Haryana State Board HBSE 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 5 Coal and Petroleum Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Haryana Board 8th Class Science Solutions Chapter 5 Coal and Petroleum
HBSE 8th Class Science Coal and Petroleum Textbook Questions and Answers
What are the advantages of using GNG and LPG as fuels?
CNG – Compressed Natural Gas and LPG – Liquefied Petroleum Gas are easy to handle and use. It is easy to transport them and moreover they are free from any types of pollution on usage.
Name the petroleum product used for surfacing of roads?
Bitumen or coaltar is used for surfacing of roads.
Describe how coal is formed from dead vegetation. What is this process called?
Millions of years ago many dead animals and plants got trapped under the layers of earth. They got compressed and the temperature under the earth started raising due to hfgh pressure and temperature, the dead plants and animals got converted into coal. This process is called carbonization.
Fill in the blanks:
(а) Fossil fuels are ………. , …………. and …………. .
(b) On destructive distillation of coal …………. , …………. and …………. are obtained.
(c) Process of separation of different constituents from petroleum is called …………. .
(d) Least polluting fuel for vehicle is …………. .
(a) coal, petroleum and natural gas
(b) coke, coal-tar and coal gas
Tick True/Ffdse against the following statements:
(а) Fossil fuels can be made in the laboratory. (T/F)
(b) CNG is more polluting fuel than petrol. (T/F)
(c) Coke is almost pure form of carbon. (T/F)
(d) Coal-tar is a mixture of various substances. (T/F)
(e) Kerosene is not a fossil fuel. (T/F)
Explain why fossil fuels are exhaustible natural resources?
Fossil fuels are exhaustible natural resources because they are made by the decomposition of the dead remains of living organisms. It is present in limited quantity beneath the earth, thus it will come to an end by human usage.
Describe characteristics and uses of coke.
Coke is obtained by burning of coal in absence of oxygen. The process is called destructive distillation. Coke is used to manufacture steel. Coke is used in the extraction of many metals.
Explain the process of formation of petroleum.
Petroleum is a fossil fuel. It is formed beneath the earth by decomposition of the dead bodies of the living organisms hurried beneath the earth. Due to some natural calamities like earthquake or volcano, innumerable living organisms (Plants and animals) got hurried beneath the earth. Due to heat and pressure, they started getting decomposed and got converted into liquid and gas form. In this way Petroleum oil and petroleum gas are formed.
The following Table shows the total power shortage in India from 1991-1997. Show the data in the form of a graph. Plot shortage percentage for the year on the Y- axis and the year on the X-axis.
Extended Learning – Activities And Projects
Get an outline map of India. Mark the places in the map where coal, petroleum and natural gas are found. Show the places where petroleum refineries are situated.
For self attempt.
2. Choose any five families of your neighbourhood. Enquire whether their energy consumption (coal, gas, electricity, petrol, kerosene) has increased or decreased in the last five years. Enquire also about the measures they adopt to conserve energy.
For self attempt.
3. Find out the location of major thermal power plants in India. What could be the reasonsi for their being located at those places?
For more information visit:
- en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ Non-renewable_resources
- http://www.eiadoe.gov/kids/energyfacts/ sources/non-renewable/oil.html
For self attempt.
HBSE 8th Class Science Coal and Petroleum Important Questions and Answers
Very Short Answer Type Questions
From where we find all the materials we use in our daily life?
We get all these materials from natural resources as well as from man-made resources.
How many kinds of natural resources are there on the basis of availability of materials?
On the basis of availability of materials, natural resources are oftwo types: Inexhaustible and exhaustible.
What are inexhaustible natural resources?
Inexhaustible natural resources are those resources which cannot be finished by human activities.
Give two examples Pf Inexhaustible natural resources.
Sunlight and air.
What are exhaustible natural resources?
Exhaustible natural resources are those resources which are present in limited quantity and can get finished by hurt!an activities.
Give two examples of exhaustible natural resources.
What are fossil fuels?
Those fuels which got formed by the decomposition of the dead remains of living organisms for a long period of time are called fossil fuels.
Give tWo examples .of fossil fuel.
What is coal?
Coal is an exhaustible natural fossil fuel which is as hard as stone and is of black colour.
Write any two uses of coal.
Coal is used as fuel to cook food. Coal is used as fuel to run trains.
What does coal mainly consist of?
Coal mainly consists of carbon.
What is cabonization?
Slow process of conversion of dead remains of living organisms into coal is called carbonization.
Which gas is released when coal ishumt?
To which process coal is put to get some useful products?
What is destructive distillation?
Burning of coal in absence of oxygen to get coke and; other useful products is called destructive distillation.
What is the pure form of carbon?
What is coal-tar?
Coal-tar is a black liquid that is produced during destructive distillation of coal.
Which petroleum product is used for metalling the roads in place of coal-tar?
What is used as fuel in light vehicles?
What is used as fuel in heavy vehicles?
Where was petroleum formed?
Petroleum was formed under the sea.
Which conditions under the sea formed petroleum?
Absence of air, high temperature and high pressure.
Where was the first oil well digged?
Pennsylvania, U.S.A. in year 1859.
Name some places of India where oil is found.
Assam, Gujarat, Bombay High, River basins of Godawari and Kaveri.
Which constituents are separated from-petroleum during its refining?
Petroleum gas, petrol, diesel, lubricating oil, paraffin wax etc.
What is the full form of L.P.G.?
Liquefied Petroleum Gas,
What is the use of L.P.G.?
L.P.G. is used as fuel in home and in vehicles.
What is the use of Paraffin wax?
Used in ointments, candles, vaseline, etc.
What are petrochemicals?
Various useful constituents obtained from petroleum are called petrochemicals.
What is full form of C.N.G.?
Compressed Natural Gas.
What are the uses of C.N.G.?
C.N.G. is used as pollution free fuel for vehicles and in power generation.
Where in India is C.N.G. found?
Tripura, Jaisalmer, Offshore of Mumbai and in Krishna Godawari Delta.
Can coal, petroleum and natural gas be prepared in laboratory?
Short Answer Type Questions
In how many types can we classify our resources?
We can classify out natural resources in two types:
(i) Man-made resources
(ii) Natural resources.
Natural resources can further be classified in two types on the basis of the availability of resources: Exhaustible and inexhaustible resources.
What do you mean by Inexhaustible natural resources?
These are the resources which are present in nature in unlimited amount and can never get finished by human activities. Air, sunlight, soil etc. are examples of inexhaustible natural resources.
What do you mean by exhaustible natural resources?
Exhaustible natural resources are those resources which are present in nature in limited amounts and can get finished by human activities. Petroleum, Natural Gas, Coal etc. are exhaustible natural resources.
What do you mean by fossil fuels?
Fuels which were formed by the dead remains of the living organisms by process which took thousands of year to complete are called fossil fuels. Petroleum, coal, natural gas are the fossil fuels which got formed under the sea and earth respectively, when they got hurried under the sea and earth.
What is coal and write its uses?
Coal is a black stone like substance. It is formed by the dead remains of the living organisms.
(i) Coal is used as fuel to cook food.
(ii) It is used to run trains, as it is burnt to generate steam in engine.
(iii) It is used in thermal power plants to produce electricity.
(iv) Coal is also used as fuel in different industries.
How was coal formed?
Millions of years ago dense forests of earth got hurried under the soil due to volcanoes and earthquakes. More deposits of soil compressed the hurried dead bodies. As they became deeper temperature started rising. This started converting dead bodies into coal.
What is coke? How is it useful to us?
Coke is a hard porous black substance. It is obtained by destructive distillation of coke. It is almost pure form of carbon.
(i) Coke is used to manufacture steel.
(ii) It is used in extraction of many metals.
What is coal-tar? How is it useful to us?
Black liquid obtained during destructive distillation of coal is coal-tar. It is thick and smells unpleasant. It is a mixture of hundreds of substances. Substances obtained from coal-tar are used to manufacture synthetic dyes, drugs, explosives, perfumes, plastics, paints, roofing materials, photographic materials, etc.
What do you mean by petroleum?
Petroleum is a fossil fuel obtained from the dead remains of organisms living in sea. Petroleum is a dark oily liquid having unpleasant . odour. It has various useful constituents which are separated from it by process of fractional distillation at petroleum refineries.
How was petroleum lormed?
Millions of years ago, sea organisms died and their dead bodies got settled at the bottom of the sea. Slowly they got covered by sand and clay. Absence of air, high temperature and high pressure for years, converted these bodies into petroleum oil and natural gas.
Name any three constituents obtained from refining petroleum and their uses.
(i) L.P.G.: It is used as domestic fuel and fuel for vehicles.
(ii) Petrol: It is used as fuel for light vehicles, aviation fuel and used in drycleaning of fabric.
(iii) Kerosene: It is used as fuel for stoves, lamps an d for jet aircrafts.
What is diesel? How is it different from petrol?
Diesel is one of the constituents obtained by the refining or fractional distillation of petroleum. It is mainly used as the fuel for vehicles as petrol is used. But it is different from petrol, as it is used as fuel for heavy vehicles like trucks, lories, etc. while petrol is used as fuel in light vehicles like cars, scooters, etc.
What is CNG?
GNG is Compressed Natural Gas which is a fossil fuel and is formed along petroleum oil. It is used as the pollution free fuel for transport vehicles. It is more convinient to use as its transportation is easy and it can be directly burnt.
Long Answer Type Questions
Classify various materials we use in our lives.
All the materials we use can be broadly classified into two groups:
(a) Natural Resources
(b) Man-made Resources.
(a) Natural resources are those resources which are present in our nature, gifted by God. They can be freely used. Soil, air, sunlight, water, wildlife, etc. are some natural resources.
(b) Man-made resources are those resources which are formed by various efforts of man and are artificial. Plastics, fibres, electricity, etc. are all artificial resources.
On availability of materials natural materials can further be classified as:
(i) Inexhaustible Natural Resources:
Those resources which are present in unlimited quantity and will never get exhausted by human activities. Sunlight, air, soil, etc. are some inexhaustible natural resources.
(ii) Exhaustible Natural Resources:
Those resources which are available in limited amount and will get finished by human activities. Petroleum, coal, wildlife, forests, etc. are some examples of exhaustible natural resources.
What is coal and how was it formed? Explain.
Coal is a fossil fuel which is as hard as a stone. It is black in colour and is mainly used as fuel. As coal is a fossil fuel, it was formed by the dead remains of the plants. Millions of years ago vegetation in forests got trapped under soil layers due to earthquakes and volcanic erruptions. More soil layers got deposited on it and it went deeper and deeper beneath the earth.
This raised the temperature and pressure beneath the soil. This initiated the process of burning these dead remains. Slowly all the vegetations got converted into coal which is a rich form of carbon. This whole process is also called carbonization.
How was petroleum formed? What is refining of petroleum?
Petroleum is a fossil fuel which got formed by the dead remains of the sea-animals. These animals slowly got trapped under soil and clay and more deposits were formed with time. Due to depth, the temperature and pressure raised and over the years they got converted into petroleum oil. Since oil is lighter than water, it did not get mix with water and got raised to the superficial rocks, which did not allow it to pass through them. To obtain petroleum, we have to dig wells to perforate the top rocks and pump up the petroleum oil.
The petroleum oil we get from these wells is a mixture of variuos other useful substances. Petroleum oil is, thus, refined to separate these useful by-products in petroleum refineries.
Name different constituents of petroleum and write their uses.
Following are various constituents of petroleum oil obtained during fractional distillation in oil refineries:
(i) Liquefied Petroleum Gas (L.P.G.): It is primarily used as domestic fuel. Now it is used as fuel in vehicles and industry.
(ii) Petrol: It is a black liquid used as fuel in light vehicles like scooters, cars, etc. It is also used as aviation fuel and used for dry cleaning of fabrics.
(iii) Kerosene: It is used as fuel in stoves, lamps and jet aircrafts.
(iv) Diesel: It is used as fuel for heavy vehicles and in electric generators.
(v) Lubricating oil: It, is used to lubricate metal parts and machines.
(vi) Paraffin wax: It is used in ointments’, vaselines and in candles.
(vii) Bitumen: It is used in paints and is used in road-surfacing in place of coal-tar.
Write a note on Natural Gas.
Natural gas is one of the most important forms of fossil fuel. The reason being that it is very easy to transport through pipes and cylinders. Natural gas is extracted and stored under very high pressure. As it is kept compressed under high pressure, it is called .
Compressed Natural Gas or CNG. The great advantage of CNG is that it does not cause pollution on usage as in case of other petrochemicals like petrol and diesel. Secondly, it can be directly burnt in homes and factories for cooking and other purposes. Natural gas is also used as the fuel for many manufacturing units of chemicals and fertilizers.
Why is it necessary to use coal and petroleum economically?
There are two main reasons for which economical use of fossil fuels is necessary.
(i) Fossil fuels are exhaustible sources. If they are used indiscriminately, they will be exhausted, as they are present in nature in limited amount. It takes millions of years to form fossil fuels, so it is not possible to make new fossil fuels artificially.
(ii) Secondly, fossil fuels specially coke, petrol, diesel, etc. generate polluting gases on burning. Coke is almost carbon and produces carbondioxide on binning, whieh pollutes our environment. These polluting emissions have given rise to dangers of global warming and air pollution. So, their limited and economic use can control pollution and give better environment to live in.
Write some ways in which we can conserve fossil fuels.
Economic and controlled consumption of fossil fuel can help conserving our natural resources. Following ways and measures can conserve owr resources:
(i) Vehicles shcaiM be driven at eeaastant and moderate speed.
(ii) Engines should he switched off at traffic lights or other temporary halts.
(iii) Proper and regular maintenance of vehicles.
(iv) Vehicle pooling can reduce number of vehicles plying on road thus less consumption of fuel.
(v) At home gas stoves should he cleaned properly and burners should not he left boring unnecessarily.
(vi) Pressure cookers should be preferred to pans. If pans are being used, they should he properly covered and their bottoms should not have deposits of burnt oil.
(vii) Small pans and burners should be used and pulses etc. should be dipped in water before cooking them.
Coal and Petroleum Class 8 HBSE Notes
1. We get various materials from various sources. These sources cam be natural or man-made. Natural resources are like air, water, soil, minerals, etc.
2. Natural resources are of two types according to their availability
3. Inexhaustible resources are those which are unlimited and are not supposed to come to an end by human use e.g. air is in exhaustible resource.
4. Exhaustible resourcs are those resources which are present in limited quantity and which can come to an end by human use e.g. forests, coal, petroleum, wildlife and natural gas, minerals, etc.
5. Coal, petroleum, natural gas etc. are called fossil fuels because they are formed by the decomposition of the dead bodies of plants and animals.
6. These fossil fuels are used by humans for their various energy requirements.
7. Coal was formed under the earth about 300 million years ago. The de forests of the earth got hurried under soil due to earthquakes and volcanic erruptions. The compressed under the layers of soil. Rising temperature under the earth converted these dead bodies into coal. Coal mainly consists of carbon.
8. The whole process of conversion of dead bodies of plants and animals into coal is called carbonization.
9. Heating of coal in absence oT cur to form coke is called destructive distillation. Destructive distillation is the process which produces various petroleum products like coaltar, coal-gas, etc.
10. Petroleum is refined to get various by-products like petrol, petroleum gas, paraffin wax, diesel, lubricating oil, etc.
11. All these resources of energy are present in limited quantity. It was a long process which took place to convert dead bodies of living beiqgs to get converted into petroleum products. So they will get exhausted if used indiscriminately.