Haryana State Board HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Notes
Haryana Board 10th Class Social Science Notes History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India
Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes HBSE
→ Summary Of The Lesson
- Modem nationalism in Europe was associated with the formation of nation-states. New symbols, icons, new songs and ideas forged new links and redefined the boundaries of communities.
- In India, the growth of modern nationalism is closely linked with anti-colonial movement.
→ The First World War
- The First World War (1914-18) was a great event in world history.
- The First World War created many problems for the Indians, especially in the economic field.
- The First World War led to a huge increase in the defence expenditure and therefore, the British Government increased the taxes, customs duties and introduced income tax.
- The forced recruitment in rural areas created an upheaval in the Indian society, resulting in widespread anger among the people.
HBSE 10th Class History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India
- Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi) returned to India in January 1915.
- He believed that the dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.’
- After arriving in India, Mahatma Gandhi successfully organised satyagraha movements in Champaran (Bihar), Kheda (Gujarat) and Ahmedabad (Gujarat).
- Satyagraha was a noble method of truth and non-violence which Mahatma Gandhi adopted in his struggle.
→ The Rowlatt Act
- In 1919, Gandhiji decided to launch a nationwide satyagraha movement against the proposed Rowlatt Act.
- Jallianwalla Bagh masscare took place on 13th April 1919 in Amritsar.
- The Khilafat movement was started by the famous Ali brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali in 1919, to protest against the injustice done to Turkey after the First World War.
→ Non-Cooperation Movements
- Mahatma Gandhi, in his famous book Hind Swaraj, declared that if Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a year and Swaraj will come.
- The Non-Cooperation Khilafat Movement began in January 1921. Various social groups participated in this movement.
- British institutions, schools, colleges, foreign goods and clothes were boycotted.
- The movement drew into its fold, the struggles of peasants and tribals which were developing in different parts of India, in the years after the war.
→ Swaraj in the Plantations
- Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers in Assam were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission.
- When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations, and headed home.
- The plantation workers interpreted the term swaraj in their own way. They imagined it to be a time, when all their troubles and sufferings would end.
- In February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-cooperation Movement due to the outbreak of violence in Chauri-Chaura.
- The British government appointed the Simon Commission to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and to suggest changes.
- Simon Commission arrived India in 1928. It had seven members. It did not have any Indian membership, so it was boycotted by the Indians, with the slogan ‘Go back Simon.’ In December 1929, under the presidency of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, the Lahore Congress formalised the demand of ‘Purna Swaraj’ or full independence for India.
Nationalism in India HBSE 10th Class
→ The Salt March and the Civil Disobedience Movement
- Mahatma Gandhi found in salt, a powerful symbol, that could unite a nation.
- On 6th April 1930, Gandhiji reached Dandi, a village near the sea coast in Gujarat and ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.
- In order to crush the Civil Disobedience Movement, the colonial government once again followed the policy of repression and arrested many leaders, including Mahatma Gandhi and Abdul Ghaffar Khan.
- In the countryside, rich peasants communities, like the Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh, were active in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
- The industrial working class did not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large numbers, except in the Nagpur region.
- A large number of women also participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
→ The Limits of Civil Disobedience
- Mahatma Gandhi declared that swaraj would not come in India for hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated. He called the untouchables-Haryan or the Children of God.
- Mahatma Gandhi organised satyagraha to secure entry of the Harijans in temples, access to public wells, roads and schools.
- Dr. B.R. Ambedkar organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930. The Poona Pact was signed between Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar in Poona in September 1932. This Pact gave the depressed classes, reserved seats in Provincial and Central Legislative Councils.
→ The Sense of Collective Belonging
- Nationalism spread rapidly when people began to believe that they all were part of the same nation.
- History and fiction, songs and folklore, prints and symbols, all played a great part in developing the spirit of nationalism in India.
- Inspired by the Swadeshi movement, Abanindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata.
- As the national movement developed, nationalist leaders became more and more aware of such icons and symbols in unifying citizens, and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism.
→ Important Dates and Events:
|Nov. 1913||Mahatma Gandhi led the satyagraha in South Africa, against racist laws that denied rights to non-whites.|
|Jan. 1915||Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from Africa.|
|1917||Gandhiji travelled to Champaran in Bihar to help the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.|
|1917||Gandhiji organised a satyagraha movement in Kheda district of Gujarat to support the peasants who were demanding relaxation in
revenue collection due to crop failure and plague epidemic.
|1918||Gandhiji organised a satyagraha in Ahmedabad in favour of the cotton mill workers.|
|1918-1919||Distressed UP peasants were organised by Baba Ramehandra.|
|April 1919||Gandhian harta? against Rowlatt Act, Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.|
|Jan. 1921||Non-cooperation and Khilafat movements were launched.|
|Feb. 1922||Chauri-chaura incident. Gandhiji withdrew Non-cooperation Movement.|
|May 1924||Ahuri Sitarama Raju arrested, ending a two-year armed tribal struggle.|
|1927||Formation of the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries.|
|1928||Simon Commission arrived in India.|
|1929||In October, Irwin announced a dominion status’ for India.
Lahore Congress: Congress adopted the demand for ‘Puma Swami’
|1930||Gandhjji began Civil Disobedience Movement by breaking salt law at Dandi.|
|March 1931||Gandhiji ended Civil Disobedience Movement, Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed.|
|Dec. 1931||Second Round Table Conference.|
|1932||Civil Disobedience was re-launched.|
|In September 1932.||Poona Pact wa signed between Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. BR. Ambedkar.|
→ Important Persons:
1. Mahatma Gandhi: Gandhiji was a famous Indian freedom fighter who is known as Father of Nation. His contribution for independence of India is unforgettable. He believed that dharma of Non-violence could unite all Indians. He successfully organised Satyagraha movement in various places in India. He launched Non-cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement and Quit India Movement.
2. Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali: The Khilafat Movement was started by the famous Ali brothers- Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali in 1919.
3. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru: Famous freedom fighter and Congress leader. In December, 1929, under the presidency of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, the Lahore Congress formalised the Demand of Purna Swaraj. He wrote a famous book ‘The Discovery of India’.
4. Baba Ram Chandra: Leader of Awadh Peasants, in 1918-19, he led a Peasant Movement during the Non-cooperation Movement
5. Alluri Sitarama Raju: A tribal leader, who led a movement of tribal peasants in Andhra Pradesh and was arrested at the end of two years’ armed tribal struggle. He claimed, he had special powers. He was inspired by the Non-cooperation Movement and he persuaded people to give up drinking.
6. Sir j0hn Simon: Chairman of Simon Commission in 1927 A.D. The British Government appointed the seven man commission under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon. The Commission was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928.
7. Lord Irwin: He was a viceroy in British rule in India. He announced a dominion status for India. He signed Gandhi-Irwin Pact with Mahatma Gandhi.
8. Subhash Chandra Bose: He was a great patriot of India. He founded Indian National Army. His purpose was to overthrow the British rule in India. He raised the slogan ‘Jai Hind’.
9. Abdul Ghaffar Khan: Great freedom fighter. He was arrested in Civil Disobedience Movement by the British Government. He launched Civil Disobedience Movement in Peshawar.
10. Purshottamdas Thakurdas: Famous industrialist. He attacked colonial control over the Indian Economy.
11. G.D. Birla: Famous industrialist. He attacked colonial control over the Indian economy • and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement.
12. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar: Dr. B.R. Ambedkar had signed the Minority Pact with the British Government in India. In September 1932, he signed Poona Pact with Mahatma Gandhi.
13. Sir Mohammad Iqbal: He was the president of the Muslim League. In 1930, he supported separate electorates for the Muslims.
14. Mohammad Ali Jinnah: Muslim League leader. He represented the Muslim Social Group of Indians.
15. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay: He wrote the famous song ’Vande Mataram’ in the 1870s. Later, it was included in his novel Anandamath1. It was widely sung during the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal.
16. Abanindranath Tagore: A famous Indian Painter. He painted his famous image of Bharat Mata in 1905. In this painting, Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure. She is calm, composed, divine and spiritual.
→ Important Terms:
1. Forced Recruitment: A process by which the colonial state forced people to join the army.
2. Satyagraha: A non-violent method used by Gandhiji against the oppressor was called Satyagraha.
3. Rowlatt Act law or tool of repression passed by the British Government on 18th March 1919.
4. Boycott: The refusal to deal and associate with people or participate in activities or buy and use things; usually a form of protest.
5. Picket: A form of demonstration or protest, by which, people block the entrance to a shop, factory or office.
6. Khadi: The spun handloom material is known as khadi.
7. Begar: Labour, that villagers were forced to contribute without any payment.
8. Non-cooperation Movement: This movement was launched by Gandhiji in 1920. Its aims were to redress the wrong done to Punjab and
Turkey and the attainment of Swaraj.
9. Inland Emigration Act: It was an act through which plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission.
10. Dandi March: Gandhiji, along with 78 of his followers, started from his Ashram at Sabarmati to Dandi on the sea coast of Gujarat, on foot, and broke the salt law by making salt.
11. Gandhi-Irwin Pact: It was an agreement signed in March 1931, under which, the Civil Disobedience Movement was called off.
12. Poona Pact: It was a pact which was signed between Gandhiji and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. The pact gave the depressed classes, reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils.