था। उसने अपनी आँखें खोली और उसको पानी के सिवाय कुछ भी दिखाई नहीं दिया। वह आतंकित हो गया। उसे ऐसा लगा कि कोई बड़ी ताकत उसे नीचे की ओर खींच रही थी। उसकी टाँगों को मानो लकवा मार गया था। उसने ऊपर की ओर एक और छलाँग लगाई। लेकिन उससे भी कोई फर्क नहीं पड़ा। उसने सोचा कि वह मर रहा था। उसने मदद के लिए आवाज लगाई, लेकिन कुछ नहीं हुआ। जब उसे होश आया, वह ताल के पास में पड़ा हुआ उल्टियाँ कर रहा था। जिस लड़के ने उसे अंदर फेंका था, वह पास में ही खड़ा था। उसने कहा कि वह तो डगलस के साथ सिर्फ मजाक कर रहा था।)

HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

Question 3.
How did the fear of water stay with Douglas as the years rolled by? (समय के बीतने के साथ भी पानी का भय डगलस के साथ किस प्रकार रहा ?)
Answer:
When he was a boy, a misadventure created in him a deep fear of water. Once he went to the Y.M.C.A swimming pool. There, a big boy threw him into the water. He was nearly drowned. But the incident created a fear of water in him. After a few years, he came to know the waters of the Cascades. He wanted to get into them. But whenever he tried to do so, the old fear of water returned. That fear would take possession of him completely. His legs would become paralyzed. The fear of water remained with him for many more years.

It ruined his joy of swimming, fishing or boating. In canoes on Maine Lakes, fishing for salmon, he felt the same old fear. The paralyzing fear came back when he went for bass fishing in New Hampshire or trout fishing on the Deschutes and Metolius in Oregon. The same fear troubled him while fishing for salmon on the Columbia or at Bumping lake in the Cascades. Whenever he went, the haunting fear of water followed him. It deprived him of the joy of canoeing, boating, and swimming.

(जब वह एक लड़का था तो एक दुर्घटना ने उसके अन्दर पानी के प्रति गहरा भय पैदा कर दिया। एक बार वह YMCA के तरणताल पर गया। वहाँ पर एक बड़े लड़के ने उसको पानी के अन्दर फेंक दिया। वह लगभग डूब ही चुका था। लेकिन उस घटना ने उसके अंदर पानी से भय पैदा कर दिया। कुछ वर्षों के पश्चात्, उसे झरनों के जल के बारे में जानकारी मिली। वह झरनों के जल का आनन्द लेना चाहता था। लेकिन जब भी वह ऐसा करने का प्रयास करता था तो उसका पुराना भय फिर से लौट आता था। यह डर पूरी तरह से उसे अपने काबू में कर लेता था। उसकी टाँगें सुन्न हो जाती थीं। पानी से लगने वाला डर उसके अन्दर कई सालों तक बना रहा। इस डर ने उसके तैराकी करने, मछली पकड़ने और नौका चालन से मिलने वाले आनन्द को खो दिया था।

जब वह मेन झीलों में नौका चलाता था या सेलमन मछली पकड़ता था तो उसे उसी पुराने डर का एहसास होता था। उसका वही पुराना डर उसको सुन्न कर देता था जब वह न्यू हैम्पशायर में बास मछली पकड़ने और आरेगन के मेटोलियस, डेस्यूट्स में ट्राउट मछली पकड़ने जाता था। वही पुराना डर उसे उस समय भी कष्ट पहुँचाता था जब वह कोलम्बिया या बम्पिंग लेक के झरनों में सेलमन मछली को पकड़ने जाता था। वह जहाँ भी जाता था, वह आतंकित कर देने वाला भय उसके साथ ही बना रहता था। इस डर ने उसके छोटी नाव चलाने, बड़ी नाव चलाने और तैराकी करने के आनन्द को नष्ट कर दिया था।)

Question 4.
“I still wondered if I would be terror-stricken when I was alone in the pool.” How did Douglas overcome that terror? (“मुझे अभी भी हैरानी थी कि जब मैं पूल में अकेला होऊँगा तो क्या मैं भयभीत होऊँगा।” डगलस ने उस डर पर काबू कैसे पाया ?)
Answer:
Douglas developed an aversion for water when he was only three or four years old. One day his father took him to the California Beach. They stood in the surf. Suddenly a huge wave came and swept over him. He was knocked down. He developed an aversion for water. Then a boyhood ‘misadventure’ changed that aversion into fear. One day when he was ten or eleven years old, he went to the Y.M.C.A. swimming pool.

He sat at the edge of the pool. A big boy came and threw him into the pool. He was nearly drowned in the pool. Now the fear of water seized him. This fear remained with him as he grew up. Finally, he made up his mind to get rid of that fear. He engaged an instructor to teach him how to swim. He practiced swimming one hour daily for fives days a week. The instructor made him a perfect swimmer. Yet the writer was not completely sure that the fear had left him. So he went to Lake Wentworth and dived off a dock at Triggs Island. He swam for two hours across the lake. Only once did he feel afraid of the water. But it fled soon and he swam on. In this way, he conquered his fear of the water.

(जब डगलस केवल तीन या चार साल का था तो उसके मन में पानी के प्रति नफरत पैदा हो गई। एक दिन उसका पिता उसको कैलिफोर्निया के समुद्री तट पर ले गया। वे लहरों के बीच खड़े थे। अचानक ही एक बड़ी लहर आई और उसके ऊपर से बह गई। वह नीचे गिर गया। उसके मन में पानी के प्रति नफरत पैदा हो गई। बालपन की दुर्घटना की यह नफरत डर में बदल गई। एक दिन जब वह दस या ग्यारह वर्ष का था तो वह YMCA के तरणताल पर गया। वह ताल के एक सिरे पर बैठा था। एक बड़ा लड़का आया और उसने उसे ताल के अंदर फेंक दिया। वह ताल के अन्दर लगभग डूब ही चुका था। तब पानी से लगने वाले डर ने उसे जकड़ लिया। यह डर उसके अंदर तब भी बना रहा जब वह बड़ा हुआ। अंततः, उसने उस डर से छुटकारा पाने के लिए अपना मन पक्का कर लिया।

उसने एक प्रशिक्षक की व्यवस्था की जो उसे तैराकी सिखा सके। वह सप्ताह के पाँच दिन हर रोज एक घंटे तक तैराकी का अभ्यास करता था। प्रशिक्षक ने उसको एक संपूर्ण तैराक बना दिया। लेकिन लेखक को इस बात का अभी भी पूरा यकीन नहीं था कि उसका भय उसको छोड़ चुका था। इसलिए वह वेंटवर्थ लेक पर गया और वहाँ एक डॉक के ऊपर से ट्रिग्स आइलैंड पर छलाँग लगा दी। वह दो घंटे तक झील में तैरता रहा। उसे केवल एक बार तो पानी से डर लगा। लेकिन वह डर जल्दी ही भाग गया और वह तैरता रहा। इस तरह से, उसने पानी से लगने वाले अपने डर पर विजय हासिल कर ली।)

Question 5.
What message does Douglas want to convey? (डगलस क्या सन्देश देना चाहता है ?)
Or
What is the theme of the lesson ‘Deep Water’? (‘डीप वाटर’ पाठ का विषय क्या है ?)
Answer:
In ‘Deep Water’, Douglas recounts a childhood experience of terror. He was almost drowned in a pool. Douglas also tells us about his determination to overcome his fear of water. When he was a boy, one day William Douglas went to a swimming pool. He sat at the edge of the pool. Suddenly a muscular boy came and threw him into the pool. Douglas was nearly drowned in the water. That incident created a fear of water in him. That fear remained with him till he grew up. Then he decided to overcome that fear.

He made determined efforts and learnt swimming. He engaged an instructor to teach him swimming. Finally, he went alone to Lake Wentworth and dived off a dock at Triggs Island. He swam for two hours across the lake. Only once did he feel afraid of the water. But it fled soon and he swam on. In the end, he was able to overcome his fear of water and swimming. This experience has a symbolic meaning. Douglas wants to convey the idea those persons can appreciate an experience who have gone through it. Secondly, his experience tells us that with determination we can overcome our fears.
(‘डीप वॉटर’ अध्याय में, डगलस बचपन के एक आतंकित कर देने वाले अनुभव का वर्णन करता है। वह एक ताल में लगभग डूबने ही वाला था। डगलस हमें अपने पानी से लगने वाले डर पर विजय हासिल करने के निश्चय के बारे में भी बताता है। जब विलियम डगलस एक लड़का था तो एक दिन वह एक तरणताल पर गया। वह ताल के किनारे पर बैठा था। अचानक ही एक हृष्ट-पुष्ट लड़का आया और उसने उसे ताल के अन्दर फेंक दिया। डगलस पानी में डूबते-डूबते ही बचा। इस घटना ने उसके अन्दर पानी के प्रति भय पैदा कर दिया। यह भय उसके अन्दर बड़ा होने तक भी बना रहा।

तब उसने उस डर पर काबू पाने का निर्णय लिया। उसने दृढ़-निश्चय वाले प्रयास किए और तैरना सीख लिया। उसने स्वयं को तैराकी सिखाने के लिए एक प्रशिक्षक का प्रबन्ध किया। अंततः, वह अकेला वेंटवर्थ लेक पर गया और एक डॉक से ट्रिग्स आइलैंड पर छलाँग लगा दी। वह झील में दो घंटे तक तैरता रहा। उसे केवल एक बार तो पानी से भय लगा। लेकिन उसका यह भय जल्दी ही भाग गया और वह तैरता रहा। अंत में, वह अपने को पानी से लगने वाले भय पर काबू पाने और तैराकी सीखने में सफल रहा। इस अनुभव का एक सांकेतिक अर्थ है। डगलस यह संदेश देना चाहता है कि वही लोग किसी अनुभव की प्रशंसा कर सकते हैं जिन लोगों ने उस अनुभव को भुगता हो। दूसरा उसका अनुभव हमें यह बताता है कि दृढ़-निश्चय के साथ हम अपने भय पर काबू पा सकते हैं।)

HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

The Deep Water MCQ Questions with Answers

1. Who is the writer of the story ‘Deep Water’?
(A) William Douglas
(B) William o Douglas
(C) Tagore
(D) R.K. Narayan
Answer:
(A) William Douglas

2. For what thing did the author have a version since his childhood?
(A) air
(B) earth
(C) water
(D) sky
Answer:
(C) water

3. When the author was three years old, where did his father take him?
(A) to a theatre
(B) to a college
(C) a farm
(D) the beach in California
Answer:
(D) the beach in California

4. When the author went to a beach with his father, why was he frightened?
(A) he saw a whale
(B) the waves knocked him down and swept over him
(C) he saw a ship
(D) he saw a crocodile
Answer:
(B) the waves knocked him down and swept over him

5. When the author was ten or eleven years old, what did he decide to learn?
(A) to swim
(B) to dance
(C) to play
(D) to play guitar
Answer:
(A) to swim

HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

6. What did the big boy do to the author?
(A) he helped the author
(B) he offered him ice-cream
(C) he threw the author into the pool
(D) he gave money to the author
Answer:
(C) he threw the author into the pool

7. When the big boy threw the author into the pool, he did not lose his presence of mind?
(A) true
(B) false
(C) both (A) and (B)
(D) none of these
Answer:
(A) true

8. What did author do when his feet touched the bottom of the pool?
(A) he remained there
(B) he was drowned
(C) he started swimming underwater
(D) he made a spring upwards
Answer:
(D) he made a spring upwards

9. What happened when he opened his eyes and saw nothing but water?
(A) he became panicky
(B) he did not lose courage
(C) he started swimming
(D) he was drowned
Answer:
(A) he became panicky

10. What was the condition of his legs?
(A) they were active
(B) they seemed paralyzed
(C) they were soft
(D) his legs were kicking
Answer:
(B) they seemed paralyzed

11. Suddenly the author saw light. What did that mean?
(A) there was a bulb in the water
(B) some people came with a torch
(C) he was coming out of the water
(D) he saw the light of heaven
Answer:
(C) he was coming out of the water

HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

12. What happened when his eyes and nose were out of the water?
(A) he took a sigh of relief
(B) he came out
(C) he started swimming
(D) he again found himself going down
Answer:
(D) he again found himself going down

13. What did the author do when his feet touched the bottom again?
(A) he remained there
(B) he made a leap
(C) he swam underwater
(D) he was drowned
Answer:
(B) he made a leap

14. Why did Douglas cease all efforts?
(A) he felt as if he was going to become unconscious
(B) he did not want to live
(C) he wanted to remain underwater
(D) he was already out of danger.
Answer:
(A) he felt as if he was going to become unconscious

15. Where did Douglas find himself when he regained consciousness?
(A) in a hospital
(B) in a room
(C) lying near the pool
(D) near the sea-shore
Answer:
(C) lying near the pool

16. Who was standing near him when he regained consciousness?
(A) a doctor
(B) a nurse
(C) his teacher
(D) the boy who had thrown him into the pool
Answer:
(D) the boy who had thrown him into the pool

17. What did the big boy said to the author?
(A) I did the right thing
(B) “But I was only fooling.”
(C) I’ll throw you again
(D) I like throwing boys into the pool
Answer:
(B) “But I was only fooling”

18. How did the author feel when he walked back to his home after becoming alright?
(A) his legs were trembling
(B) he was happy
(C) he was weeping
(D) he had temperature
Answer:
(A) his legs were trembling

HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

19. After the incident in the pool what feeling remained in the author’s heart?
(A) love for water
(B) fear for water
(C) fear for a pool
(D) fear for sea
Answer:
(B) fear for water

20. Where did the author go in order to overcome his fear of water?
(A) in the same pool where he had accident
(B) to a sea beach
(C) into a well
(D) Lake Wentworth in New Hampshire
Answer:
(D) Lake Wentworth in New Hampshire.

The Deep Water Important Passages for Comprehension

Seen Comprehension Passages
Read the following passages and answer the questions given below:

Type (i)
Passage 1
Yet I had residual doubts. At my first opportunity 1 hurried west, went up the Tieton to Conrad Meadows, up the Conrad Creek Trail to Meade Glacier, and camped in the high meadow by the side of Warm Lake. The next morning I stripped, dived into the lake, and swam across to the other shore and back — just as Doug Corpron used to do. I shouted with joy, and Gilbert Peak returned the echo. I had conquered my fear of water.

Word-meanings :
Hurried = went in a hurry (जल्दी से गया)
stripped = took off clothes (कपड़े उतारे);
meadow = grassland (चरागाह)।

Questions :
(i) Name the chapter from which this passage has been taken.
(A) The Last Lesson
(B) Lost Spring
(C) Deep Water
(D) The Rattrap
Answer:
(C) Deep Water

(ii) Where did the writer go at his first opportunity?
(A) Went to West
(B) Went to North
(C) Went to South
(D) None of these
Answer:
(A) Went to West

(iii) The next morning he stripped and ………………………. into the lake.
(A) hurried
(B) dived
(C) pride
(D) none of these
Answer:
(B) dived

(iv) He shouted with joy as he had conquered his …………………….. of water.
(A) fear
(B) love
(C) both (A) and (B)
(D) none of these
Answer:
(A) fear

(v) Find word from the passage having the meaning same as ‘grassland’:
(A) Shouted
(B) Stripped
(C) Meadow
(D) Opportunity
Answer:
(C) Meadow

HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

Passage 2
I went to the pool when no one else was there. The place was quiet. The water was still, and the tiled bottom was as white and clean as a bathtub. I was timid about going in alone, so I sat on the side of the pool to wait for others. · I had not been there long when in came a big bruiser of a boy, probably eighteen years old. He had thick hair on his chest. He was a beautiful physical specimen, with legs and arms that showed rippling muscles. He yelled, “Hi, Skinny! How’d you like to be ducked?”

Word-meanings :
Bruiser = muscular man (हट्टा-कट्टा व्यक्ति);
specimen = sample (नमूना);
rippling waving = (हिलते हुए)।

Questions :
(i) Name the lesson from which this passage has been taken?
(A) The Last Lesson
(B) Lost Spring
(C) Deep Water
(D) The Rattrap
Answer:
(C) Deep Water

(ii) Name the writer of this passage.
(A) Alphonse Daudet
(B) Anees Jung
(C) William Douglas
(D) Selma Lagerl of
Answer:
(C) William Douglas

(iii) When did the author go to the pool?
(A) when there was a great rush
(B) when no one else was there
(C) in the evening
(D) at midnight
Answer:
(B) when no one else was there

(iv) Why did the author sit on the side of the pool?
(A) he was timid about going in alone
(B) he was feeling very tired
(C) Both (A) and (B)
(D) none of the above
Answer:
(A) he was timid about going in alone

(v) What was true about the other boy?
(A) he had thick hair on his chest
(B) he was eighteen years old
(C) he was muscular
(D) all the above
Answer:
(D) all the above

Passage 3
I struck at the water as I went down, expending my strength as one in a nightmare fights an irresistible force. I had lost all my breath. My lungs ached, my head throbbed. I was getting dizzy. But I remembered the strategy – I would spring from the bottom of the pool and come like a cork to the surface. I would lie flat on the water, strike out with my arms, and thrash with my legs. Then I would get to the edge of the pool and be safe. I went down, down, endlessly. I opened my eyes. Nothing but water with a yellow glow – dark water that one could not see through.

Word-meanings :
Expending = spending (फैलाना);
nightmare = terrifying dream (डरावना स्वप्न);
ached = pained (दर्द होने लगा);
throbbed = palpitated (धड़का)।

Questions :
(i) Name the lesson from which this passage has been taken?
(A) The Last Lesson
(B) Lost Spring
(C) Deep Water
(D) The Rattrap
Answer:
(C) Deep Water

(ii) Name the writer of this passage.
(A) Alphonse Daudet
(B) Anees Jung
(C) William Douglas
(D) Selma Lagerl of
Answer:
(C) William Douglas

(iii) What did the writer do when he went down?
(A) he floated at the water
(B) he struck at the water
(C) he swam at the water
(D) all the above
Answer:
(D) all the above

(iv) What is true about his condition when he was going down?
(A) his lungs ached
(B) his head throbbed
(C) he was getting dizzy
(D) all the above
Answer:
(D) all the above

(v) Why couldn’t he see through the water?
(A) his eyes were closed
(B) the water was dark
(C) he had died
(D) his eyes were watery
Answer:
(B) the water was dark

HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

Passage 4
But the jump made no difference. The water was still around me. I looked for ropes, ladders, water wings. Nothing but water. A mass of yellow water held me. Stark terror took an even deeper hold on me, like a great charge of electricity. I shook and trembled with fright. My arms wouldn’t move. My legs wouldn’t move. I tried to call for help, to call for mother. Nothing happened.

Word-meanings :
Stark = complete (पूर्ण);
fright = fear(डर)।

Questions :
(i) Name the lesson from which this passage has been taken?
(A) The Last Lesson
(B) Lost Spring
(C) Deep Water
(D) The Rattrap
Answer:
(C) Deep Water

(ii) Name the writer of this passage.
(A) Alphonse Daudet
(B) Anees Jung
(C) William Douglas
(D) Selma Lagerl Of
Answer:
(C) William Douglas

(iii) What did the author find when he looked for something?
(A) ropes
(B) ladders
(C) water wings
(D) water
Answer:
(D) water

(iv) What was the colour of the water?
(A) Black
(B) Yellow
(C) Blue
(D) Green
Answer:
(B) Yellow

(v) How did the terror grip the author?
(A) like a great charge of electricity
(B) like a gust of wind
(C) like the striking of lightning
(D) all the above
Answer:
(A) like a great charge of electricity

Passage 5
Then all effort ceased. I relaxed. Even my legs felt limp, and a blackness swept over my brain. It wiped out fear; it wiped out terror. There was no more panic. It was quiet and peaceful. Nothing to be afraid of. This is nice …………. to be drowsy ……… to go to sleep ……………. no need to jump ……………. to tired to jump ……………. it’s nice to be carried gently………. to float along in space ……….. tender arms around me …….. tender arms like Mother’s …….. now I must go to sleep …………………. .

Word meanings :
ceased = stopped (बंद हो गए);
limp = lifeless (बेजान);
wiped of = removed (हटा दिया);
drowsy = slepy (निंद्राग्रस्त)।

Questions :
(i) Name the lesson from which this passage has been taken?
(A) The Last Lesson
(B) Lost Spring
(C) Deep Water
(D) The Rattrap
Answer:
(C) Deep Water

(ii) Name the writer of this passage.
(A) Alphonse Daudet
(B) Anees Jung
(C) William Douglas
(D) Selma Lagerl of
Answer:
(C) William Douglas

(iii) What for efforts were being made that ceased?
(A) To escape drowning
(B) To climb a mountain
(C) To cross the river
(D) To win the first prize
Answer:
(A) To escape drowning

(iv) “It wiped out fear’ This means ……………………………. .
(A) it increased fear
(B) it lessened fear
(C) it eliminated fear
(D) it deepened fear
Answer:
(B) it lessened fear

(v) How did ‘l’ feel at last?
(A) very panicky
(B) very nervous
(C) quiet and peaceful
(D) alarmed
Answer:
(C) quiet and peaceful

HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

Type (ii)
Passage 6
It had happened when I was ten or eleven years old. I had decided to learn to swim. There was a pool at the Y.M.C.A. in Yakima that offered exactly the opportunity. The Yakima River was treacherous. Mother continually warned against it, and kept fresh in my mind the details of each drowning in the river. But the Y.M.C.A. pool was safe. It was only two or three feet deep at the shallow end; and while it was nine feet deep at the other, the drop was gradual. I got a pair of water wings and went to the pool. I hated to walk naked into it and show my skinny legs. But I subdued my pride and did it. [H.B.S.E. 2017 (Set-B)]

Word-meanings :
Opportunity = chance (अवसर);
treacherous = dangerous (खतरनाक);
skinny = very thin (बहुत पतला)।

Questions :
(i) Name the chapter and its author.
(ii) What does Y.M.C.A. stand for?
(iii) Which river is mentioned in this passage?
(iv) Did the writer enter the Y.M.C.A. pool?
(v) Find words from the passage which mean the same as :
(a) chance, (b) dangerous.
Answers :
(i) Chapter: Deep Water.
Author: William Douglas.
(ii) Y.M.C.A. stands for Young Men’s Christian Association.
(iii) The Yakima river is mentioned in the passage.
(iv) Yes, the writer entered the Y.M.C.A. pool.
(v) (a) opportunity, (b) treacherous.

Passage 7
With that, he picked me up and tossed me into the deep end. I landed in a sitting position, swallowed water, and went at once to the bottom. I was frightened, but not yet frightened out of my wits. On the way down I planned: When my feet hit the bottom. I would make a big jump, come to the surface, lie flat on it, and paddle to the edge of the pool.

It seemed a long way down. Those nine feet were more like ninety, and before I touched bottom my lungs were ready to burst. But when my feet hit bottom I summoned all my strength and made what I thought was a great spring upwards. I imagined I would bob to the surface like a cork. Instead, I came up slowly. I opened my eyes and saw nothing but water – water that had a dirty yellow tinge to it.

Word-meanings :
Frightened = afraid (डर) ;
summoned = gathered (एकत्रित की);
tinge =colour (रंग)।

Questions :
(i) Name the chapter and its author.
(ii) What did the big boy to do the author?
(iii) What is the author talking of when he says “long way down”?
(iv) What did the author see when he opened his eyes?
(v) Find words from the passage which mean the same as :
(a) afraid, (b) collect.
Answers :
(i) Chapter: Deep Water.
Author: William Douglas.
(ii) He picked him up and tossed him into the deep end of the pool.
(iii) When the author says “Long way down” he is talking of the depth of the Y.M.C.A. pool.
(iv) When the author opened his eyes he saw water all around.
(v) (a) frightened, (b) summoned.

Passage 8
My introduction to the Y.M.C.A. swimming pool revived unpleasant memories and stirred childhood fears. But in a little while, I gathered confidence. I paddled with my new water wings, watching the other boys and trying to learn by aping them. I did this two or three times on different days and was just beginning to feel at ease in the water when the misadventure happened. [H.B.S.E. March 2018 (Set-C)]

Word-meanings :
Revived = reminded (याद दिलाया);
aping = imitating (नकल करना);
misadventure accident = (दुर्घटना)।

Questions :
(i) Name the chapter from which the above lines have been taken.
(ii) Name the author of the chapter.
(iii) What stirred childish fears in the author?
(iv) What did the author do two or three times?
(v) When did the misadventure happen?
Answers:
(i) Deep Water.
(ii) William Douglas.
(iii) The author’s introduction to the Y.M.C.A. swimming pool stirred childish fears in him.
(iv) The author tried to learning two or three times.
(v) The misadventure happened when the author was just trying to learn swimming.

Deep Water Summary in English and Hindi

Deep Water Introduction to the Chapter
William Douglas was an American writer. He was born in Maine, Minnesota. This lesson has been taken from his book “Of Men and Mountains’. This deals with a childhood experience of the author. One day he went to a swimming pool. A boy threw him into the pool. He was nearly drowned in the swimming pool. That was a terrifying experience for him. This childhood incident created fear of water in his mind. It took several years of his life to overcome this fear. But he was able to conquer his fear with courage and determination.

(William Douglas एक अमेरिकी लेखक था। उसका जन्म मेन, मिनेसोटा में हुआ था। यह पाठ उनकी पुस्तक } “Of Men and Mountains’ से लिया गया है। यह लेखक के बचपन के एक अनुभव का वर्णन करता है। एक दिन वह एक तरणताल पर गया। एक लड़के ने उसे ताल में फेंक दिया। वह तरणताल में लगभग डूबने ही वाला था। यह उसके लिए एक डरावना अनुभव था। बचपन की इस घटना ने उसके मन में पानी से भय को भर दिया। इस भय पर काबू पाने के लिए उसके जीवन के कई साल लग गए। लेकिन वह साहस और दृढ़-निश्चय के साथ अपने भय पर विजय पाने में सफल रहा।)

Deep Water Summary

The author had an aversion for water since his childhood. When he was only three or four years old, his father took him to the beach in California. He and his father stood together in the waves. He hug on to his father. But the waves knocked him down and swept over him. He was frightened. His father laughed, but the waves created a fear in the author’s mind. When the author was ten or eleven years old, he decided to learn to swim.

There was a pool at the Y.M.C.A in Yakima. It offered him a good opportunity to learn swimming. The pool was only two or three feet deep at the shallow end, while it was nine feet deep at the other end. The drop was gradual. One day, he took a pair of water wings and went to the pool. He was alone at the pool. He felt afraid to go into the water alone. He sat on the side of the pool. Just then a big eighteen-year-old boy came there. He picked up the author and threw him into the pool.

The author was terrified. But he did not lose his presence of mind. He thought that when his feet touched the bottom of the pool, he would make a jump upwards and would come to the surface. Finally he would lie flat on it and paddle to the end of the pool.

But when he went down, the nine feet seemed like ninety to him. But when his feet touched the bottom, he gathered courage and made a spring upwards. He came up rather slowly. Whenever he opened his eyes, he saw nothing but water. He was suffocating. He became panicky. He tried to cry but no words came out. His legs seemed paralyzed and were rigid.

HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

Instead of coming up, he went down and down. A great force seemed to pull him under water. He tried to scream but could not. Only his heart and pounding in his head showed that he was alive. He sucked for air, but got water. He looked for ropes, ladder, water wings, but there was nothing except water.

And then there was light. He was coming out of the water. He felt that his eyes and nose were out of the water. But his mouth was still under water. Then he again found himself going down. He again remembered to make a leap when his feet touched the bottom. But nothing happened. He thought that he was going to die. He ceased all efforts. He felt as if he was going to become unconscious.

After some time, Douglas regained consciousness. He found himself lying on his stomach near the pool. He was vomiting. The boy who had thrown him into the pool was standing near him. He was saying, “But I was only fooling.” Someone said that Douglas had nearly died. But he was alright now. After some hours, he walked back to his home. But he was weak and his legs were trembling.

After that incident, a haunting fear remained in his heart. He never went back to the pool. He feared water and tried to avoid it. The fear of water remained with him as years rolled by. He tried his best to overcome this fear but it remained with him. Finally, one October, he got an instructor. With him he practiced for five days a week. The instructor taught him step by step how to swim. He taught him how to put his face under water and exhale. And then how to raise his nose and inhale. He repeated the exercises hundreds of time. Still he wondered whether he would be terrified when he would be alone in a pool.

In order to overcome his fear, the author went to Lake Wentworth in New Hampshire. He dived off a dock at Triggs Island. He swam two miles across the lake to Stamp Act Island. Only once he felt some fear when he was in the middle of the lake. But soon he overcame that fear. Then he swam back. He shouted with joy. Thus finally, he was able to conquer his fear of water and swimming.

(लेखक को अपने बचपन से ही पानी के प्रति नफरत थी। जब वह केवल तीन या चार साल का था, उसके पिता उसे कैलिफोर्निया के समुद्र तट पर ले गए। लहरों के बीच में वह और उसका पिता एक साथ खड़े थे। उसने अपने पिता को पकड़ रखा था। लेकिन लहरों ने उसे नीचे गिरा दिया और उसके ऊपर से बह गईं। वह भयभीत था। उसका पिता हँस रहा था लेकिन लहरों ने लेखक के मन में भय उत्पन्न कर दिया।

जब लेखक दस या ग्यारह वर्ष का था, उसने तैराकी सीखने का निर्णय लिया। याकीमा के Y.M.C.A में एक तरणताल था। इसने उसे तैराकी के लिए एक अच्छा अवसर प्रदान किया। छिछले सिरे पर तालाब केवल दो या तीन फुट गहरा था और दूसरे सिरे पर वह नौ फुट गहरा था। यह गहराई धीरे-धीरे बढ़ रही थी। एक दिन उसने अपने जलपरों की एक जोड़ी ली और तरणताल पर चला गया। ताल पर वह अकेला था। पानी के अंदर अकेले जाने से उसे डर लग रहा था। वह ताल के सिरे पर बैठ गया। तभी अट्ठारह वर्ष का एक बड़ा लड़का वहाँ आया। उसने लेखक को उठाया और उसे ताल के अंदर फेंक दिया।

HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

लेखक भयभीत था। लेकिन उसने अपनी दिमागी तत्परता को नहीं खोया। उसने सोचा कि जब उसके पाँव पानी के तल पर लगेंगे तो वह ऊपर की ओर कूदेगा और सतह पर आ जाएगा। अंततः वह पानी की सतह पर सीधा लेट जाएगा और तैर कर ताल के सिरे तक आ जाएगा। लेकिन जब वह नीचे गया तो उसे नौ फुट नब्बे फुट के समान प्रतीत हुए। लेकिन जब उसके पाँवों ने तली को स्पर्श किया, उसने साहस एकत्र किया और ऊपर की तरफ छलांग लगाई।

वह थोड़ा धीरे-से ऊपर आया। जब कभी भी उसने अपनी आँखें खोलीं, उसे पानी के सिवाय कुछ नज़र नहीं आया। उसका दम घुट रहा था। वह भयभीत हो गया। उसने चिल्लाने का प्रयास किया लेकिन शब्द ही बाहर नहीं निकले। उसकी टाँगें लकवाग्रस्त और अकड़ी हुई प्रतीत हो रही थीं।

ऊपर आने की बजाय, वह नीचे-ही-नीचे जाता रहा। जैसे कोई बड़ी ताकत उसे पानी के नीचे की ओर खींच रही थी। उसने चिल्लाने का प्रयास किया लेकिन चिल्ला नहीं सका। केवल उसकी दिल की धड़कन और दिमागी हलचल से उसे लगा कि वह जीवित है। उसने हवा को ग्रहण करना चाहा, लेकिन पानी मिला। उसने रस्सियाँ, सीढ़ी, जलपरों की खोज की लेकिन पानी के सिवाय कुछ भी नहीं था।

और तब प्रकाश नजर आया। वह पानी से बाहर आ रहा था। उसने महसूस किया कि उसकी आँखें और नाक पानी से बाहर आ रहे थे। लेकिन उसका मुँह अभी भी पानी के अंदर था। तब उसने पुनः स्वयं को नीचे की ओर जाते पाया। उसने पुनः छलाँग लगाने के बारे में याद किया कि जब उसके पाँव जमीन से स्पर्श करेंगे। लेकिन कुछ भी नहीं हुआ। उसने सोचा कि वह मरने जा रहा है। उसने सारे प्रयास बंद कर दिए। उसे ऐसा लगा जैसे कि वह बेहोश होने जा रहा था।

कुछ समय के पश्चात्, डगलस को होश आ गया। उसने स्वयं को पेट के बल ताल के पास लेटे पाया। वह उल्टियाँ कर रहा था। जिस लड़के ने उसे पानी के अंदर फेंका था वह उसके पास खड़ा था। वह कह रहा था, “मैं तो केवल मजाक कर रहा था” किसी ने कहा कि डगलस लगभग मर ही चुका था। लेकिन अब वह बिल्कुल ठीक था। कुछ घंटों के पश्चात्, वह अपने घर लौट आया। लेकिन वह कमजोर था और उसकी टाँगें काँप रही थीं।

उस घटना के पश्चात्, उसके हृदय में बार-बार आने वाला भय बैठ गया था। वह कभी भी ताल पर वापिस नहीं गया। उसे पानी से भय लगता था और वह उससे बचने का प्रयास करता था। वर्षों के बीतने के बाद भी यह भय उसके मन में बना रहा। उसने इस भय पर नियंत्रण पाने के लिए पूरे प्रयास किए लेकिन वह उसके साथ बना रहा। अंततः अक्तूबर के एक दिन उसे एक अनुदेशक मिला। उसके साथ उसने सप्ताह में पाँच दिन अभ्यास किया। अनुदेशक ने उसे कदम-दर-कदम तैरना सिखाया। उसने उसे सिखाया कि पानी के नीचे अपना चेहरा कैसे रखा जाता है और साँस कैसे छोड़ा जाता है। और तब अपने नाक को ऊपर उठाकर कैसे साँस लिया जाता है। उसने सैकड़ों बार इसी अभ्यास को दोहराया। फिर भी वह जानने को उत्सुक था कि क्या अभी भी वह भयभीत होगा जब वह ताल में अकेला होगा।

अपने भय पर नियंत्रण पाने के लिए, लेखक न्यू हैम्पशायर में लेक वेटवर्थ पर गया। उसने ट्रिग्स द्वीप पर एक जहाज से कूद लगा दी। वह झील में दो मील तक स्टैंप एक्ट द्वीप तक तैर कर गया। केवल एक बार तो उसे कुछ भय लगा जब वह झील के मध्य में था। लेकिन शीघ्र ही उसने उस भय पर काबू पा लिया। तब वह तैर कर वापिस आया। वह खुशी से चिल्ला उठा। तब अंततः वह पानी और तैराकी के प्रति अपने भय पर विजय पाने में सफल रहा।)

Deep Water Word Meanings

[Page 23] :
Graduating (receiving a bachelor’s degree) = स्नातक की उपाधि मिलना;
pursue (to follow) = अनुसरण करना;
excerpt (part)= अंश, भाग;
pool (swimming pool) = तैरने का ताल (तालाब);
offered (provided)= पेश किया;
opportunity (chance) = अवसर;
treacherous (dangerous)=खतरनाक;
shallow (not deep)= उथला;
gradual (by degrees) = शनै: शनैः ।

[Page 25] :
Skinny (very thin) = बहुत पतला;
subdued (overcame) = काबू पाया;
aversion (dislike) = नफरत;
surf (wave) = लहर;
beach (seashore) = सागर तट;
buried (dug in ) = गाड़ा;
frightened (terrified)= भयभीत;
terror (fear) = डर;
revived (reminded) = याद दिलाया;
unpleasant (not enjoyable)=अप्रिय;
stirred (arose)=पैदा की;
paddled (moved on water)=पानी पर तैरा;
aping (imitating)=नकल करना;
misadventure (accident)=दुर्घटना;
timid (lacking courage)= कायर;
bruiser (muscular man) = हट्टा-कट्टा व्यक्ति;
specimen (example)=उदाहरण;
rippling (waving) = हिलते हुए;
yelled (shouted) = चिल्लाया;
duck (dive) = डुबकी लगाना;
toss (throw)=फेंकना;
swallow (gulp down) = निगलना;
summoned (gathered) = एकत्रित की;
bob (come up) = ऊपर आना।

[Page 26]:
Tinge (colour)=रंग;
panicky (afraid)=भयभीत;
grab (grip)=पकड़ना;
clutched (grabbed)= पकड़ा;
suffocating (choking)=दम घुटना;
choked (blocked)= रोकना;
paralyzed (unable to move)=सुन्न होना;
rigid (stiff) = सख्त;
struck (thumped) = थपथपाया;
expending (spending) = फैलाना;
nightmare (a bad dream)= बुरा स्वप्न;
throbbed (palpitated) = धड़का;
dizzy (feeling giddy)=सिर चकराना;
strategy (plan) = योजना;
thrash (strike) = प्रहार करना;
stark (complete) = पूर्ण;
sheer (only) =केवल;
endlessly (completely)=पूरी तरह;
shrieking (crying)= चिल्लाना;
seized (caught) = पकड़ा;
frozen (choked) = जम गया;
midst (in the middle of) = के बीच में;
mass (heap) = ढेर;
charge (current) = घाटा;
fright (fear) = डर ।

HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

[Page 27]:
Awful(fearful) =भयानक;
sucked (inhaled)= सांस अन्दर ली;
ceased (ended) =समाप्त हुआ;
relaxed (eased) = आराम मिला;
limp (lifeless) = निर्जीव;
drowsy (sleepy) = ऊँघना;
oblivion (forgetfulness) = भुलक्कड़पन;
haunting (coming again and again)= बार-बार आना;
slightest (least) = कम से कम;
exertion (tiredness)=थकान;
wobbly (unstable) = अस्थिर;
cascade (waterfall) = जलप्रपात;
wading (walking through water)=पानी में से चलना;
bumping (bouncing)= उछलना;
handicap (hindrance) = रुकावट;
canoes(small boats)=छोटी नौकाएँ;
salmon, basstrout (kind of fish) = मछली की जातियाँ ।

[Page 28]:
Ruined (destroyed) = नष्ट किया;
trips (journeys) = यात्राएँ;
forth (ahead) = आगे;
relaxed (let loose) = ढीला छोड़ा;
hold (grip) = पकड़ना;
tension (stress)=तनाव;
slack (lessen)= कम करना;
exhale (breathe out) = सांस बाहर निकालना;
inhale (breathe in) = सांस अन्दर लेना;
shed (gave up) = त्याग दिया;
command (order/direct)= आदेश;
integrated (complete)= पूर्ण;
tiny (little)= छोटा;
vestiges (signs)=चिह्न;
frown (scowl)=लोरी।

[Page 29] :
Dock (part of port) = बन्दरगाह;
sensation (strong feeling) = भावना;
residual (left over) = बचा हुआ;
hurried (went in a hurry) = जल्दी में गया;
meadow (grassland) = चरागाह;
stripped (took off clothes)= कपड़े उतारे;
appreciate (praise) = प्रशंसा करना;
intensity (power/strength) = शक्ति;
released (freed) =आजाद किया;
trails (paths) = रास्ते।

Deep Water Translation in Hindi

It had happened when I was ten or eleven years old. I had decided to learn to swim. There was a pool at Y.M.C.A. in Yakima that offered exactly the opportunity. The Yakima River was treacherous. Mother continually warned against it, and kept fresh in my mind the details of each drowning in the river. But the Y.M.C.A. pool was safe. It was only two or three feet deep at the shallow end; and while it was nine feet deep at the other, the drop was gradual. I got a pair of water wings and went to the pool. I hated to walk naked into it and show my skinny legs. But I subdued my pride and did it.

(यह बात तब हुई जब मैं दस या ग्यारह वर्ष का था। मैंने तैरना सीखने का फैसला किया था। याकीमा में वाई०एम०सी०ए० के अन्दर एक तालाब था जो ठीक ऐसा अवसर देता था। याकीमा नदी खतरनाक थी। माँ सदा इसके खिलाफ चेतावनी देती रहती थी और हर डूबने की दुर्घटना का विस्तृत वर्णन मेरे दिमाग में ताजा बनाए रखती थी। परन्तु वाई०एम०सी०ए० का ताल सुरक्षित था। उथले किनारे पर तो यह केवल दो या तीन फुट ही गहरा था और यद्यपि दूसरे किनारे पर यह नौ फुट गहरा था और गहराई धीरे-धीरे बढ़ती थी। मैंने जल-परों का एक जोड़ा लिया और ताल की ओर चल पड़ा। उसके अन्दर नंगे जाकर अपनी पतली-पतली टाँगें दिखाने से मुझे नफरत थी। पर मैंने अपने अभिमान को दबाया और ऐसा ही किया।)

From the beginning, however, I had an aversion to the water when I was in it. This started when I was three or four years old and father took me to the beach in California. He and I stood together in the surf. I hung on to him. Yet the waves knocked me down and swept over me. I was buried in water. My breath was gone. I was frightened. Father laughed, but there was terror in my heart at the overpowering force of the waves.

(पर प्रारम्भ से ही, पानी के अन्दर होने पर मुझे पानी से घृणा थी। यह तब से प्रारम्भ हुई थी जब मैं 3-4 साल का था और मेरे पिता मुझे कैलीफोर्निया के समुद्र तट पर ले गए थे। वह और मैं लहरों के बीच खड़े थे। मैं उन्हें पकड़े हुए था, फिर भी लहरों ने मुझे गिरा दिया और मेरे ऊपर से गुजर गईं। मैं पानी के अन्दर दब-सा गया था। मेरी साँस रुक गई थी। मैं डर गया था। पिता जी हँस रहे थे, परन्तु लहरों की पराजित करने वाली शक्ति का आतंक मेरे दिल में था।)

HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

My introduction to the Y.M.C.A. swimming pool revived unpleasant memories and stirred childish fears. But in a little while, I gathered confidence. I paddled with my new water wings, watching the other boys and trying to learn by aping them. I did this two or three times on different days and was just beginning to feel at ease in the water when the misadventure happened.

(मेरे वाई०एम०सी०ए० के तरण-ताल के परिचय ने दुःखद यादों को पुनर्जीवित कर दिया और बचपन के डर को जगा दिया। पर कुछ देर में ही मुझमें आत्मविश्वास आ गया। अपने नए जल-परों को पहनकर मैंने तैरना प्रारम्भ किया और दूसरे लड़कों की नकल करके सीखने का प्रयत्न किया। अलग-अलग दिनों में मैंने तीन-चार बार ऐसा किया और मैंने पानी में अच्छा महसूस करना आरम्भ ही किया था कि दुर्घटना घट गई।)

I went to the pool when no one else was there. The place was quiet. The water was still, and the tiled bottom was as white and clean as a bathtub. I was timid about going in alone, so I sat on the side of the pool · to wait for others.

(जब कोई और वहाँ नहीं था, मैं ताल पर पहुँचा। वहाँ पर सन्नाटा था। जल शान्त था और टाइल लगा हुआ तल स्नानघर के टब की तरह सफेद और साफ था। अकेले अन्दर प्रवेश करते मैं डर रहा था, अतः दूसरों की प्रतीक्षा करते हुए मैं तालाब के एक तरफ बैठ गया।)

I had not been there long when in came a big bruiser of a boy, probably eighteen years old. He had thick hair on his chest. He was a beautiful physical specimen, with legs and arms that showed rippling muscles. He yelled, “Hi, Skinny! How’d you like to be ducked ?”

(मुझे अभी वहाँ अधिक देर नहीं हुई थी कि एक हट्टा-कट्टा(शक्तिशाली) लड़का वहाँ आया जो लगभग अठारह साल का होगा। उसकी छाती पर घने काले बाल थे। वह सुन्दर स्वास्थ्य का एक उदाहरण था, उसकी टाँग और बाजू की मांसपेशियाँ लहरा रही थीं। वह चिल्लाकर बोला, “ओए पतलू, तू पानी में छलाँग लगाना चाहेगा, क्या ?”)

With that, he picked me up and tossed me into the deep end. I landed in a sitting position, swallowed water, and went at once to the bottom. I was frightened, but not yet frightened out of my wits. On the way down I planned : When my feet hit the bottom, I would make a big jump, come to the surface, lie flat on it, and paddle to the edge of the pool.

(इसी के साथ उसने मुझे उठाया और ताल के गहरे छोर की तरफ फेंक दिया। मैं बैठे होने की अवस्था में गिरा, पानी निगला और फौरन तल पर पहुँच गया। मैं डरा हुआ था, मगर मैंने होश नहीं खोए थे नीचे जाते हुए मैंने योजना बनाई; जब मेरे पैर तली को छुएँगे तो ऊपर की ओर छलाँग लगाऊँगा, सतह पर आऊँगा, इस पर लेट जाऊँगा और पुल के किनारे तक तैरता हुआ पहुँच जाऊँगा।)

It seemed a long way down. Those nine feet were more like ninety, and before I touched bottom my lungs were ready to burst. But when my feet hit bottom I summoned all my strength and made what I thought was a great spring upwards. I imagined I would bob to the surface like a cork. Instead, I came up slowly. I opened my eyes and saw nothing but water-water that had a dirty yellow tinge to it. I grew panicky. I reached up as if to grab a rope and my hands clutched only at water. I was suffocating. I tried to yell but no sound came out. Then my eyes and nose came out of the water-but not my mouth.

(नीचे जाते हुए काफी देर लगती हुई प्रतीत हुई। वे नौ फुट नब्बे जितने लगे और इससे पहले कि मैं तल को छूता मेरे फेफड़े फटने को हो रहे थे, परन्तु जैसे ही मेरे पैरों ने तली को छुआ तो मैंने अपनी सारी शक्ति बटोरी और मेरे विचार में मैंने एक बहुत बड़ी कूद ऊपर की तरफ लगाई। मैंने कल्पना की कि मैं एक कॉर्क की तरह सतह पर उछलकर आ जाऊँगा। इसके विपरीत मैं धीरे-धीरे आया। मैंने अपनी आँखें खोली और पानी के अलावा कुछ नहीं देखा-पानी जो एक मैला पीला रंग लिए हुए था। मैं बौखला गया। मैंने ऊपर हाथ किए मानो एक रस्सी पकड़ने के लिए और मेरे हाथों में केवल पानी आया। मेरा दम घुट रहा था। मैंने चीखने की कोशिश की पर कोई आवाज़ नहीं निकली। फिर मेरी आँख व नाक पानी से बाहर आए परन्तु मेरा मुँह बाहर नहीं आया।)

I flailed at the surface of the water, swallowed, and choked. I tried to bring my legs up, but they hung as dead weights, paralyzed and rigid. A great force was pulling me under. I screamed, but only the water heard me. I had started on the long journey back to the bottom of the pool.

(मैंने पानी की सतह पर हाथ-पाँव पटके, पानी को निगला और मेरा गला रुंध गया। मैंने अपनी टाँगों को ऊपर लाने की कोशिश की, मगर वे निर्जीव बोझ बनी लटकी रहीं, बिल्कुल लकवाग्रस्त एवं कठोर। एक बड़ी शक्ति मुझे नीचे खींच रही थी। मैं चीखा पर मेरी आवाज़ सिर्फ पानी ने सुनी। ताल के तल की ओर की लम्बी यात्रा मैंने पुनः प्रारम्भ कर दी थी।)

I struck at the water as I went down, expending my strength as one in a nightmare fights against an irresistible force. I had lost all my breath. My lungs ached, my head throbbed. I was getting dizzy. But I remembered the strategy: I would spring from the bottom of the pool and come like a cork to the surface. I would lie flat on the water, strike out with my arms, and thrash with my legs. Then I would get to the edge of the pool and be safe.

(नीचे जाते हुए मैंने पानी को धकेला, मैं अपनी शक्ति उस तरह लगा रहा था जैसे भयानक स्वप्न में कोई किसी अपराजय शक्ति से लड़ रहा हो। मेरी साँस फूल गई थी। मेरे फेफड़ों में दर्द हो रहा था, मेरा सिर धड़क रहा था, मुझे चक्कर आ रहे थे। पर मुझे योजना याद थी मैं ताल के तल से ऊपर को कूदूंगा और कार्क की तरह सतह पर आऊँगा। मैं पानी के ऊपर सीधा लेट जाऊँगा, अपने बाजू से पानी काटूंगा और टाँगें मारूँगा। इस प्रकार मैं ताल के ऊपर आ जाऊँगा और सुरक्षित हो जाऊँगा।

I went down, down endlessly. I opened my eyes. Nothing but water with a yellow glow-dark water that one could not see through. And then sheer, stark terror seized me, terror, that knows no understanding, terror that knows no control, terror that no one can understand who has not experienced it. I was shrieking underwater. I was paralyzed under water-stiff, rigid with fear. Even the screams in my throat were frozen. Only my heart, and the pounding in my head, said that I was still alive.

(मैं नीचे, नीचे लगातार चलता गया। मैंने अपनी आँखें खोलीं। पीले पानी के अतिरिक्त कुछ भी नहीं था-अन्धेरा-सा पानी जिसके पार कुछ नज़र न आता था। और तब घोर भय ने मुझे काबू कर लिया, वह भय जहाँ समझ काम नहीं करती, वह भय जो काबू के बाहर हो जाता है, वह भय जो वही जान सकता है जिसने उसे अनुभव किया हो। मैं पानी के नीचे चीख रहा था। मैं पानी के नीचे संज्ञाशून्य हो गया था-डर से कठोर और जड़वत। मेरे गले से निकलने वाली चीखें भी जम गई थीं। केवल मेरा दिल और मेरे सिर की धड़कन कह रही थी मैं अभी जीवित था।)

And then in the midst of the terror came a touch of reason. I must remember to jump when I hit the bottom. At last I felt the tiles under me. My toes reached out as if to grab them. I jumped with everything I had. But the jump made no difference. The water was still around me. I looked for ropes, ladders, water wings. Nothing but water. A mass of yellow water held me. Stark terror took an even deeper hold on me, like a great charge of electricity. I shook and trembled with fright. My arms wouldn’t move. My legs wouldn’t move. I tried to call for help, to call for mother. Nothing happened.

HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

(और तब डर के मध्य शक्ति लगाने का विचार आया। जब मैंने तल को छुआ तो मुझे कूदना याद आया। आखिरकार मैंने अपने नीचे टाइलें महसूस की। मेरे पैरों की उंगलियाँ ऐसे पहुँची जैसे उन्हें पकड़ना हो। मैं अपनी पूरी शक्ति से कूदा। लेकिन कूदने से भी कोई फर्क नहीं पड़ा। पानी अब भी मेरे चारों ओर था। मैंने रस्सियों, सीढ़ियों, पानी के पंखों को ढूँढ़ा। कुछ नहीं था सिवाय पानी के। पीले पानी का बोझ मुझे जकड़े हुए था। घोर भय ने मुझे और भी गहराई से जकड़ लिया था, बिजली के तेज चार्ज की तरह। मैं हिला और भय के साथ काँपा। मेरी बाँहें हिलती नहीं थीं। मेरी टाँगें हिलती नहीं थीं। मैंने सहायता के लिए पुकारने की कोशिश की, माँ को पुकारने की कोशिश की। कुछ नहीं हुआ।)

And then, strangely, there was light. I was coming out of the awful yellow water. At least my eyes were. My nose was almost out too. Then I started down a third time. I sucked for air and got water. The yellowish light was going out.

(और तब, अजीब तरह से, वहाँ रोशनी थी। मैं इस भयानक पानी से बाहर आ रहा था। कम-से-कम मेरी आँखें तो बाहर थी हीं। मेरी नाक भी लगभग बाहर थी। फिर मैं तीसरी बार नीचे जाना शुरु हुआ। मैंने हवा को अन्दर खींचने की कोशिश की और मुझे पानी मिला। पीली रोशनी जा रही थी।)

Then all effort ceased. I relaxed. Even my legs felt limp, and a blackness swept over my brain. It wiped out fear; it wiped out terror. There was no more panic. It was quiet and peaceful. Nothing to be afraid of. This is nice ………. to be drowsy …… to go to sleep …….. no need to jump ……… to tired to jump ………. it’s nice to be carried gently….to float along in space ……. tender arms around me ……… tender arms like Mother’s ……… now I must go to sleep …………………. I crossed to oblivion, and the curtain of life fell.

(तब सभी प्रयत्न समाप्त हो गए। मैंने आराम किया। मेरी टाँगें अपंग महसूस हुईं; और मेरे दिमाग पर एक कालापन छा गया। इसने डर को दूर कर दिया था; इसने मेरे भय को दूर कर दिया। अब और बौखलाहट नहीं थी। चुप्पी और शान्ति थी। डरने के लिए कुछ नहीं। यह अच्छा है ………. निद्राजनक होना नींद में चले जाना ………… कूदने की कोई ज़रूरत नहीं……इतना थका हुआ कि कूद नहीं सकता ……….. इतनी कोमलता से ले जाता हुआ कि अच्छा लगता था ……… खाली जगह में तैरना ………. मेरे चारों ओर कोमल बाँहें ………. माँ की बाँहों जैसी कोमल ………. अब मुझे सोना पड़ा ………. । मैं सब कुछ भूल गया था और जीवन का पर्दा गिर गया था।)

The next I remember I was lying on my stomach beside the pool, vomiting. The chap that threw me in was saying, “But I was only fooling.” Someone said, “The kid nearly died. Be all right now. Let’s carry him to the locker room.”
(अगली बात जो मुझे याद थी वह थी कि मैं उलटी करता हुआ अपने पेट के बल ताल के किनारे लेटा हुआ था। वह लड़का जिसने मुझे अन्दर फेंका था, कह रहा था, “परन्तु मैं केवल मजाक कर रहा था।” किसी ने कहा, “बच्चा मरते-मरते बचा है। अब सब ठीक हो जाए। चलो इसे लॉकर रूम में ले चलते हैं।”)

Several hours later, I walked home. I was weak and trembling. I shook and cried when I lay on my bed. I couldn’t eat that night. For days a haunting fear was in my heart. The slightest exertion upset me, making me wobbly in the knees and sick to my stomach. I never went back to the pool. I feared water. I avoided it whenever I could.

(कई घण्टे बाद, मैं घर गया। मैं कमजोर था, काँप रहा था। जब मैं बिस्तर में लेटा तो मैं काँपा और रोया, मैं उस रात को खा नहीं पाया। कई दिनों तक मेरे दिल में डर छाया रहा। थोड़ी-सी भी मेहनत मुझे परेशान कर देती थी, मेरे घुटने लड़खड़ाने लगते और पेट बीमार-सा लगता। उसके बाद मैं कभी भी ताल में नहीं गया। मुझे पानी से डर लगता था और जहाँ तक हो सकता था, मैं पानी से दूर रहने की कोशिश करता था।)

A few years later when I came to know the waters of the Cascades, I wanted to get into them. And whenever I did-whether I was wading the Tieton or Bumping River or bathing in Warm Lake of the Goat Rocks-The terror that had seized me in the pool would come back. It would take possession of me completely. My legs would become paralyzed. Icy horror would grab my heart.

(कुछ सालों बाद जब मैंने झरनों के पानी को देखा, तब मैं उनमें जाना चाहता था और जब भी मैंने ऐसा किया चाहे वह टीटन या बमपिंग नदी को लांघना हो या गोट रॉक्स की गर्म झील में नहाना हो वह आतंक जो ताल में मुझे वशीभूत कर चुका था, वापस मेरे पास आ जाता था। मैं पूरी तरह इसके वश में हो जाता था। मेरी टाँगें संज्ञाशून्य हो जाती थीं। एक बर्फीला डर मेरे दिल को जकड़ लेता था।)

This handicap stayed with me as the years rolled by. In canoes on Maine lakes fishing for landlocked salmon, bass fishing in New Hampshire, trout fishing on the Deschutes and Metolius in Oregon, fishing for salmon on the Columbia, at Bumping lake in the Cascades-wherever I went, the haunting fear of the water followed me. It ruined my fishing trips; deprived me of the joy of canoeing, boating, and swimming.

(साल पर साल बीतते गए और अपंगता मेरे साथ बनी रही। मेन की झीलों में नौकाओं में बैठ जमीन से घिरी सेलमन मछली को पकड़ना, न्यू हैम्पशायर में बास मछली का शिकार और आरेगन के मेट्रोलियस, डेस्यूट्स में ट्राउट मछली को पकड़ना, कोलम्बिया और बमपिंग लेक के झरनों में सेलमन को पकड़ना-मैं जहाँ भी जाता, पानी का आतंकित करने वाला डर मेरा पीछा करता रहता। यह मेरी मछली के ट्रिप को तबाह कर देता, मुझे छोटी नाव, बड़ी नाव चलाने और तैरने के आनन्द से वंचित कर देता।)

I used every way I knew to overcome this fear, but it held me firmly in its grip. Finally, one October, I decided to get an instructor and learn to swim. I went to a pool and practiced five days a week, an hour each day. The instructor put a belt around me. A rope attached to the belt went through a pulley that ran on an overhead cable. He held on the to end of the rope, and we went back and forth, back and forth across the pool, hour after hour, day after day, week after week. On each trip across the pool a bit of the panic seized me.

Each time the instructor relaxed his hold on the rope and I went under, some of the old terror returned and my legs froze. It was three months before the tension began to slack. Then he taught me to put my face under water and exhale, and to raise my nose and inhale. I repeated the exercise hundreds of times. Bit by bit I shed part of the panic that seized me when my head went underwater.

(मैंने अपने इस भय पर काबू पाने के लिए वह हर तरीका अपनाया जो मैं जानता था, मगर इसने मुझे जकड़े रखा। आखिर एक अक्टूबर में मैंने तैरना सीखने के लिए एक प्रशिक्षक लेने का निर्णय किया। मैं एक ताल पर जाकर एक सप्ताह में पाँच दिन, प्रतिदिन एक घण्टे तक अभ्यास करता। प्रशिक्षक मेरे चारों ओर एक पेटी बाँध देता। पेटी से एक रस्सी बंधी होती जो एक पुली से होकर जाती जो सिर के ऊपर एक तार की रस्सी चलती थी। वह रस्सी के किनारे को पकड़े रहता और हम आगे-पीछे जाते रहते। घण्टा के बाद घण्टा, दिन के बाद दिन, हफ्ते के बाद हफ्ता हम ताल में एक तरफ से दूसरी तरफ आगे-पीछे जाते रहे। ताल के आर-पार की हर यात्रा में कुछ भय मेरे मन में बना रहता। हर बार जब प्रशिक्षक रस्सी पर अपनी पकड़ ढीली करता और मैं पानी के अन्दर चला जाता, पुराने भय का कुछ अंश लौट आता और मेरी टाँगें जम जातीं। मेरा तनाव कम होने में तीन महीने लग गए। तब उसने मुझे पानी के अन्दर मुँह डालकर सांस छोड़ना सिखाया और नाक उठाकर सांस लेना। मैंने यह व्यायाम सैकड़ों बार किया। धीरे-धीरे करके, उस भय का एक भाग जाता रहा जो मुझे पानी के अन्दर सिर डालने पर होता था।)

Next, he held me at the side of the pool and had me kick with my legs. For weeks I did just that. At first my legs refused to work. But they gradually relaxed, and finally, I could command them.
(उसके बाद ताल के किनारे पर वह मुझे पकड़े रहता और मैं पानी में टाँगें मारता रहता। हफ्तों तक मैं यही करता रहा। पहले-पहले तो मेरी टाँगों ने जवाब ही दे दिया, पर धीरे-धीरे वे तनाव-हीन होने लगी और अन्ततः मैं उन्हें आज्ञा दे सकता था।)

HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Flamingo Chapter 3 Deep Water

Thus, piece by piece, he built a swimmer. And when he had perfected each piece, he put them together into an integrated whole. In April he said, “Now you can swim. Dive off and swim the length of the pool, crawl or stroke.”
I did. The instructor was finished.

(इस प्रकार धीरे-धीरे उसने मुझे तैराक बनाया। और जब उसने हर भाग को त्रुटिहीन कर लिया, उसने उन सबको जोड़कर एक पूर्ण वस्तु बना ली। अप्रैल में वह बोला, “अब तुम तैर सकते हो। गोता लगाओ और ताल की पूरी लम्बाई तैरकर पार कर लो, धीरे-धीरे जाओ चाहे तेजी से।” मैंने यह किया। प्रशिक्षक का कार्य पूरा हो चुका था।)

But I was not finished. I still wondered if I would be terror-stricken when I was alone in the pool. I tried it. I swam the length up and down. Tiny vestiges of the old terror would return. But now I could frown and say to that terror, “Trying to scare me, eh ? Well, here’s to you! Look!” And off I’s go for another length of the pool.

(परन्तु मेरा कार्य पूरा नहीं हुआ था। मैं अब भी डरता था कि कहीं ताल के अन्दर अकेला होने पर मैं भयभीत तो नहीं हो जाऊँगा। मैंने ऐसा करके देखा। मैं ताल के एक किनारे से दूसरे और फिर वापस उसी किनारे पर तैरकर गया। पुराने आतंक के छोटे चिह्न लौटा करते थे। पर अब मैं क्रोधित होकर उस भय से कह सकता था, “अच्छा, तू मुझे डराना चाहता है ? ठीक है, वह तुम्हारे नाम पर! देख! और मैं पुनः ताल की लंबाई को एक बार और पार कर देता।”)

This went on until July. But I was still not satisfied. I was not sure that all the terror had left. So I went to Lake Wentworth in New Hampshire, dived off a dock at Triggs Island, and swam to miles across the lake to Stamp Act Island. I swam the crawl, breaststroke, side stroke, and backstroke. Only once did the terror return. When I was in the middle of the lake, I put my face under and saw nothing but bottomless water. The old sensation returned in miniature. I laughed and said, “Well, Mr. Terror, what do you think you can do to me?” It fled and I swam on.

(जुलाई तक यही काम चलता रहा। मगर मैं सन्तुष्ट नहीं हुआ। मुझे विश्वास नहीं था कि मेरा सारा भय समाप्त हो गया है। अतः मैं न्यू हैंपशायर की लेक वैन्टबर्थ गया, ट्रग्स आयलैण्ड में डॉक से कूदा और दो मील झील में तैरकर स्टैंप ऐक्ट आयलैंड पहुँचा। मैंने क्राल, ब्रेस्ट स्ट्रोक, साइड स्ट्रोक और बैक स्ट्रोक को तैरने में प्रयोग किया। केवल एक बार भय लगा जब मैं झील के बीच में था तब मैंने जल में सिर डाला और मुझे अतल जल के अतिरिक्त कुछ नज़र नहीं आया। पुरानी भावना छोटे रूप में लौट आई। मैं हँसा और बोला, “अच्छा, आतंक साहब, आपके ख्याल में आप मेरा क्या बिगाड़ सकते हैं ?” वह भाग गया और मैं तैरता हुआ आगे चला गया।)

Yet I had residual doubts. At my first opportunity, I hurried west, went up the Tieton to Conrad Meadows, up the Conrad Creek Trial to Meade Glacier, and camped in the high meadow by the side of Warm Lake. The next morning I stripped, dived into the lake, and swam across to the other shore and back-just as Doug Corpron used to do. I shouted with joy, and Gilbert Peak returned the echo. I had conquered my fear of water.

(फिर भी मेरे मन में शंका का अंश बाकी था। पहला अवसर मिलते ही मैं पश्चिम की ओर गया, टीटन से ऊपर कोनार्ड मीडोज तक गया, कोनार्ड ग्रीक ट्रेल से मीडे ग्लेशियर तक और वार्म लेक के किनारे हाई मीडोज में पड़ाव डाला। अगले दिन प्रातः मैंने कपड़े उतारे, झील में गोता लगाया और तैरकर दूसरे किनारे तक पहुँचा और फिर तैरकर ही वापस आया-बिल्कुल वैसे जैसे डग कार्पन किया करता था। मैं खुशी से चीख पड़ा और गिलवर्ट पीक ने गूंजकर चीख दोहराई। मैं अपने पानी के भय पर विजय पा चुका था।)

The experience had a deep meaning for me, as only those who have known stark terror and conquered it can appreciate it. In death there is peace. There is terror only in the fear of death, as Roosevelt knew when he said, “All we have to fear is fear itself.” Because I had experienced both the sensation of dying and the terror that fear of it can produce, the will to live somehow grew in intensity. At last, I felt released-free to walk the trails and climb the peaks and to brush aside fear.

(इस अनुभव का मेरे लिए गहरा अर्थ था जिसे सिर्फ वही समझ सकते हैं जिन्होंने शुद्ध भय को जाना है और इस पर विजय पाई है। मृत्यु में एक शान्ति होती है। आतंक तो केवल मृत्यु के भय में होता है जैसा कि रूजवैल्ट जानता था तब उसने कहा, “हमें जिस वस्तु से डरना है वह डर ही है।” क्योंकि मैंने मरने का और मरने के भय के कारण पैदा होने वाले भय, दोनों का ही अनुभव किया था, जीवित रहने की इच्छा कुछ अधिक ही तेज हो गई थी। अन्ततः मुझे मुक्ति का अनुभव हुआ मैं आज़ाद था पगडण्डियों पर चलने के लिए और पहाड़ की चोटियों पर चढ़ने के लिए और भय को एक तरफ छोड़ देने के लिए।)

HBSE 9th Class Science Notes Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources

Haryana State Board HBSE 9th Class Science Notes Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources Notes.

Haryana Board 9th Class Science Notes Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources

→ There are proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and mineral salts in our food.

→ We get food from plants and animals.

→ Green and white revolutions contributed to increase foodgrain production.

→ Sustainable systems are needed to increase the production of foodgrain.

→ For sustained livelihood, it is necessary to undertake mixed farming, intercropping and integrated farming systems.

→ There are thirteen nutrients which are essential for crops. Of these, six are required in large quantities and are known as macro-nutrients. Whereas seven nutrients are required in small quantities and are known as micro-nutrients.

→ Mixed cropping is growing of two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece of land.

→ Now growing of two or more crops in definite row patterns is known as intercropping.

→ Varietal improvement is required for higher yield, good quality, biotic and abiotic resistance, shortening the maturity duration, wider adaptability and desirable agronomic characteristics. Compost or vermicompost and green manure are organic manures.

HBSE 9th Class Science Notes Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources

→ Fertilizers are prepared by chemical reactions.

→ Crop protection is also the helping factor in increasing the crop production.

→ Livestock management is called animal husbandry.

→ Farm animals require proper care and management such as shelter, feeding, breeding and disease control. This is called animal husbandry.

→ Poultry farming is done to raise domestic fowls. Poultry production includes egg production and broiler production for poultry meat.

→ To enhance poultry production, cross breeding is done between Indian and exotic breeds for variety improvement. ,

→ Fish may be obtained from marine resources as well as inland resources.

→ Marine fish capture is done by fishing nets guided by echo-sounders and satellites.

→ Composite fish culture system is commonly used for fish farming.

→ Bee-keeping is done to collect honey and wax.

→ Macro-nutrients: Which nutrients are required in large quantities, are called macro-nutrients. (These are six in number.)

→ Micro-nutrients: Which nutrients are required in small quantities, are called micro-nutrients. (These are seven in number.)

→ Manure: From which matters plants get nutrients, are called manure.

→ Compost: Which matters are prepared by the decomposition of biological wastes, are called compost.

→ Vermi-compost: Which compost is made by using earthworms, is called vermi-compost.

HBSE 9th Class Science Notes Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources

→ Green manure: Manure which is made by the decomposition of green plants, is called green manure.

→ Fertilizer: Manure which is manufactured by artificial processes is called fertilizer.

→ Irrigation: To provide the required water to crops is called irrigation.

→ Soil erosion: To cut or flow away of the upper surface of earth is called soil erosion.

→ Mixed cropping: Growing of two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece of land is called mixed cropping.

→ Intercropping: Growing of two or more crops simultaneously on the same field in a definite pattern is called intercropping.

→ Crop rotation: The growing of different crops on a piece of land in a pre-planned succession is known as crop rotation.

→ Weeds: Weeds are unwanted plants in the cultivated field.

→ Insect pests: Insects which prove harm to the crops are known as insect pests.

→ Pesticides: Chemicals which are used to destroy the pests are called pesticides.

→ Animal husbandry: Management of livestock is called animal husbandry.

→ Milch animals (dairy animals): Milk producing female animals are Called milch animals.

→ Draught animals: The animals used for farm labour are called draught animals.

→ Dairy Animals: Milk-producing animals are called dairy animals.

→ Poultry farming: Chickens, quails and geese are domesticated for egg production and chicken meat is called poultry farming.

→ Layers: Egg-producing hens are called layers.

HBSE 9th Class Science Notes Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources

→ Broilers: Meat-producing chickens are called broilers.

→ Fish farming: Farming for the utilization of shell fish such as prawns and molluscs is called fish farming.

→ Bee-keeping: To collect honey and wax is called bee-keeping.

HBSE 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन

Haryana State Board HBSE 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Haryana Board 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन

HBSE 6th Class Science हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन InText Questions and Answers

पहेली/बूझो

प्रश्न 1.
बूझो ने प्रायः देखा है कि सड़क बनाने वाले। सड़क की मरम्मत करने के लिए एक काले रंग के पदार्थ को गर्म करते हैं। बूझो जानना चाहता है कि काले पदार्थ को गर्म करने पर हुआ परिवर्तन क्या उत्क्रमणीय है ?
उत्तर:
नहीं, इसे उत्क्रमित नहीं किया जा सकता।

प्रश्न 2.
पहेली जानना चाहती है कि क्या आपने कभी लुहार को औजार बनाते हुए देखा है? लोहे के टुकड़े को लुहार किस प्रकार विभिन्न औजारों में परिवर्तित करता है। लोहे के टुकड़े को तब तक गर्म करते हैं जब तक लाल न हो जाए। जब वह मुलायम हो जाता है तब उसको पीटकर इच्छानुसार औजार का आकार दिया जाता है। गर्म करने पर लोहे में क्या परिवर्तन हुआ?
उत्तर:
लोहे के टुकड़े में गर्म करने पर प्रसार हुआ।

HBSE 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन

HBSE 6th Class Science हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन Textbook Questions and Answers

प्रश्न 1.
जब आप जलमग्न इलाके में घूमते हैं तो अपनी पोशाक को मोड़कर उसकी लम्बाई कम कर लेते हैं। क्या इस परिवर्तन को उत्क्रमित किया जा सकता है?
उत्तर:
हाँ, इस परिवर्तन को उत्क्रमित किया जा सकता है। हम अपनी पोशाक को पुनः वापस उसी स्थिति में ला सकते हैं।

प्रश्न 2.
अकस्मात् आपका प्रिय खिलौना गिरकर टूट जाता है। आप कतई इस परिवर्तन को नहीं चाहते थे। क्या यह परिवर्तन उत्क्रमित किया जा सकता है ?
उत्तर:
नहीं, इस परिवर्तन को उत्क्रमित नहीं किया जा सकता है। टूटे हुए खिलौने को वापस नहीं जोड़ा जा सकता है।

प्रश्न 3.
नीचे दी गई सारणी में कुछ परिवर्तन दिए गए हैं। प्रत्येक परिवर्तन के सामने रिक्त स्थान में लिखिए कि वह परिवर्तन उत्क्रमित किया जा सकता है अथवा नहीं?
परिवर्तन – उत्क्रमित किया जा सकता है (हाँ/नहीं)
1. लकड़ी के टुकड़े चीरना – …………..
2. आइसक्रीम का पिघलना – …………..
3. चीनी का जल में घुलना – …………..
4. खाना पकाना – …………..
5. आम का पकना – …………..
6. दूध का दही में जमना – …………..
उत्तर:
परिवर्तन – उत्क्रमित किया जा सकता है (हाँ/नहीं)
1. लकड़ी के टुकड़े चीरना – नहीं
2. आइसक्रीम का पिघलना – हाँ
3. चीनी का जल में घुलना – हाँ
4. खाना पकाना – नहीं
5. आम का पकना – नहीं
6. दूध का दही में जमना – नहीं

HBSE 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन

प्रश्न 4.
चित्रकारी करने पर ड्राइंगशीट में परिवर्तन हो जाता है। क्या आप इस परिवर्तन को उत्क्रमित कर सकते हैं?
उत्तर:
यदि ड्राइंगशीट पर चित्रकारी पेंसिल से की गई है तो इसे उत्क्रमित किया जा सकता है। यदि चित्रकारी रंगों से की गई है तो उत्क्रमित नहीं किया जा सकता है।

प्रश्न 5.
उदाहरण देकर उत्क्रमित किए जाने वाले तथा उत्क्रमित न किए जाने वाले परिवर्तनों में अन्तर स्पष्ट कीजिए।
उत्तर:
कुछ परिवर्तन जो उत्क्रमित कुछ परिवर्तन जो उत्क्रमित किए जा सकते हैं। नहीं किए जा सकते हैं

कुछछ परिवर्तन जो उत्क्रमित किए जा सकते हैं कुछ परिवर्तन जो उत्क्रमित नहीं किए जा सकते हैं
उदाहरण उदाहरण
1. बर्फ का पिघ्यलना 1. मोमबत्ती का जलना
2. जल का वाष्प में बदलना 2. दूध का दही बनना
3. कागज को मोड़कर हवाई जहाज बनाना 3. आम का पकना

प्रश्न 6.
टूटी हुई हड्डी पर बंधी पट्टी के ऊपर प्लास्टर ऑफ पेरिस (POP) की एक मोटी परत चढ़ाई जाती है। सूखने पर यह कठोर हो जाती है जिससे टूटी हड्डी हिलती नहीं है। क्या POP में हुए परिवर्तन को उत्क्रमित कर सकते
उत्तर:
नहीं, POP में हुये परिवर्तन को उत्क्रमित नहीं किया जा सकता है।

प्रश्न 7.
रात्रि में एक सीमेंट की बोरी जो खुले मैदान मरखा हड्था, वर्षा के कारण भीग जाती है। अगले दिन तेज धूप निकलती है। सीमेंट में जो परिवर्तन हो गया है क्या उसे उत्क्रमित कर सकते हैं?
उत्तर:
नहीं, सीमेंट में हुए परिवर्तन को उत्क्रमित नहीं कर सकते हैं।

HBSE 6th Class Science हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन Important Questions and Answers

वस्तुनिष्ठ प्रश्न

I. बहुविकल्पी प्रश्न : निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों में सही विकल्प का चयन कीजिए

1. परिवर्तन है-
(क) फूल खिलना
(ख) कपड़े सूखना
(ग) पेड़ से पत्ती गिरना
(घ) ये सभी
उत्तर:
(घ) ये सभी

2. गुब्बारे में फेंक से हवा भरने पर इसका होता है
(क) संकुचन
(ख) संघनन
(ग) प्रसार
(घ) कोई नहीं
उत्तर:
(ग) प्रसार

3. परिवर्तन होते हैं
(क) एक प्रकार के
(ख) दो प्रकार के
(ग) तीन प्रकार के
(घ) चार प्रकार के
उत्तर:
(ख) दो प्रकार के

4. मोमबत्ती का जलना परिवर्तन है
(क) उत्क्रमित होने वाला
(ख) उत्क्रमित न होने वाला
(ग) दोनों
(घ) कोई नहीं
उत्तर:
(ख) उत्क्रमित न होने वाला

HBSE 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन

II. रिक्त स्थान : निम्नलिखित वाक्यों में रिक्त स्थान भरिए

1. पेंसिल को बार-बार उपयोग करने पर इसके …………………., …………………. में परिवर्तन हो जाता है।
2. जब हम किसी धातु की वस्तु को गर्म करते हैं तो इसका …………………. हो जाता है।
3. …………………. करने पर द्रव जल में परिवर्तित हो जाता है।
4. मोमबत्ती को थोड़ी देर जल जाने के पश्चात उसकी …………………. में परिवर्तन होता है।
उत्तर:
1. आकार, आमाप
2. प्रसार
3. ठंडा
4. लम्बाई।

III. सुमेलन : कॉलम ‘A’ के शब्दों का मिलान कॉलम ‘B’ के शब्दों से कीजिए

कॉलम ‘A’ (प्रक्रम) कॉलम ‘B’ (परिवर्तन)
1. गुब्बारे में अत्यधिक हवा भरना (i) द्रव में बदलना
2. बर्फ को गर्म करना (ii) छोटा आकार होना
3. चॉक स्टिक को घिसना (iii) रोटी बनना
4. आटे की लोई को बेलना (iv) फट जाता है।

उत्तर:

कॉलम ‘A’ (प्रक्रम) कॉलम ‘B’ (परिवर्तन)
1. गुब्बारे में अत्यधिक हवा भरना (iv) फट जाता है।
2. बर्फ को गर्म करना (i) द्रव में बदलना
3. चॉक स्टिक को घिसना (ii) छोटा आकार होना
4. आटे की लोई को बेलना (iii) रोटी बनना

IV. सत्य/असत्य : निम्नलिखित वाक्यों में सत्य एवं असत्य कथन छाँटिए

1. कागज को मोड़कर कई आकारों में बदल सकते हैं।
2. आटे को गूंथकर इससे पुन: आटा नहीं बनाया जा सकता।
3. जली हुई मोमबत्ती से पुनः नई मोमबत्ती बना सकते हैं।
4. बर्फ को पिघलाकर पानी बनाया जा सकता है।
उत्तर:
1. सत्य
2. सत्य
3. असत्य
4. सत्य।

अति लघु उत्तरीय प्रश्न

प्रश्न 1.
गुब्बारे में हवा भरने पर उसमें क्या परिवर्तन होते हैं? (क्रिया कलाप)
उत्तर:
आकार एवं आमाप में परिवर्तन हो जाते हैं।

प्रश्न 2.
कागज को मोड़कर आप क्या बना सकते हैं? (कोई दो) (क्रिया कलाप)
उत्तर:

  • जहाज
  • नाव।

HBSE 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन

प्रश्न 3.
गुब्बारे में हवा भरकर फुलाना, कागज से नाव बनाना, गुंधे आटे से लोई बनाना आदि में एक जैसा क्या है?
उत्तर:
सभी में परिवर्तन होते हैं और सभी को अपनी पूर्व स्थिति में लाया जा सकता है।

प्रश्न 4.
जब हम किसी धातु को गर्म करते हैं तो क्या होता है ? (क्रिया कलाप)
उत्तर:
धातु में प्रसार होता है।

प्रश्न 5.
दो उत्क्रमित किए जा सकने वाले परिवर्तन लिखिए।
उत्तर:

  • पानी से बर्फ बनना।
  • दूध को गर्म करना।

प्रश्न 6.
क्या सभी परिवर्तनों को उत्क्रमित किया जा सकता है?
उत्तर:
नहीं, सभी परिवर्तनों को उत्क्रमित नहीं किया जा सकता। कुछ परिवर्तन उत्क्रमित करने योग्य नहीं होते।

प्रश्न 7.
ठंडा करने पर कुछ वस्तुएँ छोटी हो जाती हैं। इसे क्या कहते हैं?
उत्तर:
संकुचन।

प्रश्न 8.
ऐसे दो परिवर्तनों के नाम लिखिए, जो उत्क्रमित नहीं किए जा सकते।
उत्तर:
1. आम का पकना
2. दूध का दही में जमना।

HBSE 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन

प्रश्न 9.
दो प्राकृतिक परिवर्तनों के नाम लिखिए जो आपके आस-पास होते हैं।
उत्तर:
1. बादलों का बनना
2. गीले कपड़े का सूखना।

प्रश्न 10.
मोमबत्ती जल रही है। क्या इसमें कोई परिवर्तन हो रहा है ?
उत्तर:
हाँ, मोमबत्ती के जलने से परिवर्तन हो रहा है।

लघु उत्तरीय प्रश्न

प्रश्न 1.
अपने घर पर बनने वाले पकवानों को देखिए। इनमें होने वाले कोई दो ऐसे परिवर्तन बताइए जिन्हें उत्क्रमित किया जा सके।
उत्तर:
(1) गुंथे आटे की लोई से रोटी और रोटी से लोई बनायी जा सकती है (रोटी को बिना सुखाए या सेंककर)।
(2) चीनी से शर्बत तथा वाष्पन करके चीनी।

प्रश्न 2.
गर्म करने पर किसी वस्तु का प्रसार होता है। इस परिवर्तन का एक उदाहरण लिखिए।
उत्तर:
लकड़ी के पहिए पर लोहे की रिम को कसने के लिए, रिम को गर्म किया जाता है, जिससे रिम में प्रसार हो जाता है। अब इसे लकड़ी के पहिए पर चढ़ाकर ठंडा पानी डाल दिया जाता है जिससे रिम संकुचित होकर पहिए पर कस जाती है।
HBSE 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन -1
चित्र: धातु रिम जड़ित बैलगाड़ी का पहिया

HBSE 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन

प्रश्न 3.
जल को गर्म तथा ठंडा करने पर इसमें किस प्रकार के परिवर्तन होते हैं? समझाइये।
उत्तर:
जब हम जल को तीव्र गर्म करते हैं तो यह उबलने लगता है और अधिक गर्म करने पर जल वाष्प में बदलने लगता है। यदि वाष्प को ठंडा किया जाता है तो यह जल में बदल जाती है। यदि इसे अत्यधिक ठंडा किया जाता है तो यह बर्फ बन जाता है।

प्रश्न 4.
उत्क्रमित न होने वाले परिवर्तन के लिए एक क्रियाकलाप लिखिए।
उत्तर:
एक छोटी मोमबत्ती लेकर उसकी लम्बाई नाप लीजिए। अब इसे सही जगह रखाकर जलाएँ। कुछ देर बाद मोमबत्ती को बुझा दें तथा पुनः उसकी लम्बाई मापें। हम देखते हैं कि मोमबत्ती छोटी हो गई है जिसे पुनः पूरा नहीं किया जा सकता।
HBSE 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन -2
चित्र : मोमबत्ती का जलना

प्रश्न 5.
निम्नलिखित में से उत्क्रमित होने वाले तथा उत्क्रमित न होने वाले परिवर्तन छाँटिए-
लकड़ी का जलना, लोहे में जंग लगना, चीनी का पानी में घुलना, कपड़े का गीला होना, POP का जमना, कागज का जहाज बनाना।
उत्तर:

उत्क्रमित किए जाने वाले परिवर्तन उत्क्रमित न किए जाने वाले परिवर्तन
(i) चीनी का पानी में घुलना (i) लकड़ी का जलना
(ii) कपड़े का गीला होना (ii) लोहे में जंग लगना
(iii) कागज का जहाज बनाना (iii) POP का जमना

HBSE 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन

प्रश्न 6.
वाष्यन तथा गलन को परिभाषित कीजिए।
उत्तर:
वाष्पन- पानी का उबलकर वाष्प के रूप में परिवर्तन होना वाष्पन कहलाता है।
गलन- किसी ठोस पदार्थ को गर्म करने पर उसका पिघलना गलन कहलाता है।

प्रश्न 7.
कॉलम I तथा कॉलम II का मिलान कीजिए-

कॉलमा I कॉलम II
(क) किसी चीज का द्रव में बदलना जब उसे गर्म किया जाए (i) वाष्पन
(ख) ठंडी करने पर धातु का संकुचित होना (ii) प्रसार
(ग) मूल पदार्थ और अवस्था की पुनः प्राप्ति (iii) गलन
(घ) आकार में विस्तार (iv) संकुचन
(छ) जल का वाष्प में परिवर्तन (v) उत्क्रमण

उत्तर:

कॉलमा I कॉलम II
(क) किसी चीज का द्रव में बदलना जब उसे गर्म किया जाए (iii) गलन
(ख) ठंडी करने पर धातु का संकुचित होना (iv) संकुचन
(ग) मूल पदार्थ और अवस्था की पुनः प्राप्ति (v) उत्क्रमण
(घ) आकार में विस्तार (i) वाष्पन
(छ) जल का वाष्प में परिवर्तन (ii) प्रसार

दीर्घ उत्तरीय प्रश्न

प्रश्न 1.
आपके आस-पास होने वाले कुछ परिवर्तनों की सूची बनाइए तथा लिखिए कि उन्हें उत्क्रमित किया जा सकता है या नहीं। (क्रिया कलाप)
उत्तर:
सारणी-कुछ सामान्य परिवर्तन

परिवर्तन उत्क्रमित किया जा सकता है
1. कच्चे अण्डे से उबला हुआ अंडा नहीं
2. गाढ़े घोल से इडली नहीं
3. गीले कपड़े से सूखे कपड़े हाँ
4. ऊन के धागे से बुना हुआ स्वेटर हाँ
5. अनाज से बनाया गया आटा नहीं
6. ठंडे दूध से गर्म दूध हाँ
7. सीधी डोरी से कुंडलित डोरी नहीं
8. कली से फूल नहीं
9. दूध से पनीर नहीं
10. गाय के गोबर से बायोगैस हाँ
11. खिंचे रबड़ से सामान्य साइज का रबड़ हाँ
12. जमी हुई आइसक्रीम से पिघली हुई आइसक्रीम हाँ

प्रश्न 2.
लकड़ी के हत्थे लगाने से पहले औजार प्रायः गर्म किए जाते हैं। उदाहरण सहित कारण लिखिए।
उत्तर:
लोहे के बने कुछ औजारों; जैसे-हथौड़ा, फावड़ा, कुदाल, खुरपी, बेलचा आदि में लकड़ी के हत्थे लगाए जाते हैं। औजारों में लकड़ी का हत्था सही तरह से कसने के लिए इन्हें पहले गर्म किया जाता है। गर्म करने पर औजारों के इन भागों का प्रसार हो जाता है जिनमें हत्था फँसाना है। ऐसा करने से लकड़ी का हत्था उसमें प्रवेश कर जाता है। परन्तु हत्था फँसाने के तुरन्त बाद पानी में डालकर इन्हें ठण्डा कर लिया जाता है जिससे औजारों के वलय में संकुचन होकर हत्था औजारों में ठीक से फैंस जाता है।
HBSE 6th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन -3
चित्र : लकड़ी के हत्थे लगाने से पहले औजार प्रायः गर्म किए जाते हैं

HBSE 7th Class Science Solutions Chapter 6 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन

प्रश्न 3.
प्राकृतिक तथा कृत्रिम परिवर्तनों के पाँच-पाँच उदाहरण लिखिए।
उत्तर:

प्राकृतिक परिवर्तन कृत्रिम परिवर्तन
(i) बादल बनना (i) आटे से लोई बनाना
(ii) पौधों की लम्बाई बढ़ना (ii) उबालने पर अण्डे का जमना
(iii) पहाड़ों पर बर्फ पिघलना (iii) ध से दही बनना
(iv) कली का पुष्प में बदलना (iv) कपड़े को गीला करना
(v) फलों का पकना। (v) मोमबत्ती जलाना।

 हमारे चारों ओर के परिवर्तन Class 6 HBSE Notes in Hindi

→ हमारे आस-पास अनेक परिवर्तन अपने आप होते रहते हैं।
→ पौधों पर नयी-नयी पत्तियाँ आती हैं, ये रंग बदलती हैं, पुष्प खिलते हैं तथा मुरझा जाते हैं। बादल बनते हैं, वर्षा होती है, मिट्टी गीली होती है और सूख जाती है। हवाएँ चलती हैं, नदियाँ बहती हैं आदि अनेक परिवर्तन हैं, जो स्वयं होते रहते हैं।
→ हमारे आस-पास होने वाले परिवर्तनों को दो वर्गों में बाँटा जा सकता है-

  • परिवर्तन जिन्हें उत्क्रमित किया जा सकता है।
  • परिवर्तन जिन्हें उत्क्रमित नहीं किया जा सकता है।

→ पदार्थों को गर्म करके या किसी अन्य पदार्थ के साथ मिश्रित करके उनमें परिवर्तन लाए जा सकते हैं।
→ पदार्थ को गर्म करके प्रसार और संकुचन के परिवर्तन का उपयोग लोहे के रिम को लकड़ी के पहिए पर कसने के लिए होता है।
→ परिवर्तन – परिवर्तन का अर्थ है बदलाव अर्थात् किसी प्रक्रम का नतीजा मूल पदार्थ से अलग होना।
→ प्रसार – आकार में बढ़ोत्तरी अथवा प्रसार।
→ संकुचन – सिकुड़ने की क्रिया या छोटे होने की क्रिया।
→ वाष्यन – जल की उसकी गैस अवस्था में बदलाव होने की क्रिया।
→ गलन – किसी भी वस्तु का द्रव में बदलना जब उसे गर्म किया जाए।

HBSE 9th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Why Do We Fall Ill

Haryana State Board HBSE 9th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Why Do We Fall Ill Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Haryana Board 9th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Why Do We Fall Ill

HBSE 9th Class Science Why Do We Fall Ill Intext Questions and Answers

Questions from Sub-section 13.1

Question 1.
State any two conditions essential for good health.
Answer:
Following are the two conditions essential for good health :
(i) Community cleanliness
(ii) Balanced diet.

Question 2.
State any two conditions essential for being free of diseases.
Answer:
Following are the two conditions essential for being free of diseases :
(1) Clean environment
(ii) Good habits and regular exercise.

Question 3.
Are the answers to the above questions necessarily the same or different ? Why ?
Answer:
The answers to the above questions are necessarily same because to keep good health or diseases free are almost same situation.

HBSE 9th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Why Do We Fall Ill

Questions from Sub-section 13.2

Question 1.
List any three reasons why you would think that you are sick and ought to see a doctor. If only one of these symptoms were present, would you still go to the doctor ? Why or why not ?
Answer:
There can be many
(i) cough
(ii) fever
(iii) weakness.

If the given symptoms appear for a small period of time, there is no need to go to a doctor, because the immune system of our body stops these quickly and makes the body free of the effects of any disease. But if persistent cough prevails, lungs may be infected. If fever persists, it can be due to a serious ailmant T.B. If there is nutritious deficiency, it can lead to general weakness. In conditions like these, it is proper to go to a physician, so that the real course of the symptoms may be as certained and it can be cured.

Question 2.
In which of the following case do you think the long term effects on your health are likely to be most unpleasant ?

  • If you get jaundice.
  • If you get lice.
  • If you get acne. Why?

Answer:
If we’re suffering from jaundice, it is most likely to have ill effects on our health. Jaundice is a disease that effect the liver, which is an important organ of the body and which has an important role to play in our body. So the body of the person suffering from jaundice is predominantly affected. The effect of getting lice or acne are not so predominant.

HBSE 9th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Why Do We Fall Ill

Questions from Sub-section 13.3

Question 1.
Why are we normally advised to take bland and nourishing food when we are sick?
Answer:
Bland and nourishing food is recommended to sick people so that it is easily digested and there is reimbursement of the nutrients lost due to sickness.

Question 2.
What are the different means by which infectious diseases are spread?
Answer:
Infectious diseases spread through the following methods:
1. Through ai: Many disease particles spread in the air due to sneezing, coughing, talking, spitting or defecating. When a healthy person breathes in the air containing these disease particles, the person catches the disease.

2. Through water: Pathogens of cholera, tuberculosis etc., get mixed in drinking water and enter the body. The disease spreads by washing utensils or vegetables and fruits in polluted water. It also spreads when the clothes of an infected person are washed near a source of water or he defecates near it.

3. Through food:
Pathogens present in foodstuffs also enter the body and make the person infected. It is harmful to take stale or cold food.

4. Individual contact:
Coming in contact with the patient’s clothes, bedding, utensils, towel or directly with the patient also transmits the pathogens.

5. Through animals: Some animals like houseflies, mosquitoes, mice etc., also play the role of vectors. By polluting food the pathogens are left there which ultimately enter the human body. Malaria is spread by mosquito bite while cholera spreads through houseflies and plague through mice.

Question 3.
What precautions can you take in your school to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases?
Answer:
Following precautions should be taken:
(i) Chlorination of drinking water should be done.
(ii) All the eatables in the school canteen should be kept covered.
(iii) The sale of stale fruits and other eatables should be prohibited.
(iv) If a student catches an infectious disease he should not be allowed to mix up with his classmates in the classroom as well as in the playground till he fully recovers.
(v) Children should be properly educated about personal as well as community hygiene.
(vi) To prevent communicable diseases all children should be given proper vaccination.

HBSE 9th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Why Do We Fall Ill

Question 4.
What is immunisation?
Answer:
The strength produced in the body to resist diseases is called immunity for example; disease producer is got entered into the body. This disease producer combats with the blood cells. In reaction to that some specific chemical substances are produced. These various substances destroy the pathogens in the body and thus, produce the ability of resistivity to combat diseases. It is called as immunity of the body and this process is called as immunisation.

Question 5.
What are the immunisation programmes available at the nearest health centre in your locality? Which of these diseases are the major health problems in your area ?
Answer:
In our town health centre following vaccination programmes are available:

  • National tuberculosis eradication programme.
  • National, cholera eradication programme.
  • National leprosy eradication programme.
  • National polio eradication campaign.
  • National child communicable disease eradication (vaccination of children).

Generally, in all cities and towns problems in relation to hygienic environment community hygienic and pure drinking water one quite common. In proper disposal of garbage in cities and towns is responsible for polluting the environment. Pure water is not being available. Air and water pollution have been adding to health problems.

HBSE 9th Class Science Why Do We Fall Ill Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
How many times did you fall ill in the last one year? What were the illnesses?
(i) Think of one change you could make in your habits in order to avoid any of/most of the above illnesses.
(ii) Think of one change you would wish for in your surroundings in order to avoid any of/most of the above illnesses.
Answer:
Every person can suffer from a minor or major diseases at any time. Hardly a few persons can be there who do not develop any disease, but even then due to some reasons health can be affected. I also fell ill in the last year. I had suffered from malaria.
(i) Different safety measures can be adopted to get rid of malaria. It can be avoided by filling the pits and landfills around our neighbourhood with soil and sand, drain blockage should be removed, water should be drained out from the flower pots, desert cooler-tanks and empty vessels in our houses, at night net and mosquito repellent cream should be applied to the skin. The doors and windows in the houses should be equipped with wire-gauze.

(ii) The growth of mosquitoes can be checked by keeping our surroundings clean and tidy pits and drains must not be let overflow or choked with stagnant water. Unwanted bushes or weeds should be destroyed.

HBSE 9th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Why Do We Fall Ill

Question 2.
A doctor/nurse/health worker is exposed to more sick people than others in the community. Find out how she/he avoids getting sick herself/himself.
Answer:
Doctors, nurses and health workers immensely remain in contact with patients than other people. To protect themselves from harmful bacteria or microbes following safety measures are adopted by them :
(1) They are habitual wearing washed and clean clothes every day.
(2) While examining a patient, doctor use to cover their mouth and nose with a mask so that the least microbes carry ing infection should not enter their body through breathing.
(3) Nurses and other medical workers wear rubber gloves while injecting or dressing a patient, so that they may not come in direct contact with the patient.
(4) After examining a patient, a doctor or another person at help wash up their hands with an antiseptic solution.
(5) Whole of the staff in the hospital is much concerned about common hygiene. The floors of the wards and rooms are swabbed with disinfectant phenyl regularly.
(6) The garbage and waste should be destroyed with scientific methods.

Question 3.
Conduct a survey in your neighbourhood to find out what the three most common diseases are. Suggest three steps that could be taken by your local authorities to bring down the incidence of these diseases.
Answer:
On conducting a survey in the neighbourhood it was found that the three most common diseases in my locality are:
(i) Diarrhoea and expectoration (vomiting)
(ii) Malaria
(iii) Cough and cold.

Following are the three suggestions to immunise ourselves against these diseases :
(1) There is a great need to take care of the eatables and drinking water they must be protected against any kind of pollution.
(2) Ensure that the water is covered so that mosquitoes can’t breed and we can have safe drinking water.
(3) Maintaining cleanliness and proper disposal system is needed.

HBSE 9th Class Science Solutions Chapter 13 Why Do We Fall Ill

Question 4.
A baby is not able to tell her/his caretakers that she/he is sick. What would help us to find out
(a) that the baby is sick?
(b) what is the sickness?
Answer:
(a) If a baby is not able to tell his/her caretaker that he/she is sick then body symptoms should be observed by the caretaker. The caretaker should take the baby to the doctor, if she or he finds a clue that the baby is sick. Some symptoms that can be observed are :
1. If the baby cries continuously.
2. If the baby doesn’t want to eat anything.
3. If the baby feels irritated all the time.

(b) Kind of sickness can be known by certain symptoms e.g. yellowness of skin and eyes, redness in eye may indicate conjunctivitis.

Question 5.
Under which of the following conditions is a person most likely to fall sick?
(a) when she is recovering from malaria.
(b) when she has recovered from malaria and is taking care of someone suffering from chicken pox.
(c) when she is on a four-day fast after recovering from malaria and is taking care of someone suffering from chicken pox. Why?
Answer:
A person is most likely to fall sick when she is on a four-day fast after recovering from malaria and is taking care of someone suffering from chicken pox. This is because since she has suffered from malaria and is in the recovery phase, it means that she is still not completely disease-free. Her chances of getting chicken pox are also high as her body has lowered.

Question 6.
Under which of the following conditions are you most likely to fall sick?
(a) when you are taking examinations.
(b) when you have travelled by bus and train for two days.
(c) when your friend is suffering from measles. Why?
Answer:
(a) I am most likely to fall sick when my friend is suffering from measles. Measles is a viral infection. It is a contagious disease. It spreads through contact with infected mucus and saliva. The virus can sustain for several hours. Even coming in contact or sharing items with an infected person results in the spread of disease.

HBSE 11th Class Geography Important Questions and Answers

Haryana Board HBSE 11th Class Geography Important Questions and Answers

HBSE 11th Class Geography Important Questions in Hindi Medium

HBSE 11th Class Geography Important Questions: भौतिक भूगोल के मूल सिद्धांत

HBSE 11th Class Geography Important Questions: भारत-भौतिक पर्यावरण

HBSE 11th Class Geography Important Questions in English Medium

HBSE 11th Class Geography Important Questions: Fundamentals of Physical Geography

  • Chapter 1 Geography as a Discipline
  • Chapter 2 The Origin and Evolution of the Earth
  • Chapter 3 Structure of the Earth’s Interior
  • Chapter 4 Distribution of Oceans and Continents
  • Chapter 5 Minerals and Rocks
  • Chapter 6 Geomorphic Processes
  • Chapter 7 Landforms and Their Evolution
  • Chapter 8 Composition and Structure of Atmosphere
  • Chapter 9 Solar Radiation, Heat Balance and Temperature
  • Chapter 10 Atmospheric Circulation and Weather Systems
  • Chapter 11 Water in the Atmosphere
  • Chapter 12 World Climate and Climate Change
  • Chapter 13 Oceanic Water
  • Chapter 14 Movement of the Ocean Water
  • Chapter 15 Life on the Earth
  • Chapter 16 Biodiversity and Conservation

HBSE 11th Class Geography Important Questions: India: Physical Environment

  • Chapter 1 India-Location
  • Chapter 2 Structure and Physiography
  • Chapter 3 Drainage System
  • Chapter 4 Climate
  • Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation
  • Chapter 6 Soils
  • Chapter 7 Natural Hazards and Disasters

HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2

Haryana State Board HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

Haryana Board 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Exercise 6.2

यदि एक रेखा किसी त्रिभुज की दो भुजाओं को एक ही अनुपात में विभाजित करे, तो वह तीसरी भुजा के समांतर होती है। [आधारभूत समानुपातिकता प्रमेय का विलोम]
हल :
दिया है : ΔABC में एक रेखा l भुजाओं AB और AC को क्रमशः D और E पर इस प्रकार काटती है कि \(\frac{\mathrm{AD}}{\mathrm{DB}}=\frac{\mathrm{AE}}{\mathrm{EC}}\)
सिद्ध करना है : DE || BC
उपपत्ति: माना DE ∦ BC तब D से DE’ || BC खींचे।
अब, क्योंकि DE’ || BC.
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 01
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 02
[atex]\frac{\mathrm{AC}}{\mathrm{E}^{\prime} \mathrm{C}}=\frac{\mathrm{AC}}{\mathrm{EC}}[/latex]
E’C || EC.
परंतु यह तभी संभव है जब E तथा E’ संपाती हों अर्थात् DE’ रेखा l हो जबकि DE’ || BC अतः
DE || BC [इति सिद्धम]

HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2

प्रश्न 1.
आकृति (i) और (ii) में, DE || BC है। (i) में EC और (ii) में AD ज्ञात कीजिए-
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 1
हल :
(i) दिया है, AD = 1.5cm, DB = 3cm, AE = 1cm, EC = ?
क्योंकि ΔABC में DE || BC,
इसलिए \(\frac{\mathrm{AD}}{\mathrm{DB}}=\frac{\mathrm{AE}}{\mathrm{EC}}\)
\(\frac{1.5}{3}=\frac{1}{E C}\)
1.5 EC = 3 x 1
EC = \(\frac{3 \times 1}{1.5}\)= 2cm

(ii) दिया है, DB = 7.2cm, AE = 1.8cm, EC = 5.4cm, AD = ?
क्योंकि ΔABC में DE || BC,
इसलिए \(\frac{A D}{D B}=\frac{A E}{E C}\)
\(\frac{\mathrm{AD}}{7.2}=\frac{1.8}{5.4}\)
DB – EC AD 1.8 7.2 5.4
AD = \(\frac{1.8 \times 7.2}{5.4}\) = 2.4 cm

प्रश्न 2.
किसी APQR की भुजाओं PQ और PR पर क्रमशः बिंदु E और F स्थित हैं। निम्नलिखित में से प्रत्येक स्थिति के लिए, बताइए कि क्या EF || QR है
(i) PE = 3.9cm, EQ = 3cm, PF = 3.6cm और FR = 2.4cm
(ii) PE = 4cm, QE = 4.5cm, PF = 8cm और RF = 9cm
(iii) PQ = 1.28cm, PR = 2.56cm, PE = 0.18cm 3 PF = 0.36cm
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 1-1
हल :
(i) दिया है, PE = 3.9cm, EQ = 3cm, PF = 3.6cm, FR = 2.4cm
अब,
\(\frac{\mathrm{PE}}{\mathrm{EQ}}=\frac{3.9}{3}=\frac{39}{30}=\frac{13}{10}\) ……………(i)
\(\frac{\mathrm{PF}}{\mathrm{FR}}=\frac{3.6}{2.4}=\frac{36}{24}=\frac{3}{2}\) ……………(ii)
समीकरण (i) व (ii) से,
\(\frac{\mathrm{PF}}{\mathrm{FR}}=\frac{3.6}{2.4}=\frac{36}{24}=\frac{3}{2}\)
\(\frac{\mathrm{PE}}{\mathrm{EQ}} \neq \frac{\mathrm{PF}}{\mathrm{FR}}\)
अतः EF समांतर नहीं है QR अर्थात् EF ∦ QR

(iii) दिया है, PE = 4cm, QE = 4.5cm, PF = 8cm, RF = 9cm
अब,
\(\frac{P E}{E Q}=\frac{4}{4.5}=\frac{40}{45}=\frac{8}{9}\) …………….(i)
\(\frac{\mathrm{PF}}{\mathrm{FR}}=\frac{8}{9}\) …………..(ii)
समीकरण (i) व (ii) से,
\(\frac{\mathrm{PE}}{\mathrm{EQ}}=\frac{\mathrm{PF}}{\mathrm{FR}}\)
अतः EF || QR

(iii) दिया है, PQ = 1.28cm, PR = 2.56cm, PE = 0.18cm, PF = 0.36cm
EQ=PQ-PE = 1.28 -0.18 = 1.10cm
FR = PR-PF = 2.56-0.36 = 2.20cm
अब,
\(\frac{\mathrm{PE}}{\mathrm{EQ}}=\frac{0.18}{1.10}=\frac{18}{110}=\frac{9}{55}\) ……………(i)
\(\frac{\mathrm{PF}}{\mathrm{FR}}=\frac{0.36}{2.20}=\frac{36}{220}=\frac{9}{55}\) ……………(ii)
समीकरण (i) व (ii) से,
\(\frac{\mathrm{PE}}{\mathrm{EQ}}=\frac{\mathrm{PF}}{\mathrm{FR}}\)
अतः EF || QR

HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2

प्रश्न 3.
संलग्न आकृति में यदि LM || CB और LN || CD हो तो सिद्ध कीजिए कि \(\frac{A M}{A B}=\frac{A N}{A D}\) है।
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 2
हल :
ΔABC में LM || BC
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 4
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 5

प्रश्न 4.
संलग्न आकृति में DE || AC और DF ||AE है। सिद्ध कीजिए कि \(\frac{\mathbf{B F}}{\mathbf{F E}}=\frac{\mathbf{B E}}{\mathbf{E C}}\) है।
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 3
हल :
ΔABC में DE || AC (दिया है)
\(\frac{\mathrm{BD}}{\mathrm{AD}}=\frac{\mathrm{BE}}{\mathrm{EC}}\) ……. (i)
ΔABE में DF || AE (दिया है)
[ltex]\frac{\mathrm{BD}}{\mathrm{AD}}=\frac{\mathrm{BF}}{\mathrm{FE}}[/latex] ……. (ii)
समीकरण (i) व (ii) की तुलना से,
\(\frac{\mathrm{BF}}{\mathrm{FE}}=\frac{\mathrm{BE}}{\mathrm{EC}}\) (इति सिद्धम)

प्रश्न 5.
संलग्न आकृति में DE || OQ और DF || OR है। दर्शाइए कि EF || QR है।
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 6
हल :
ΔPQO में DE || OQ है
\(\frac{P E}{E Q}=\frac{P D}{D O}\) ……. (i)
ΔPRO में DF || OR है
\(\frac{\mathrm{PF}}{\mathrm{FR}}=\frac{\mathrm{PD}}{\mathrm{DO}}\) …… (ii)
समीकरण (i) व (ii) की तुलना से,
\(\frac{\mathrm{PE}}{\mathrm{EQ}}=\frac{\mathrm{PF}}{\mathrm{FR}}\)
अब क्योंकि ΔPQR में
\(\frac{\mathrm{PE}}{\mathrm{EQ}}=\frac{\mathrm{PF}}{\mathrm{FR}}\)
EF || QR (इति सिद्धम)

प्रश्न 6.
संलग्न आकृति में क्रमशः OP,OQ और OR पर स्थित बिंदु A, B और C इस प्रकार हैं कि AB || PQ और AC || PR है। दर्शाइए कि BC ||QR है।
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 7
हल :
ΔPOQ में AB || PQ है
\(\frac{\mathrm{OA}}{\mathrm{AP}}=\frac{\mathrm{OB}}{\mathrm{BQ}}\) …………..(i)
ΔPOR में AC || PR है
\(\frac{\mathrm{OA}}{\mathrm{AP}}=\frac{\mathrm{OC}}{\mathrm{CR}}\) ….. (ii)
समीकरण (i) व (ii) की तुलना से,
\(\frac{O B}{B Q}=\frac{O C}{C R}\)
अतःΔOQR में BC || QR (इति सिद्धम)

प्रश्न 7.
प्रमेय 6.1 (आधारभूत समानुपातिकता प्रमेय) का प्रयोग करते हुए सिद्ध कीजिए कि एक त्रिभुज की एक भुजा के मध्य-बिंदु से होकर दूसरी भुजा के समांतर खींची गई रेखा तीसरी भुजा को समद्विभाजित करती है। (याद कीजिए कि आप इसे कक्षा IX में सिद्ध कर चुके हैं।)
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 8
हल :
दिया है : एक ΔABC में AB के मध्य-बिंदु D से एक रेखा ! ||BC खींची गई जो AC को E पर प्रतिच्छेद करती है।
सिद्ध करना है : E, AC का मध्य-बिंदु है।
उपपत्तिः क्योंकि D, AB का मध्य-बिंदु है, इसलिए,
AD = DB
\(\frac{\mathrm{AD}}{\mathrm{DB}}=\frac{1}{1}\)
परंतु ΔABC में l || BC
\(\frac{A D}{D B}=\frac{A E}{E C}\) (आधारभूत समानुपातिकता प्रमेय के अनुसार) ….(ii)
समीकरण (i) व (ii) की तुलना से,
\(\frac{\mathrm{AE}}{\mathrm{EC}}=\frac{1}{1}\)
(इति सिद्धम)
AE = EC
अतः E, AC का मध्य-बिंदु है।

प्रश्न 8.
प्रमेय 6.2 (आधारभूत समानुपातिकता प्रमेय के विलोम) का प्रयोग करते हुए सिद्ध कीजिए कि एक त्रिभुज की किन्हीं दो भुजाओं के मध्य-बिंदुओं को मिलाने वाली रेखा तीसरी भुजा के समांतर होती है। (याद कीजिए कि आप कक्षा IX में ऐसा कर चुके हैं।)
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 9
हल :
दिया है : एक ΔABC में D और E क्रमशः भुजाओं AB और AC के मध्य-बिंदु हैं।
सिद्ध करना है : DE || BC
उपपत्ति : क्योंकि D, भुजा AB का मध्य-बिंदु है,
AD = DB
\(\frac{\mathrm{AD}}{\mathrm{DB}}=\frac{1}{1}\) ………….(i)
इसी प्रकार E, भुजा AC का मध्य-बिंदु है।
AE = EC
\(\frac{\mathrm{AE}}{\mathrm{EC}}=\frac{1}{1}\) ….(ii)
समीकरण (i) व (ii) की तुलना से,
\(\frac{A D}{D B}=\frac{A E}{E C}\)
अतः रेखा DE भुजाओं AB और AC को समानुपात में विभाजित करती है। आधारभूत समानुपातिकता प्रमेय के विलोम अनुसार,
DE || BC (इति सिद्धम)

HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2

प्रश्न 9.
ABCD एक समलंब है जिसमें AB || DC है तथा इसके विकर्ण परस्पर बिंदु ० पर प्रतिच्छेद करते हैं। दर्शाइए कि \(\frac{\mathrm{AO}}{\mathrm{BO}}=\frac{\mathrm{CO}}{\mathrm{DO}}\) है।
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 10
हल :
दिया है : ABCD एक समलंब है जिसमें AB || DC तथा विकर्ण AC और BD परस्पर बिंदु 0 पर प्रतिच्छेद करते हैं।
सिद्ध करना है : \(\frac{\mathrm{AO}}{\mathrm{BO}}=\frac{\mathrm{CO}}{\mathrm{DO}}\)
रचना : बिंदु O से OE || AB या DC खींचें जो AD को E पर काटे।
उपपत्ति : ΔADC में OE || DC (रचना द्वारा)
\(\frac{A E}{E D}=\frac{A O}{C O}\)
(आधारभूत समानुपातिकता प्रमेय से) …(1) इसी प्रकार ΔABD में OE || AB (रचना द्वारा)
\(\frac{A E}{E D}=\frac{B O}{D O}\)
(आधारभूत समानुपातिकता प्रमेय से) ….(ii)
समीकरण (i) व (ii) की तुलना से,
\(\frac{A O}{C O}=\frac{B O}{D O}\)
\(\frac{\mathrm{AO}}{\mathrm{BO}}=\frac{\mathrm{CO}}{\mathrm{DO}}\) (इति सिद्धम)

प्रश्न 10.
एक चतुर्भुज ABCD के विकर्ण परस्पर बिंदु O पर इस प्रकार प्रतिच्छेद करते हैं कि 4 4 है। दर्शाइए कि ABCD समलंब है।
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 11
हल :
दिया है : चतुर्भुज ABCD के विकर्ण AC तथा BD परस्पर बिंदु ० पर इस प्रकार प्रतिच्छेद करते हैं कि
\(\)
सिद्ध करना है : ABCD एक समलंब है।
रचना : बिंदु 0 से OE || AB खींचो जो AD को E पर प्रतिच्छेद करे।
उपपत्ति :ΔABD में OE || AB (रचना द्वारा)
HBSE 10th Class Maths Solutions Chapter 6 त्रिभुज Ex 6.2 12
अतः आधारभूत समानुपातिकता प्रमेय के विलोम से,
OE || DC …………(iii)
परंतु OE || AB ……………(iv)
समीकरण (iii) व (iv) से,
DC || AB
इसलिए ABCD एक समलंब है।