Haryana State Board HBSE 9th Class Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 2 What is Democracy? Why Democracy? Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Haryana Board 9th Class Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 2 What is Democracy? Why Democracy?
HBSE 9th Class Social Science Civics What is Democracy? Why Democracy? Textbook Questions and Answers
Here is some information about four countries. Based on this information, how would you classify each of these countries. Write ‘democratic’, ‘undemocratic’ or not sure against each of these.
(a) Country A: People who do not accept the country’s officials religion do not have right to vote.
(b) Country B: The same party has been winning elections for the last twenty years.
(c) Country C : Ruling party has lost in the last three elections.
(d) Country D: There is no independent election commission.
Here is some information about four countries. Based on this information, how would you classify each of these- countries. Write ‘democratic’, ‘undemocratic’ or ‘not sure’ against each of these.
(a) Country P: The parliament cannot pass a law about the army without the consent of the Chief of Army.
(b) Country Q: The parliament cannot pass a law reducing the powers of the judiciary.
(c) Country R: The country’s leaders cannot sign any treaty with another
country without taking permission from its neighouring country.
(d) Country S: All the major economic decisions about the country are taken by officials of the central bank which the ministers cannot change.
Which of these is not a good argument in favor of democracy? Why?
(a) People feel free and equal in a democracy
(b) Democracies resolve conflict in a better way than others.
(c) Democratic government is more accountable to the people.
(d) Democracies are more prosperous than others.
(a) It is an argument in favor of democracy because in a democracy alone, people are free and equal.
(b) It is also an argument in favor of democracy because democracies thrive on dialogues, discussions and ballots where conflicts are easily resolved.
(c) Democratic government is a responsible government; it is also a responsive one. It is also an argument in favour of democracy.
(d) Democracies tend to become prosperous; in poor countries, democracies
are, usually, economically weak. This argument also is in favour of democracy.
Each of these statements contains a democratic and an undemocratic element. Write out the two separately for each statement.
(a) A minister said that some laws have to be passed by the parliament in order to conform to the regulations decided by the World Trade Organisation..
(b) The Election Commission ordered re¬polling in a constituency where large scale rigging was reported.
(c) Women’s representation in the parliament lias never reached 10 per cent. This led women organisations to demand one-third seats for women.
(a) To conform to the regulations decided by the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Parliament has to pass a resolution-an element of democracy. This is so because India is a member of WTO. The Parliament can, however, pass the resolution within the parameters of the national .interest.
(b) It is also a democratic element, because free polls strengthen democracy. The Election Commission has the responsibility to see that the elections are conducted in free, fair and impartial manner.
(c) This’is also a democratic element. If about half of the country’s population seeks one third representation, there is nothing undemocratic about it.
Which of these is not a valid reason for aruingthat there is a lesser possibility of famine in a democratic country ?
(a) Opposition parties can draw attention to hunger and starvation
(b) Free press can report suffering from famine in different parts of the country.
(c) Government fears its defeat in the next elections.
(d) People are free to believe in and practice any religion.
(D) Is not a valid reason for arguing that there is a better possibility of famine in a democratic country. Belief and practice of religion has nothing to do with famine in a democratic country.
There are 40 villages in a district where the government has made no provision for drinking water. These villagers met and considered many methods of forcing the government to respond to their need. Which of these is not a democratic, method?
(a) Filing a case in the courts claiming that water is part of right to life.
(b) Boycotting the next elections to give a message to .all parties,
(c) Organizing public meetings against government’s policies.
(d) Paying money to government officials to get water.
(d) is not a democratic method, for briber is not what a democracy promotes in any form.
Write a response to the following arguments against democracy:
(a) Army is the most disciplined and corruption-free organization in the country. Therefore army should rule the country.
(b) Rule of the majority means the rule of ignorant people. What we need is the rule of the wise, even if they are in small numbers.
(c) If we want a religious leader to guide us in spiritual matters, why, not invite them to guide us in politics as well. The country should be ruled by religious leaders.
(a) Military rule is not a democratic rule
(b) True, the majority of the people are illiterate, but this does not mean that the rule of the majority is not democratic. The majority rule has been accepted as a democratic rule all over the world.
(c) The country should not be ruled by religious leaders. Religion and politics are two different things, they have two different domains. Religion is a matter of faith while politics deals with our external relations.
Are the following statements in keeping with democracy as a value? Why?
(a) Father to daughter; I don’t want to hear your opinion about your marriage. In bur family, children marry where the parents tell them to.
(b) Teacher to a student; Don’t disturb my concentration by asking me questions in the classroom.
(c) Employee to the officer; Our working hours must be reduced according to the law.
(a) This statement is not in keeping with democracy. Everyone, in a democracy, should have the right to decide, for his/her own life and career.
(b) This statement is not in keeping with democracy. Students have all the rights to ask questions in class or outside the class.
(c) This is perfectly in keeping with demo¬cracy. The workers should work according to the laws, fixing their hours of work.
Consider the following facts about a country and decide if you would call it a democracy. Give reasons to support your decision.
(a) All the citizens of the country have light to vote. Elections are held regularly.
(b) The country took loan from international agencies. One of the conditions for giving loan was that the government would reduce its expenses on education and health.
(c) People speak more than seven languages but education is available only in one language, the language spoken by 52 percent people of that country.
(d) Several organizations have given a call for peaceful demonstrations and nation¬
wide Strikes in the country to oppose these policies. The government has arrested these leaders.
(e) The” government owns the radio and television in the country. A1J the newspapers have to get permission from the government to publish any news about the government’s policies and protests.
(a) It is democratic. In a democracy, everyone has the right to form government and hence has a right to vote which people exercise during elections that are held regularly.
(b) This is undemocratic. No restriction by a foreign power is in, itself, democratic.
(c) It is undemocratic. No language should be imposed on those who do not know; that language. Moreover, education should be imparted in the native language.
(d) Peaceful demonstrations and strikes
are part of democratic, rights; criticizing governmental policies too is also a democratic right.
(e) This is undemocratic. In a democracy, press has to be free.
In 2004 a report published in USA pointed to the increasing inequalities in that country. Inequalities in income are reflected in the participation of people in democracy. It also shaped their abilities to influence the decisions taken by the government. The report highlighted that:
If an average Black family earns $ 100 then the income of the average White family is $ 162. A White family has twelve times more wealth than the’ average Black family.
In a President’s election, ‘nearly nine out of 10 individuals in families with income over $ 75,000 have voted. These people are the top 20% of the population in terms of their income. On the other hand, only 5 people out of 10 from families with income less than $ 15,000 have voted. They are the bottom 20% of the population in terms of their income.
About 95% of the contribution to the political parties comes to front the rich. The gives them the opportunity to express their opinion and concern, which is not available to most citizens.
As poor sections participate less in pol-itics, the government does not listen to their concerns-coining about poverty, getting job, education, health care and housing from them. Politicians do not hear regularly about the concerns of business and the most rich. Write an essay bn ”Democracy and Poverty’ using the information given in this report but using examples from India.
Democracy and inequalities do not together. Where there are inequalities, i.e. the rich and the poor; few rich and the many, poor, democracy, suffers. The rich, having stakes in the economy, seek to control politics; they help the political parties, financially, make their candidates win the elections, spend money during elections and then seek policies that favour them. The poor are made to vote for the political parties the rich favour. All this breeding inequality leads to corruption in politics and public affairs. Such is the state of affairs in all the elections, including elections, in India.
HBSE 9th Class Social Science Civics What is Democracy? Why Democracy? Important Questions and Answers
To what was Allende’s government committed in Chile?
Allende’s government was committed to greater role in economic activities.
To what was Walesa’s government committed in Poland?
Walesa’s government was committed to as little role as was possible.
Why do we need a definition?
We need a definition when we counter a difficulty in everyday use.
What form of government democracy is?
Democracy is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people.
State any one necessary condition of democracy.
Election is the necessary condition of democracy.
Do we have election in a monarchy where the king is all powerful ?
There can be no election in a monarchy headed by a real powerful king.
Does the army regime permit elections where it rules through the gun?
Normally not. The army general may allow election only to legitimate his rule.
From which language the word . democracy has come up?
Etymologically, democracy is derived from two Greek words ‘demos’ and ‘Kratia’. ‘Demos’ means people and ‘Kratia’ means rule. Thus, etmotgoically, democracy means the rule of the people.
How did Abrahan Lincoln define democracy?
Democracy, Lincoln had said, is governmertt of the people, by the people and for the people.
Does holding of the elections ensure democracy in a country?
Certainly’not. Salazar allowed elections in Portugal once for a while. But there was never a time when the opposition parties won a single seat.
What are the criteria for elections to be called elections?
If elections are to be called elections, they are to be
(i) free elections
(ii) fair elections.
What is political freedom ?
Political freedom means expressing one’s views on political matters, freedom of speech, and of expression.
How can there be a democracy if there is no political freedom?
Where there is no political freedom, there is no democracy . If people are arrested, as Aung San Suu Kyi was put under house arrest, for expressing their view there is no democracy.
Mention, in. addition to elections, other dimensions of democracy.
(i) Rule of law
(ii) civil liberties
(iii) protection to minorities against tyranny of majority are some of the other dimensions of democracy.
State any two functions of the elected representatives.
Elected representatives make laws and decide, the policies of the government.
What do you mean by universal suffrage?
Where all adults have the right to vote in the elections of the representatives is called as universal suffrage.
Mention any one feature of a country if it is to be called democratic.
There has to be universal adult franchise, i.e., right to vote in the elections.
What is direct democracy ? Where did we have if?
Direct democracy is a democracy where all the citizens directly participate in the discussion and decisions in the legislature. We had it in some city states in ancient Greece.
Wiry does direct democracy become impossible now?
(i) Vast population, and
(ii) vast size of the countries make direct democracy as impossible.
What is representative democracy?
Where people rule through their elected representative, if is called representative democracy. In modern vast countries, it is representative democracy that works.
What is referendum?
Where matters are referred to the vote of. the citizens for final verdict, such a device is called democracy.
Name some of the countries where the device of referendum is in case.
Switzerland, France, Denmark, New Zealand.
Why if is more likely that decisions are wrong in dictatorship than under a democracy?
Under dictatorship (monarchy or military rule), the rulers do not involve people at all in decision-making. That is why that the decisions there are likely to be wrong.
Why perfect equality does not exist in a society?
Perfect equality’does riot exist in any society because of inequalities, among people, in wealth, social status, and position. In fact, perfect
inequality is neve? possible.
Why are the governments responsive in democracies?
As the elected representatives, in a democracy has to secure the support of the people, they can not afford to be insensitive to the aspirations of the people.
Give any one definition of democracy.
Abraham Lincoln defines democracy as the government of the people (i.e, through participation people constitute the government) by the people (i.e. the people, through the use of their rights, control, their rulers), for the people, (i.e. the government rules for the welfare of the people.
Why do we need a definition of any concept?
We need a definition of a concept so as to understand the meaning of the concept. Definition clarifies the meaning. For example, the definition of democracy, etymologically, means, that it is the rule of the people.
Democracy involves people in the formation of the government. How do the people form government ?
Democracy, indeed, means government of the people. People form government through elections. Periodic elections are conditions of democracy. Elections have to be (i) frequent (i.e. after definite periods) (ii) free and, (iii) fair. In the absence of elections, democracy is impossible; it can not function successfully.
What do you mean by political freedom ? How does it help the functioning of democracy?
Political freedom means freedom given to the people in matter relating to democratic functioning of the government. Political freedom implies right of the people to have their opinions, their right to express those, opinions, and demonstrate their political actions in the form of procession. When people are not permitted to express their opinion, this, weakens democratic trends/tendencies, The house arrest of Aung San Suu Kyi does not fit in democratic functioning.
Explain the following:
(a) Free and fair elections.
(b) Right to contest elections.
(a) Free and fair elections: Voters choose officials from among competing individuals and parties. Elections have to be frequent, free and fair. Voters vote without pressure and form government. Votes must be honestly counted.
(b) Right to contest elections: It is the right of all adults to contest elections. For contesting elections, the age limit is higher than the voting age.
Explain the following:
(i) Freedom of expression
(ii) Freedom of information
(iii) Freedom to form association.
(i) Freedom of expression: Citizens have freedom of opinion, expression ad discussion. They can criticize officials, government or the socio-economic order. They can also organize meetings, campaign on pubic issues or demonstrate against government.
(ii) Freedom of information: Citizens have access to information about candidates in elections. They can seek information from different sources. Government cannot have monopoly on sources of information. Laws shall protect alternative sources of information.
(iii) Right to form associations: Citizens have a right to form, join or quit associations. It includes a right to form or join a political party that opposes government or to contest elections in opposition to the ruling party. Opposition shall have art equal opportunity to increase popular support or gain power through elections.
Write on the following:
(a) Freedom of culture and religion
(b) Individual freedoms.
(a) Freedom of culture and religion: People have freedom of faith, belief and religion. Those who belong to ethnic minorities have the right to follow their cultural practices. Linguistic minorities can speak their language. Religious minorities can freely follow and profess their religion. Persons who belong to minorities enjoy rights available to any other citizen of the country.
(b) Individual freedoms : State does not impose restrictions on travel, choice of residence, and choice of employment. Citizens have an equal right to seek admission in colleges or recruitment to jobs. They can acquire or sell property. They can establish private businesses. They can read any book of their choice. Government does not impose ban on the discussion of ideas.
What do you mean by ‘Rule of law’?
All citizens are treated as equal under the law. Law protects citizens from unjustified detention. Military and police are under- the control of elected representatives. Military and police cannot terrorize or torture those who opppse government. Independent courts effectively protect individual and group rights. Decisions of courts are respected and enforced by those in government.
Can you identify some features necessary for any country to be called democratic ?
There are, indeed, certain features which are necessary for any country to be called as democratic. Some of these are:
(i) There should be rights for the citizens, riot nominal but actually available.
(ii) The Constitution of the country should not only provide these rights, it should also ensure them.
(iii) The Constitution should also provide democratic institutions and procedures as well.
Suggest some of the rights which sho.dld be available to the citizens in a democratic country.
(i) Every citizen should have an right to contest election for holding any public office.
(ii) People should ha ve the right to oppose the government.
(iii) They should have the right to vote out the highest officials from office.
(iv) They should have the right to elect new officials. The elections should be free, fair and frequent.
What adverse effects does economic inequalities have on politics?
The growth of economic inequalities has adverse impact on politics, The poorer sections of the people are at a disadvantage in circumstances where there are economic inequalities. In such circumstances, policy makers, government officials and police officers often readily heed to the rich and influential people. They are responsive to the needs of the privileged and indifferent and in attentive to the poor.
How can we rectify the maladies that confront democracy ? Suggest any four measures.
(1) Democratic values should be cultivated among the people;
(2) We need to have a democratic society healthy democracy requires democratic society;
(3) The government should reduce corruption; it should be responsive to the people
(4) The voters should’ ealise the importance of voting rights.
Are elections necessary conditions in a democracy ? Give arguments.
Elections, indeed’, are necessary conditions for any democracy. In fact, elections alone distinguish between a democracy and non-democracy. In a non-democracy, such as in military rule or in a nonparty, there are no elections. If there are elections they are not frequent, nor fair, and nor even freer. Salazar of Portugal did allow one month of compaign but there was little possibility of opposition leaders whining the elections. Elections are necessary, but if the power is not given to those who win elections, there can not be democracy in such countries.
Aung San Suu Kyi won elections in Burma (now Myanmar) in 1990, but she was not given power, instead she was put under house arrest.
Elections imply the existence of more than one political party so to enable them to contest elections. In China, only the ruling political party can put up candidates, two or more. How can we call such a system as a democratic one ?
Democracy requires elections free, fair and frequent; elections where people are able to remove those elected and install need leaders in power.
Prepare a check list of democracy.
Democracy may be defined as a system where the citizens have a right to elect government through free and fair elections; elections held at regular intervals; now where people enjoy civil liberties, and have political freedom; where these liberties and rights are available, ensured and protected by the constitution. In the light of the above working defini tion of democracy, a check list of democracy can be prepared as under:
(i) Voting rights be given to all the adults without any distinction and fair universal adult franchise.
(ii) All the citizens; within the limits of prescribed age, be given right.to contest elections’and hold public office.
(in) Elections have to be fair, free and held at regular intervals.
(iv) People should be ensured rights such as freedom of speech, expressidn, oppose the government, elect its officials.
(v) Civil liberties be available to the citizens. These should include freedom of information, to form associations, freedom of culture and religion, individual and. personal freedoms.
(vi) Rule of law, and not of men, is an important requirement for any democracy.
(vii) Majoritariah principle should be followed, but the rights of minority be protected and ensured; tyranny of majority is worse than the tyranny of a dictator.
Make distinction between a democracy and a non-democracy.
A non-democracy may be monarchy, a military .regime, a dictatorship, one party rule and the like. The distinction between a democracy and non-democracy cun be stated as under
Distinguish between direct democracy and representative democracy.
The distinction between disert democracy’ and representative democracy can be made as under
How does democracy make government more responsible and responsive? Explain.
Democracy makes government more responsible jnd responsive. Those who aspire to win elections have to secure support of the people. People have a right to pass a verdict on the conduct, and performance of the rulers. So the elected officials cannot afford to be insensitive to the aspirations of the people. If they do not conduct themselves properly or do not perform well, they are likely to be voted put in the next election. It is true that in democracies we find some political leaders who are arrogant.
They indulge in nasty means to stick on to power. Some leaders abuse power to fulfill their self-interest. It is a problem for all political systems democracies and non-democracies alike. But the scope for rulers to become more arrogant and corrupt, is more in monarchies and dictatorships than in a democracy. In a democracy, the rulers are usually responsive. They keep themselves accountable to the ruled. They keep a continuous contact with, the people.
Do you agree that democracy relies on open debate, persuasion and compromise?
Democracy is not a confrontation; it is a conversation. In democracy, people work through ballots and not through bullets. Intact, democracy relates on open debate and persuasion and compromise and discussion. In any society, there will always be differences of opinion on most questions of public policy. In any society people belong to different classes and communities. They entertain different views. Democracy providesan opportunity for the expression of these differences.
Sometimes the open expression of the differences may cause divisions among people. The social cleavages may get worse. But it is better if these differences are fought out than forcibly suppressed. If we suppress differences they do not die out. They only get. aggravated and burst but leading to disorder and distinegration of a society. This we Saw happening in Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia, Monarchies and dictatorships may appear more stable in the short term. But in the long run, they tend to be more divided, chaotic and unstable. Democracy provides avenues to negotiate differences and arrive at consensus through, compromise.
Objective Type Questions
Fill in the blanks with appropriate words given in the brackets:
(i) Democracy is government ………….. the people people and the people, (by, for, of, on, at)
(ii) In democracy, elections have to be ……………. and fair, (controlled, free, unfree)
(iii) Abacha got power is Nigeria in ………….. (1992,1993)
(iv) Ravsome was a political philosopher ……………. of the century France. (18th, 19th, 17th)
(v) Amartya Sen got Nobel prize in (peace/literature, economics)
(i) of, by, for
Indicate right sign (✓) or the wrong sign (✗) in the following:
(i) Sun Kyi belongs to Myanmar.
(ii) Salazar was a dictator in mid 1950s in Sweden,
(iii) Elections are necessary conditions for a democracy.
(iv) Raghuvir Sahay wrote a poem entitled ‘Motorwila’. ,
(v) Abacha belonged to Niger.
Choose the correct alternative from tiie four alternatives given below.
(i) Democracy is the rule of the:
(b) political parties.
(ii) Democracy is a word taken from the following language;
(iii) Salazar belonged to:
(iv) Under whose regime, the Jews were persecuted?
(v) Sani Abacha was a miltiary ruler of: