Haryana State Board HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions History Chapter 8 Clothing: A Social History Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Haryana Board 9th Class Social Science Solutions History Chapter 8 Clothing: A Social History
HBSE 9th Class Socia Science History Clothing: A Social History TextBook Questions and Answers
Clothing A Social History Class 9 HBSE Question 1.
Explain the reasons for the changes in clothing patterns and materials in the eighteenth century.
The eighteenth century Europe witnessed changes in the clothing patterns and materials. The French revolution ended the sumptuary laws meant for the socially inferiors. From now on, both, men and women, in France,.began wearing clothing that was loose and comfortable.
The colours of France-blue, white and red-became popular. The other political symbols too became a part of dress were the red cap of liberty, long trousers and the revolutionary cockade pinned on to the hat. The simplicity of clothing was meant to express the idea of equality, so significant in the French revolution.
Clothing A Social History HBSE 9th Class Question 2.
What were the sumptuary laws in France?
The sumptuary Jaws were related to the dress and food codes during the medieval France/until the French revolution. The socially inferiors were to observe these laws, preventing them from wearing certain clothes, consuming certain foods and be erages (usually this referred to alcohol) and hunting game in certain areas.
In medieval France, the items of clothing a person could purchase per year was regulated not only by income but also by social rank. The material to be used for clothing was also legally prescribed. Only royalty could war expensive materials like. ermine and fur, or silk, velvet and brocade.
Give any two examples of the ways in which the European dress codes were different from the Indian dress codes.
There are numerous differences between the dress codes of the Europeans and the Indians One exaimple is while the Europeans wear hat, the Indians use turban or cap. Another difference, usually the dhoti by men and sari by women. These differences relate to the times before the coming of the British in India.
In 1805, a British official, Benjamin Heyne, listed the manufacturers of Bangalore which included the following:
- Women’s cloth of different musters and names
- Coarse chintz
- Silk cloths
Of this list, which kind of cloth would have definitely fallen out of use in the early 1800s and why?
Muslins. Such a kind of cloth so fitted the body that it led to deformities.
Suggest reasons why women in nineteenth-century India were obliged to continue wearing traditional Indian dress even when men switched over to the more convenient Western clothing. What does this show about the position of women in society?
Women in 19th, century India wore the traditional Indian dress because they still were confined to household duties. Men, on the other hand, were exposed to the outer world. As such they began wearing western-style clothing, especially those who were engaged in. East India Company. The women had to wear traditional clothes because caste norms did not relish the changed dress codes of the women. Furthermore, the traditional clothing which women used to wear were comfortable one.
Winston Churchill described Mahatma Gandhi as a ‘seditious Middle Temple Lawyer’ now ‘posing as a half-naked fakir’.
What provoked such a comment and what does it tell you about the symbolic strength of Mahatma Gandhi’s dress?
Winston Churchill was, by temperate and nature, an imperialist and by design, autocratic and arrogant. He made these comments about Gandhiji out of sheer jealousy, without knowing the support that half naked fakir’ had. Gandhiji’s strength lay in his simplicity and the live he had received form the millions of Indians for whom he not only lived, but died also. He, as the apostle of peace grandeur and simplicity, was much greater than millions of Churchills put together.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi dream of clothing the nation in khadi appeal only, to some sections of Indians?
Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948) was the greatest of the great which India has produced. He had mass appeal, with millions of Indians following him blindly. He was a simple man and knew the plight of a common poor Indian. He dressed himself as simple as possible. The use of Khadi by the Indian spun through charakha was symbolic of India’s patriotism. He knew that the common Indians could hardly afford costly clothes. That is different thing that some sections of Indians didnot subscribe to his views.
HBSE 9th Class Socia Science History Clothing: A Social History Important Questions and Answers
Give one example of what helped the building of the English woolen industry.
Woolen caps. An English law prohibited the use of caps made up of velvet and urged the English to wear woollen caps on Sundays and on holy days.
What other demands were made with woman suffrage during 1830s England?
Demands for dress reforms.
What do you mean by corset?
Corset is a closely fitting and stiffinner bodice, worn. by women to give shape and support to the body’s figure.
What are stays?
Stays constitute support as part of a woman’s dress to hold the body straight.
When did the Rational Dress Society begin its work?
In, 1881, in England.
Who led the National Woman Suffrage Association in USA?
Who dominated the American Woman Suffrage Association in the USA ? ‘
Name the first Indian member of -the ICS.
Name twp important textile weaving centres of early 20th century India.
Murshidabad, Machhilipuram, Surat (Any two).
What did Khadi signify for Gandhiji?
A sign of purity, of simplicity and of poverty.
Despite the sumptuary laws, differences remained between social strata in relation to dothing. ‘
Differences between social strata remained. The poor could not dress like the rich, nor eat the same food. But laws no longer, barred peoples right to dress in the way they wished. Differences in earning, rather than sumptuary laws, now defined what the rich and poor could wear. And different classes developed their own culture of dress. The notion of what was beautiful or ugly, proper or improper, decent or vulgar, differed.
Write a brief note in the Victorian Women’s dothing.
Clothing played significant role with regard to the clothing worn by the Victorian women. Women in Victorian England were groomed from childhood to be docile and dutiful, submissive and obedient. The ideal woman was one who could bear pain and suffering. Women were seen as frivolous, delicate, passive and dodle; Norms of clothing reflected these ideas. From childhood, girls were tightly laced up and dressed in stays. The effort was to restrict the growth of their bodies, contain them within small moulds. Tightly laced, small-wasted women were admired as attractive, elegant and graceful:
‘Tight clothing of women proved unhealthy.” Substantiate it
Tight clothing restricted body growth and hampered blood circulation. Muscles remained underdeveloped and the spines got bent. Doctors reported that many women were regularly complaining of acute weakness, felt languid, and fainted frequently. Corsets then became necessary to hold up the weakened spine,
“Clothes got lighter, shorter and simpler.” In the light of its statement, briefly mention the state of clothing in the 19th century.
The demand for more clothes began expanding during the 18th century. As a consequence of the industrial revolution, there began mass manufacture of cotton; textiles and clothes. Cotton clothes became more accessible to a wider section of people in England as well as in Europe. By the early twentieth century, artificial fibres made clothes still cheaper and easier to wash and maintain. In the late 1870s, heavy, restrictive underclothes, which had created such a storm in the pages of women’s magazines, were gradually discarded. Clothes got lighter, shorter and simpler.
What was Rabindranath Tagore’s suggestion with regard to the national dress ?
The Tagore family of Bengal experimented, beginning, in the 1870s, with designs for a national dress for both men and women in India. Rabindranath Tagore suggested that instead of combining Indian and European dress, India’ national dress should combined elements of Hindu and Muslim dress. Thus the Chapkan (a long buttoned coat) was considered the most suitable dress for men.
Explain the Swadeshi movement of the early 20th century.
People were urged to boycott British goods of all kinds and start their own industries for the manufacture of goods such as matchboxes and cigarettes. Mass protests followed, with people vowing to cleanse themselves of colonial rule. The use of khadi was made a patriotic duty. Women were urged to throw away their silks and glass bangles and wear simple shell bangles. Rough homespun was glorified in songs and poems to popularize it.
What were the changes in women clothing which came about as a result of two world wars.
There had occurred changes in women’s clothing, as a result of the two world wars. Many European, women stopped wearing jewellery and luxurious clothes. Clothes got shorter during the First World War (1914-1918) out of practical necessity. ,By 1917, over 700,000 women in Britain were employed in ammunition factories.
They wore a working uniforrrr of blouse and trousers with accessories such as scarves, which was later replaced by khaki overalls and caps. Bright colours faded from sight and only sober colours were worn as the war. dragged on. Thus clothes became plainer and simpler. Skirts became shorter. Soon trousers became a vital part of Western women’s clothing, giving them greater freedom of movement. Most important, women took to cutting their hair short for convenience.
How did the Indian react when the Western style clothing came into India in the 19th century ?
The Indians reacted in three different ways when the. Western-style clothing came into India during the 19th century.
One. Many, especially men, began incorporating some elements of western- style clothing in their dress. The wealthy Parsis of west India were among the first to adapt Western-style clothing. Baggy trousers and the phenta (or hat) were added to long colourless coats, .with boots and a walking stick to complete the look of the gentlemen.
To some, Western clothes were a sigh of. modernity and progress. Two. There wpre others who were convinced that western culture would lead to a loss of traditional cultural identity. The use of Western style clothes was taken as a sign of the world turning upside-down. Three. Some men resolved this dilemma- by wearing Western clothes without giving up.their Indian ones. Many Bengali bureaucrats in the late nineteenth century began stocking western-style clothes for work outside the home and changed into more comfortable Indian clothes at home.
What was the response to Gandhiji’s call for wearing Khadi clothes?
Gandhiji’s dream was to clothe the whole nation in Khadi. He felt that Khadi would be a means of erasing differences of religions. But the people’s response was a mixed one. Some did follow Gandhiji’s Khadi clothes; some did not.
The following is the examples of other response to Gandhiji’s call:
1. Nationalists such as Motilal Nehru, a successful barrister from Allahabad, gave up his expensive Western-style suits and adopted the Indian dhoti and klirta. But these were not made of coarse cloth.
2. Those who had been deprived by caste norms for centuries were attracted to Western dress styles. Therefore, unlike Mahatma Gandhi, other nationalists such as Babasaheb Ambedkar never gave up the Western-style suit.
3. Other women, like Sarojini Naidu and Kamala Nehru, wore coloured saris with designs, instead of coarse, white homespun.
4. Most Muslims were more comfortable in the green robes made popular by Mohammed and Shaukat Ali during the Khilafat movement (1921). They were not attracted to khadi, though, some wore kurta and pyjamas. In. 1929, Khan Abdul Ghafar’Khan and his Pathan volunteers in the North West Frontier Provinces wore distinctive red clothes.
Objective Type Questions
Fill in the blanks with appropriate words given in the brackets:
(i) ……………. Cockade is cap usually worn on side. (one/two)
(ii) Suffrage relate to ………….. (right to vote, right to choose one’s clothes)
(iii) Stanton began movement to seek reform in women’s dress, in ………….. (USA, UK)
(iv) Chintz is …………… cloth printed with designs and’flowers. (cotton, jute, silk)
(ii) right to vote
Choose true (✓) and false (✗) in the following:
(i) The Victorian women wore loose . clothes.
(it) The Americans wore tight clothes in thel9th century.
(iii) Gandhiji wore simple clothes as much as needed.
(iv) Gandhiji’s Khadi was popular with Dr. Ambedkar.
Choose the right answer among the four alternatives given below:
(i) Khadi was popular with:
(ii) The Swadeshi movement began following the partition of Bengal in:
(iii) Tagore wrote the following:
(b) Das Capital
(d) on Liberty
(iv) The Victorian women wore clothes which were:
(c) neither loose nor tight
(d) both loose and tight