Haryana State Board HBSE 6th Class Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 9 Urban Livelihoods Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Haryana Board 6th Class Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 9 Urban Livelihoods
HBSE 6th Class Civics Urban Livelihoods Textbook Questions and Answers
Bachchu Manjhi – A Cycle-Rickshaw Puller
I come from a village in Bihar where I worked as a mason. My wife and three children live in the village. We don’t own land. In the village I did not get masonry work regularly. The income that I earned was not enough for our family.
After I reached this city, I bought an old cycle rickshaw and paid for it in instalments. This was many years ago. I come to the bus stop every morning and take the customers wherever they want to go. I work till 8.30 pm in the evening. I take rides of up to 6 kilometres in the surrounding area. Each customer gives me Rs. 5-10 per trip depending on the distance. When I’m ill I can’t do this work, so on those days I don’t earn anything.
I stay with my friends in a rented room. They work in a nearby factory. I earn between? 80¬100 every day, out of which I spend? 50-60 on food and rent. The rest I save for my family. I visit my village two or three times a year to see my family. Though my family survives on the money I send, my wife also earns from agricultural work that she gets once in a while.
Class 6th Civics Chapter 9 HBSE Question 1.
Why did Bachchu Manjhi come to the city?
Bachchu Manjhi did not get regular masonry work in the village. So he came to the city to find a regular job so he could earn enough for the family.
Urban Livelihoods Question Answer HBSE Class 6th Question 2.
Why can’t Bachchu Manjhi stay with his family?
Bachchu Manjhi could not stay with his family as he did not have any room to stay in and not enough earning for 81 the whole family. He himself stayed with his friends in a rented room.
Class 6 Civics Chapter 7 HBSE Urban Livelihoods Question 3.
Talk to a vegetable vendor or hawker and find out how do they organise their work, their way of preparing, purchasing, selling, etc.
The vegetable vendors or hawkers organise their work in the following ways:
(а) They purchase vegetables or groceries from the wholesale market.
(b) They arrange them on the trolley cycle.
(c) They give loud calls on the roads, streets to sell their goods.
(d) Sometimes they sell their goods in weekly markets.
Class 6 Urban Livelihoods HBSE Civics Question 4.
Bachchu Manjhi has to think twice before taking a day off from work?
Bachchu Manjhi earns a small daily income out of which he saves only a very small portion. He has to send something for his family too. So, Bachchu Manjhi has to think twice before taking a day off from work.
Why did Harpreet and Vandana start a showroom? What do they have to do to face difficulties?
Harpreet and Vandana started a showroom since:
1. Harpreet started working in the shop of his father and uncle after she completed her college.
2. Vandana is a dress designer. She realised that people prefer to buy readymade clothes, rather than have them stitched.
Vandana also felt the need for an attractive display of readymade products for their showroom:
1. They buy things from different places like Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Ludhiana, etc.
2. They had to put them in show cases.
3. They also had to advertise their products.
Talk to a shop owner in a market and find out how he plans his work. Have there been any changes in his business in the past twenty years?
A shop owner in the market had to take a showroom on rent earlier. Now they had to purchase it. He buys things on installments and sells them on cash. There have been changes in the business in the past twenty years.
There have been changes in the business since the past.
(а) There is more competition. So, shopkeepers have to sell quality goods.
(b) They also have to give more stress on the advertisement.
(c) To attract customers, shopkeepers have to provide them with other service like after sales service, free-home delivery, etc.
What are the difference between those who sell on the street and those in the market?
Those who sell things in the street buy their things from the local market. Those who sell things in the market, purchase their things in bulk. They need to adhere to government regulations and pay taxes also.
Why do you think small workshops and factories employ casual workers?
Small workshops and factories employ casual workers as they do not have regular work.
Describe the working conditions of people like Nirmala keeping in mind the following: working hours, condition in the working place, earnings and the days of work available.
Working conditions of people like t Nirmala are as follows:
(а) Working Hours: Workers have to work for long hours. A normal working day begins at 9 A.M. and finishes by 10 P.M., sometimes even later. They have to generally work for 6 days a week. When the work has to be done urgently, she worked on Sundays too.
(b) Conditions in the workplace: The conditions in the working are not very healthy.
(c) Earnings: They are paid only f 80 per day for eight hours and extra 40 for working late hours. They have no bargaining power.
(d) They are all casual workers as they work only for some months of the year. After this period, they have to move to other work.
Would you say that domestic workers like housemaids are also casual workers? Why? Describe the workday of one such woman detailing the work she does in other peoples’ houses.
Yes, the domestic workers like housemaids are also casual workers. They work as long as their employer wants them.
The working of one woman in other people’s houses:
1. She washes utensils, cleans the house, washes the clothes, cuts vegetables daily needed for meals.
2. Her work starts at 9 A.M. in the morning and finishes at 7 P.M.
3. Her wages are 100 a day.
4. She is also provided with some eatables during the day.
Read and discuss description of the living conditions of workers who come to the labour chowk.
Most workers that we find at the labour chowk cannot afford permanent accommodation and sleep on pavements near the chowk, or they pay ₹ 6/- a night for a bed at a nearby night shelter run by the Municipal Corporation. To compensate for the lack of security, local tea and cigarette shops function as banks, moneylenders and safety lockers, all rolled into one. Most workers leave their tools at these shops for the night and safe keeping and pass on any extra money to them. The shopkeepers keep the money safety and also offer loans to labourers in need.
Source: Aman Sethi, Hindu on-line
Labourers those who generally do not find regular work go to labour chowk. If they get any hope of source of income. At labour chowk; workers get work available at that time, but they cannot afford permanent job. Their job is for only one or two days. They spend their night on pavements or in the ‘Rein Vasera’ built by Municipal Corporation. Their daily earning is not sure. Such workers leave their tools in tea shops for safety.
Their economic position is imbalanced. They eat what they earn and spend on their families. Even they take money from money-lenders to pass their time. (Note: Everybody has different view, so you can write your own view about the life of chowk labourers, their living standard and way of earning).
Complete the following table and discuss how their work is different:
|Name||Place of work||Earnings||Security of work||Benefits received||Works on their own or employed|
|Bachchu Manjhi||₹ 100 a day|
|Harpreet Vandana||Work on their own|
|Sudha||Company||₹ 30,000 p.m.|
1. Name: Bachchu Manjhi.
Place of Work: A cycle-rickshaw puller in the city bus stop.
Earning: ₹ 100/- per day.
Security of work: No
Benefits received: Saving send for expenditure of the family.
Work on their own or employed: Work on their own.
2. Name: Harpreet Vandana.
Place of Work: Readymade showroom.
Security of Work: Yes
Benefits received: Increase in income.
Work on their or own or employed: Their own work.
3. Name: Nirmala
Place of Work: Garment Factory.
Earning: ₹ 80 per day + ₹ 40 overtime.
Security of Work: No
Benefits received: He gets benefit during summer season, when business is on full swing.
Work on their own or employed: She was employed.
4. Name: Sudha.
Place of Work: Company.
Earning: ₹ 30,000/- p.m.
Security of Work: Yes.
Benefits received: She receives benefits such as:
(i) Provident Fund
(ii) Medical facilities
(iii) Holidays: Sundays and also can get some annual leaves.
Their works are different. Bachchu was a rickshaw puller, Harpreet Vandana is owner of a showroom. Nirmala does work in a garment factory and Sudha is working in a company. Among them Sudha’s work is safe and secure because she has a permanent job and facilities as generally enjoyed by a government servant.
In what ways is a permanent and regular job different from a casual job? Discuss.
|Permanent Job||Casual Job|
|(1) An employee gets a regular salary every month.||(1) An employee does not get a regular salary every month. if workers complain about their pay, or don’t work properly, they require to leave.|
|(2) Working Conditions are hygienic and good.||(2) Working conditions may or may not be desirable.|
|(3) They have fixed working hours.||(3) The working hours may be very long.|
|(4) They get other benefits such as saving for old age.||(4) They do not get other benefits like permanent employees.|
What benefits does Sudha get along with her salary?
Sudha enjoys the following benefits with her salary:
(i) She deposits her Provident Fund as a saving for her old age.
(ii) She gets off on every Sunday, national festivals and also gets some annual leaves.
(iii) Her company provides her medical facilities.
(iv) She can get medical leave when she feels ill.
Fill in the following table to show the services provided by people in the markets which you visit frequently.
|Names of the shops or offices||Nature of the services provided|
|Names of the shops or offices||Nature of the services provided|
|Confectionery Shop||From here we buy bread, butter, cheese, biscuits, etc.|
|Kiryana Shop||Raw materials for cooking i.e, milled rice etc.|
|Chemist Shop||To buy medicine for ourself or others.|
|Electricity Office||To deposit electricity bill and to complaint against the supply of electricity if any. This office promises to give use regular ^electricity without power-cut.|
|Municipal Councellor’s Office||Provides the facilities such as street light, cleanliness, etc.|
|Names of the shops or offices||Nature of the services provided|
HBSE 6th Class Civics Urban Livelihoods Important Questions and Answers
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Name some activities which are carried out on the streets.
Hair-cutting, shoe-repairing, flower-selling, craft-making.
How was the street vending earlier looked upon by people?
Street vending was earlier looked upon by people as an obstruction to traffic and to people walking.
Where does Nirmala work?
Nirmala works as a tailor in an export garment unit.
Why are the casual workers asked to leave by the employers?
Casual workers are asked to leave when they complain about their pay or working conditions.
Short Answer Type Questions
What suggestions have been made; so that street vendors have a place to work and that there is also a free flow of traffic to the people?
(a) Hawking zones have been suggested for towns and cities.
(b) Mobile vendors should be allowed to move around freely.
(c) Hawkers need to be part of committees that are set up to take these and other decisions relating to them.
What extra benefits does Sudha get?
Sudha gets the following extra benefits:
(i) A part of her salary is kept in a fund with the government. She will earn interest on these savings.
(ii) She gets medical facilities for her family.
(iii) She gets medical leave if she falls ill and her salary is not cut if she takes this leave.
Who are casual workers?
Casual workers are required to come as and when the employer needs them. They are employed when the employer gets a big order or during certain seasons. At other times of the year they have to find some other work.
Long Answer Type Questions
Name different categories of people who do work on daily wages.
The people who work on daily wages are
(i) People in the labour chowk are daily wage earners who wait with their tools for people to come and take them to work.
(ii) People who work in factories and small workshops are daily wage earners. They are employed on casual basis i.e., they are required to come when there they are needed.
What is a Call Centre? Write about the work done in the Call Centre. Why are they set up in India?
A Call Centre is a centralised office that deals with problems and questions that consumers/customers have regarding goods purchased and services like banking, ticket booking etc. It is a new form of employment in big cities. Call centres are generally set up as large rooms with work stations that include a computer, a telephone set, and supervisors stations. India has become a major centre not only for Indian companies but also for foreign companies.
Call Centres are set up in India because they can get people who can speak English and will work for lower wages.
Urban Livelihoods Class 6 HBSE Notes
- Vendor: One who sells things of daily use by going door to door.
- Urban areas: Towns and cities.
- Business person: One who earns his livelihood by engaging himself in some business.
- Employer: One who gives job to someone.
- Casual worker: One who is engaged in temporary work.
- Labour chowk: A place where daily wage labourers gather together with their tools and wait for people to come and hire them for work.
- Call centre: It gives a new form of employment to the people of big cities. It is a centralised office that deals with problems and questions that consumers/customers have regarding goods purchased and services like banking, ticket booking, etc.
- Hawker: One who sells things by going from one place to place asking people to buy them.