Haryana State Board HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes History Chapter 5 Print Culture and the Modern World Notes
Haryana Board 10th Class Social Science Notes History Chapter 5 Print Culture and the Modern World
- It is very difficult for us to imagine a world without printed matter.
- The art of writing and illustrating by hand was the most important in the age before print.
- The earliest kind of technology was a system of hand-printing, it was developed in China, Japan and Korea.
- In China, since 594 CE, wood blocks were used for hand-printing.
- The imperial state in China was for a very long time the major producer of hand printed material.
- Shanghai became the hub of the new print culture.
- From hand printing, there was now a gradual shift to mechanical printing in China.
Print Culture And The Modern World Class 10 Notes HBSE
→ Print in Japan
- Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology in Japan around 768-770 CE.
- The oldest Japanese book printed in 868 CE, is the Buddhist Diamond Sutra. Kitagawa Utamaro, bom in Edo (Tokyo) in 1753, was widely known for his contribution to an art form called ukiyo (‘Pictures of the floating world’).
→ Print Comes to Europe
- In the eleventh century, Chinese paper reached Europe via the silk route.
- Macro Polo a great explorer returned to Italy in 1295, after many years of exploration in China.
- As the demand for books increased, booksellers all over Europe began exporting books to many different countries.
- Johann Gutenberg invented the Olive printing press, which provided the model for the printing press.
→ Gutenberg and the Printing Press
- The first book printed by Johann, was the Bible. Metal types were invented by him, and the machine came to be known as the moveable type printing machine.
- In the hundred years between 1450 and 1550, printing presses were set up in most countries of Europe.
- The invention of the printing press proved a great miracle in spreading knowledge.
→ A New Reading Public
- With the advent of printing press, a new reading public emerged in the world. Access to books developed a new culture of reading.
- Printers began publishing popular ballads and folk tales, and such books would be profusely illustrated with pictures. The line, that separated the oral and reading cultures, became blurred.
→ Religious Debates and the Fear of Print
- Print developed the possibility of wide circulation of ideas, and introduced a new world of debate and discussion.
- There were many people who welcomed these printed books, because they felt that books would enlighten them, educate them, enhance their knowledge and even help them in ending despotism.
- In 1517, the religious reformer of Germany, Martin Luther, wrote ‘Ninety Five Theses’, criticising many of the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church.
Print Culture And The Modern World Notes HBSE 10th Class
→ Print and Dissent
- Print and popular religious literature stimulated various distinctive individual interpretations of faith, even among little-educated working people.
- Through the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, literacy rates went up in various parts of Europe.
- As literacy and schools spread in European countries, there was a virtual reading mania.
- People wanted to read books, and printers produced books in ever-increasing numbers.
- New forms of popular literature appeared in print, targeting new audiences. There were almanacs, or ritual calendars along with ballads and folktales.
- In England, penny chapbooks were carried by petty pedlars known as chapmen, and sold for a penny.
- In France, the ‘Biliotheque Bleue’ were low-priced books, printed on poor quality paper, and bound in cheap blue covers.
- Churches of different sub-groups set-up schools in villages, spreading literacy among peasants and artisans.
- The periodical press developed from the early eighteenth century, combining information about current affairs with entertainment.
- The discoveries of Isaac Newton, and the writings of thinkers like Thomas Paine, Voltaire and Jean Jacques Rousseau, were widely printed and read.
→ Tremble, Therefore Tyrants of the World
- By the mid-eighteenth century, there was a common conviction that books were a means of spreading progress and enlightenment.
- Many believed, that books could change the world, liberate society from despotism and tyranny.
→ Print Culture and the French Revolution
- Many historians have argued that print culture created the conditions within which French Revolution occurred.
- Print popularised the ideas of the enlightened thinkers.
- Print created a new culture of dialogue and debate.
- By the 1780s, there was an outpouring of literature that mocked the royalty, and criticised their morality.
Class 10 History Chapter Print Culture And Modern World Notes HBSE
→ Children, Women and Workers
- The nineteenth century saw vast leaps in mass literacy in Europe, bringing in large numbers of new readers, including children, women and workers.
- As primary education became compulsory from the late nineteenth century, children became an important category of readers.
- In the year 1857, a children’s press, devoted to literature for children alone, was set up in France.
- Lending libraries had been in existence from the seventeenth century onwards.
- In the nineteenth century, libraries in England became instruments for educating white collar workers, artisans and lower middle-class people.
→ Further Innovations
- Through the nineteenth century, there were a series of further innovations in printing technology.
- By the mid-nineteenth century, Richard M. Hoe of New York had perfected the power- driven cylindrical press.
- Nineteenth-century periodicals serialised important novels, which gave birth to a particular way of writing novels.
→ Manuscripts Before the Age of Print
- India had a very rich and old tradition of handwritten manuscripts in Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, as well as in various vernacular languages.
- Manuscripts were copied on palm leaves or on handmade paper.
→ Print Comes to India
- The printing press, first came to Goa (India) with Portuguese missionaries in the mid¬sixteenth century.
- Catholic priests printed the first Tamil book in the year 1579 at Cochin.
- The British East India Company began to import presses from the late seventeenth century.
- From 1780, James Augustus Hickey began to edit the Bengal Gazette, a weekly magazine.
- In the nineteenth century, the print media greatly helped the reformers to reform the Indian society and religion.
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy published the Sambad-Kaumudi and the Hindu orthodoxy commissioned the Samachar Chandrika to oppose his views.
- The Deoband Seminary published thousands of fatwas, telling muslim readers, how to conduct themselves in their everyday lives and explaining the meanings of Islamic doctrines.
Class 10 Sst Print Culture And Modern World Notes HBSE
→ New Forms of Publication
The first printed edition of the Ramcharitmanas of Tulsidas, a sixteenth-century text, came out from Calcutta in 1810.
→ Women and Print
- By the end of the nineteenth century, a new visual culture was taking shape. Painters like Raja Ravi Verma produced images for mass circulation.
- By the 1870s, caricatures and cartoons were being published in journals and newspapers, commenting on social and political issues.
- Lives and feelings of women began to be written in particularly vivid and intense ways.
- After the mid-nineteenth century, schools were set-up in the cities and towns.
- In East Bengal, Rashsundari Debi and Kailashbashini Debi, and in Maharashtra, Tarabai Shinde and Pandita Ramabai wrote about the experiences of women in the nineteenth century.
- In the early twentieth century, journals written for and sometimes edited by women, became extremely popular.
- → Print and the Poor People
Very cheap small books were brought to markets in nineteenth-century, allowing poor people to buy them.
- Public libraries were set-up from the early twentieth century, expanding the access to books.
- The social reformer, Jyotiba Phule, wrote about the injustices of caste system, in his book Gulamgiri.
- By the decade of 1820, the Calcutta Supreme Court passed certain regulations to control press freedom and the company began encouraging publication of newspapers that would celebrate British rule.
- After the revolt of 1857, the attitude to freedom of the press changed. Enraged Englishmen demanded a clampdown on the ‘native’ press.
- In 1878, the Vernacular Press Act was passed, modelled on the Irish Press Laws. Vernacular press act provided the government with extensive right to censor reports and editorials.
- Despite repressive measures, many nationalist newspapers grew in all parts of India. They reported colonial misrule and encouraged nationalist activities.
→ Important Dates and Events
|Books in China were printed by rubbing paper against the inked surface of woodblocks.
|Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology into Japan.
|The Buddhist Diamond Sutra, the oldest Japanese book was printed.
|Marco Polo returned to Italy. He brought woodblock printing technology to Europe from China.
|Johann Gutenberg invented the printing press.
|First Tamil book was published in Cochin by the Catholic priests.
|First Malayalam book was published by the Catholic priests.
|Kitagawa Utamaro born in Edo (Tokyo)
|James Augustus Hickey began to edit the Bengal Gazette. It was a weekly magazine.
|The first printed edition of the Ramcharitmanas of Tulsidas came out from Calcutta.
|Raja Rammohan Roy published the Sambad Kaumudi.
|Two Persian newspapers, Jam-i-Jahan Nama and Shamsul Akhbar, were published.
|The Vernacular Press Act was passed in India.
→ Important Persons
1. Kitagawa Utamaro: He was born in Edo (Tokyo, Japan). He was widely known for his contributions to an art form called Ukiyo (pictures of
the floating world).
2. Marco Polo: A great Italian explorer, in 1295, he returned to Italy after many years of exploration in China. He brought the knowledge of woodblock printing to Europe.
3. Johann Gutenberg: German national, inventor of first printing press. The first printing press was set-up in Germany by Johann Gutenberg in 1448. He developed metal types for each of the 26 characters of English alphabet and devised a way of moving them around, so as to compose different words of the text. His novel press came to be known as the moveable type printing machine.
4. Martin Luther: A great reformer of Germany. The credit for starting reformation in Germany goes to Martin Luther. In 1517, Martin Luther wrote Ninety Five Theses, criticising many of the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church.
5. Menocchio: A miller of Italy. He began to read books. He re-interpreted the message of the Bible, and formulated a view of God and Creation that enraged the Roman Catholic Church.
6. Erasmus: A great social reformer of Holland. He criticised the excesses of Catholicism. He expressed deep anxiety about printing.
7. Louise Sebastien Mercier: A French novelist, he declared that the printing press is the most powerful engine of progress, and public opinion is the force that will sweep despotism away.
8. James Augustus Hickey: Famous writer. From 1780, he began to edit the Bengal Gazette, a weekly magazine. He published a lot of gossips about the British East India Company’s senior officials in India.
9. Raja Rammohan Roy: A great Indian reformer, He published the Sambad Kaumudi in the year 1821.
10. Raja Ravi Verma: A famous Indian painter. He produced innumerable mythological paintings that were printed at the Ravi Verma press. His famous printing is Raja Ritudhwaj, rescuing princess Madalsa from the captivity of demons.
11. Rashsundari Debi: She was a young married girl from a very orthodox household. She learnt to read secretly in her kitchen. She wrote her autobiography ‘Amar Jiban’ which was published in the year 1876. It was the first full length autobiography, published in the Bengali language.
12. Begum Rokeya Sakhawat Hussein: A famous educationist and literary figure, in 1926. She strongly condemned men for withholding education from women in the name of religion.
13. Jyotiba Phule: The Maratha pioneer of ‘low caste’ protest movements. He’wrote about the injustices of the caste system in his book Gulamgiri, which was published in the year 1871.
14. Kashibaba: He was a mill worker of Kanpur. He wrote and published ‘Chhote Aur Bade Ka Sawal’ in 1938, to show the links between caste and class exploitation.
15. Bal Gangadhar Tilak : A great Indian freedom fighter, he published Kesari Newspaper. When Punjab revolutionaries were deported in 1907, he wrote with great sympathy about them in his newspaper. This led to his imprisonment in the year 1908.
→ Important Terms
1. Calligraphy: The art of beautiful and stylish writing, is called Calligraphy.
2. Vellum: A parchment made from the skin of animals.
3. Manuscript: Book or document written by hand. It is the author’s original copy – hand written or typed, not printed.
4. Platen: In letterpress printing, platen is a board which is pressed onto the back of the paper to get the impression from the type. At one time, it used to be a wooden board, later it was made of steel.
5. Compositor: The person who composes the text for printing.
6. Galley: Metal frame, in which types are laid and the text composed.
7. Revolution: Cause to change fundamentally.
8. Ballad: A historical account or folk tale in verse, usually sung or recited.
9. Taverns: Places where people gathered to drink alcohol, to eat food and to meet friends and to exchange news.
10. Protestant Reformation: A sixteenth-century movement to reform the Catholic Church led by Martin Luther in Rome.
11. Inquisition: A former Roman Catholic court for identifying and punishing heretics.
12. Heretical: Beliefs, which do not follow the accepted teachings of the Church. In medieval times, this was seen as a threat to the right of
the Church to decide on what should be believed and what should not. Heretical beliefs were severely punished.
13. Satiety: The state of being fulfilled, much beyond the point of satisfaction.
14. Seditious: Action, speech or writing that is seen as opposing the Government.
15. Denominations: Sub-groups within a religion are called Denominations.
16. Almanac: An annual publication, giving astronomical data, information about the movements of the sun and moon, timing of full tides and eclipses, and much else, that was of importance in the everyday life of people.
17. Chapbook: A term used to describe pocket-size books that were sold by travelling peddlers called chapmen. These became popular from the time of the sixteenth-century print revolution.
18. Biliotheque Bleue: Low-priced small books, printed on poor quality paper and bound in cheap blue covers, were called Biliotheque Bleue.
19. Despotism: A system of governance in which absolute power is exercised by an individual, unregulated by legal and constitutional checks.
20. Ulama: Legal scholars of Islam and the Sharia (A body of Islamic law) are called Ulama.
21. Fatwa: A legal pronouncement on Islamic law, usually given by a Mufti (Legal scholar), to clarify issues, on which the law is uncertain, is called Fatwa.