HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World

Haryana State Board HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World Notes

Haryana Board 10th Class Social Science Notes History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World

The Making Of The Global World Notes HBSE 10th Class

Summary Of The Lesson

→ The Pre-Modem World

  • Since ancient times, travellers, traders, priests and pilgrims travelled vast distances for knowledge, opportunity and spiritual fulfilment, or to escape persecution.
  • Globalisation is an economic system, that has emerged in the last fifty years or so. But, the making of the global world has a long history.
  • As early as 3000 BCE, an active coastal trade linked the Indus valley civilisation with present-day West Asia.
  • Seashells (used as a form of currency), from the Maldives, found their way to China and East Africa, and the long-distance spread of disease-carrying germs may be traced as far back as the seventh century.

The Making Of A Global World Notes HBSE 10th Class

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World

→ Silk Routes Link the World

  • The silk routes are a good example of vibrant, pre-modem trade and cultural links between distant parts of the world.
  • Historians have identified many silk routes, over land and by sea, linking Asia with Europe and northern Africa.
  • These routes existed even before the Christian Era and flourished till the fifteenth century.
  • Chinese silk and pottery, Indian spices and textiles were carried by these routes.
  • The Buddhist preachers, Christian missionaries, and later on, thr Muslim preachers travelled on these routes.

→ Food Travels

  • Usually, travellers and traders introduced new crops to the lands which they visited.
  • It is a common belief that noodles travelled west from China to become spaghetti.
  • Many of our common foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes, chillies, sweet potatoes etc. were introduced in Asia and Europe after Christopher Columbus discovered America. These foods came from America’s original inhabitants—the American Indians.
  • The Portuguese and Spanish conquest and colonisation of Americas was decisively under way by the mid-sixteenth century.

→ Conquest, Disease and Trade

  • The disease of smallpox that came from Europe, spread deep into the American continent.
  • Until the nineteenth century, poverty and hunger were common in Europe. Therefore, thousands of people fled Europe for America.
  • Till the eighteenth century, China and India were the world’s richest countries. After that, America gradually became important and with this, the European continent emerged as the vast centre of world trade.
  • The economists identify three types of ‘flows’ within international economic exchanges i.e., the flow of trade, the flow of capital and the flow of labour.

Making Of Global World Class 10 Notes HBSE

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World

→ A World Economy Takes Shape

  • Industrialisation and population growth had increased the demand for foodgrains in Britain in the late eighteenth century.
  • To satisfy the food requirement, the food products were imported into Britain from different parts of the world.
  • Nearly fifty million people emigrated from Europe to America and Australia in the nineteenth century.
  • By the end of the nineteenth century, a global agricultural economy had developed, along with the changes in pattern of labour migrations, capital flows and technology.

→ Role of Technology

  • The railways, steamships, the telegraph etc. were important inventions, without which we cannot imagine the transformed nineteenth century world.
  • A new technology of refrigeration was established in the ships, which enabled the transport of perishable foods over long distances.

→ Late Nineteenth Century Colonialism

  • Trade flourished and markets expanded in the late nineteenth century.
  • Britain and France, alongwith Germany and Belgium, made vast additions to their overseas territories in the late nineteenth century.
  • The United States of America (US) also became a colonial power in the late 1890s, by taking over some colonies earlier held by Spain.

→ Rinderpest or the Cattle Plague

  • A fast-spreading disease of cattle plague or rinderpest had a terrifying impact on people’s livelihoods and the local economy.
  • Rinderpest disease arrived in Africa in the late 1880s.
  • In the late nineteenth century, Europeans were attracted to Africa due to its various resources of land and minerals.
  • Indentured labour means a bonded labourer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time, to pay off his passage to a new country or home. Indentured Labour Migration from India.
  • In the nineteenth century, hundreds of thousands of Indian and Chinese labourers went to work in mines, on plantations, and in road and railways construction projects around the world.
  • Most Indian indentured labourers came from the present day regions of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Centred India and Tamil Nadu.
  • The main destinations of Indian indentured migrants were the Caribbean islands (mainly Trinidad, Guyana and Surinam), Mauritius and Fiji.
  • The system of indentured labour was abolished in the year 1921, when Indian nationalists opposed the system.
  • Indian traders and moneylenders also followed European colonisers into Africa for developing their business abroad.
  • From the early nineteenth century, British manufacturers began to come to the Indian market. Foodgrain and raw material exports from India to Britain and the rest of the world increased.
  • The First World War (1914-18) was mainly fought in Europe, but its impact was felt all over the world.

The Making Of Global World Notes HBSE 10th Class

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World

→ Wartime Transformations

  • The First World War was fought between the leading industrial nations of the world. The First World War was the first modem industrial war.
  • For the first time, modem weapons like machine gems, tanks, aircrafts, chemical weapons etc. were used on .a massive scale.
  • The deaths and injuries in the war reduced the able-bodied workforce in Europe. Industries were restructured to produce war-related goods.
  • Britain faced a prolonged economic crisis after the First World War. It became very difficult to recapture its earlier position of dominance in the Indian market.
  • After a short period of economic trouble in the years after the war, the US economy resumed its strong growth in the early 1920s.

→  Rise of Mass Production and Consumption

  • In the 1920s, the mass production became an important feature of industrial production in the United States of America (USA).
  • A well-known pioneer of mass production was the car manufacturer Henry Ford.
  • Henry Ford adapted the assembly line to his new car plant in Detroit, when he realised that this method would allow a faster and much cheaper way of producing vehicles.
  • Henry Ford’s industrial practices soon spread in the United States of America (USA) and Europe in the 1920s.
  • The housing and consumer boom of the 1920s created the basis of prosperity in the US. The Great Depression
  • The worldwide economic depression began around 1929 and lasted till the mid-1980s. During this period, most of the countries of the world
  • experienced catastrophic declines in production, employment, incomes and trade.

→ India and the Great Depression

  • The great depression immediately affected the Indian trade. India’s exports and imports nearly halved between 1928 and 1934.
  • As international prices crashed, prices in India also plunged. Peasants and farmers suffered more, than urban dwellers.
  • Reconstruction in the post-war era had been done under the supervision of the United States of America (US) and the Soviet Union.
  • The governments had to step in to minimise fluctuations of price, output and employment. Post War Settlement and the Bretton Woods Institutions
  • The Bretton Woods agreement was signed between the world powers in July 1944, as a result of the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, U.S.A.
  • The Bretton Woods conference established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank to preserve economic stability and full employment in the industrial world.

History The Making Of Global World Notes HBSE 10th Class

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World

→ The Early Post-War Years

The Bretton Woods system ushered an era of unprecedented growth of trade and incomes for the Western industrial nations and Japan.

→ Decolonisation and Independence

  • When the Second World War ended, large parts of the world were still under the European colonial rule.
  • Even after many years of decolonisation, the former colonial powers still controlled vital resources such as minerals and land in many of their former colonies.
  • G-77 was a group of developing countries in the late 20th century, established to demand a new international economic order.
  • From the 1960s, the rising costs of its overseas involvements weakened the United States of America’s finances and competitive strength.

→ Important Dates and Events:

3000 BCE An active coastal trade linked the Indus Valley civilisation with West Asia.
1885 The big European powers met in Berlin and drew up the borders at the map of Africa demarcating their respective territories.
1890s In the decades of the 1890s, the Rinderpest cattle plague spread in Africa.
1914 The First World War began.
1921 Indentured labour system abolished.
1929 The beginning of the Great Depression.
1944 The United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA.
1947 The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank started financial operations.

→ Important Terms:

1. Globalisation: It is the process of integration or interconnection between countries. In other words, the movement of people, goods and services across the nations has been termed as globalisation.

2. Cowries: The Hindu Cowdi, used as a form of currency in ancient times.

3. Silk Routes: These routes knitted together vast regions of Asia, and linked Asia with Europe and Northern Africa. These routes are known to have existed since before the Christian Era. These routes were used for silk trading.

4. Dissenter: One who rejects established beliefs and practices is called a dissenter.

5. Com Laws: Under pressure from landed groups, the British government restricted the import of corn. This law was popularly known as the Com Law.

Making Of Global World Notes HBSE 10th Class

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World

6. Primary Products: These are agricultural products such as wheat, rice and minerals such as coal, petroleum, zinc, gold etc.

7. Canal Colonies: The areas irrigated by new canals, where peasants from different parts of Punjab settled, were called Canal colonies.

8. Indentured Labour: A bonded labourer under contract to work for an employer for a specific period is known as indentured labour.

9. Hosay: Annual ‘muharram’ riotous carnival in Trinidad where labourers of all races and religions join together to celebrate.

10. Trade Surplus: It is a situation under which the value of exports is more than imports.

11. Allies: A power block formed by alliance of Britain, Russia and France during the days of the First World War.

12. Central Powers: War alliance among Germany, Hungary, Austria and Ottoman Turkey empire in the First World War.

13. Assembly Line Production: It is a manufacturing process in which interchangeable parts are added to a product in sequential manner to create a finished product.

14. Tariff: Tax imposed on a country’s imports from the rest of the world. Tariffs are levied at the point of entry, i.e., at the border or the airport.

15. Exchange Rates: They link national currencies for purposes of international trade. There are broadly two kinds of exchange rates : fixed exchange rate and floating exchange rate.

16. Fixed Exchange Rates: When exchange rates are fixed and governments intervene to prevent movements in them.

17. Flexible or Floating Exchange Rates: When exchange rates are determined by demand and supply forces of the open market, without any interference of the governments.

18. MNCs: Multinational Corporation or Company.

HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World

→ Important Persons:

1. Christopher Columbus: He discovered America in 1492.

2. John Winthorp: He was the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony in New England. He wrote that small pox signalled God’s blessing for the colonists.

3. Sir Henry Morton Stanley: He was a journalist of New York Herald. He was sent by the New York Herald to find Livingston, a missionary and explorer who had been in Africa for several years.

4. V.S. Naipaul The Nobel Prize-winning writer, whose forefathers migrated as indentured labourers.

5. Shivnarine Chanderpaul and Ramnaresh Sarwan: West Indies cricketers. They have descended from Indentured labour migrants from India.

6. Henry Ford: He was a famous car manufacturer of the United States of America.
He adapted the assembly line of a Chicago slaughterhouse to his new car plant in Detroit. –

7. Rastafarianism: Rastafarianism is said to reflect the social and cultural link of Indian migrants with the Caribbean.

8. John Maynard Keynes: Famous economist, he thought that Indian gold exports promoted global economic recovery.

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