Haryana State Board HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries Notes
Haryana Board 10th Class Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries
- Production of goods in large quantities after processing them from raw material to more valuable articles is known as manufacturing.
- People engaged in secondary activities convert the raw materials into finished goods.
- The economic progress of a country is measured by the development of various manufacturing industries.
→ Importance of Manufacturing
- The manufacturing sector is considered the backbone of development in general and economic development.
- Manufacturing industries not only help in modernising agriculture but also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
- Agriculture and industry are complementary to each other.
- Industrial development assists agriculturists in increasing their production.
- In the present-day world of globalisation, our manufacturing industry needs be more efficient and competitive.
- During the last two decades, the share of the manufacturing sector has stagnated at 17 per cent of GDP.
- Since 2003, industrial growth has been between 9 to 10 per cent per annum.
- The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) has been set up to increase the development of manufacturing industries.
Class 10th Manufacturing Industries Notes HBSE
→ Industrial Location
- The location of industries is influenced by availablity of raw material, labour, power, capital and market etc.
- Several industries come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centres. They are known as agglomeration economies.
- The key to decide the location of industry is the minimum cost of operating it.
→ Classification of Industries
- On the basis of source of raw material used, industries are classified as agro-based and mineral-based industries.
- Based on role, industries are classified as Basic and Consumer industries.
- Basic or key industries include iron and steel industry, aluminium smelting etc.
- If investment is more than one crore on any industry it is known as a large-scale industry.
- Public sector industries are owned and operated by government agencies while private sector industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals.
- Industries, which are jointly run by the state and individual or a group of individuals, come under joint-sector industries.
→ Agro-based Industries
- Cotton, jute, silk, woollen, textile, sugar and edible oil industries are based on agricultural raw material.
- Cotton, jute, wool and silk are the basic raw materials for the textile industry.
- In 1854, the first successful textile mill was established in Mumbai.
- Today, there are nearly 1946 cotton and human made fibre textile mills in the country.
- The cotton textile industry is concentrated in the cotton growing belt of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu.
- India has the second largest installed capacity of spindles in the world with 43.13 million spindles (2011-12), after China.
- We have a large share in the world trade of cotton yarn accounting for one-fourth of the total trade.
- India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods.
- Most of the jute industries are located in West Bengal mainly along the banks of Hugli river in a narrow belt (98 km long and 3 km. wide).
- In 2005, National Jute Policy was formulated with the objective of increasing productivity, improving quality ensuring good prices to the jute farmers and enhancing the yield per hectare.
- India stands second as a world producer of sugar, but occupies the first place in the production of gur and khandsari.
- The mills are located in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat, alongwith Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh.
- Seasonal Nature of the Industry, old and inefficient methods of production, transport delay are major problems of this Industries.
Manufacturing Industries Notes HBSE 10th Class
→ Mineral-based Industries
- The iron and steel industry is a basic industry and it is located where the raw material is available.
- India ranks third among the world crude steel producers and is the largest producer of sponge iron.
- Chhotanagpur plateau region has the maximum concentration of iron and steel Industries.
- Bauxite is the raw material used in the aluminium smelting.
- Aluminium smelting is the second most important Metallurgical Industry in India.
- The chemical industry in India contributes approximately 3 per cent to the GDP.
- Rapid growth has been recorded in both organic and inorganic industry.
- India is the third largest producer of nitrogenous fertilisers.
- In 1904, India’s first cement plant was established in Chennai.
- The automobile industry is located around Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Kolkata, Chennai, Lucknow, Hyderabad, Indore, Jamshedpur and Bangalore.
→ Information Technology and Electronics
- The important centres of electronic goods are Bangalore, Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Pune, Kolkata, Chennai, Coimbatore and Lucknow.
- STPI (Software Technology Parks of India) has come up accoss 46 locations at different centres of India.
→ Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation
- Industries are fully responsible for four types of pollution
- Waste from nuclear power plants, and nuclear and weapon production facilities, causes cancers, birth defects and miscarriages.
- NTPC is a major power-providing corporation in India. It has a proactive approach for preserving the natural environment and resources like water, oil and gas and fuels in places where it is setting up power plants.
Manufacturing Industries Class 10th Notes HBSE
→ Important Terms
1. Manufacturing: Production of goods in large quantities after processing them from raw material to more valuable articles is known as manufacturing.
2. Industry: Systematic production characterised by division of labour and extensive use of machinery is called industry.
3. Industrialisation: The process of establishing industries and employing a large number of people in the manufacture of goods mechanically in a country, is known as industrialisation.
4. Urbanisation: A general movement of people from small rural or agricultural communities or villages to large towns engaged in varied activities such as government, trade, transport and manufacturing is known as urbanisation. It also indicates the concentration of an increasing proportion of total population in towns and cities.
5. Agglomeration Economies: Several industries come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centres. These are known as agglomeration economies.
6. Agro-based Industries: Those industries in which the source of raw material is derived from agriculture are called agro-based industries. Example-Cotton, Woollen, Jute, etc.
7. Mineral-based Industries: Those industries in which the source of raw material is derived from minerals are called mineral-based industries. Example-Iron and steel, cement, aluminium, machine tools, etc.
8. Basic or Key Industries: Those industries which supply their products or raw material to manufacture other goods are called basic or key industries. Example-Iron and Steel Industry.
9. Consumer Industries Those industries, which produce goods for direct use by consumers are called consumer industries. Example-Sugar, Toothpaste etc.
10. Small Scale Industries: Those industries in which, investment is allowed up to one crore are called small-scale industries. Example-Radio industry, Garment industry, etc.
Geography Class 10 Chapter 6 Notes HBSE
11. Large Scale Industries: Those industries in which, investment is more than one crore are called large scale industries. Example-Iron and steel, the textile industry, etc.
12. Public Sector Industries: Those industries, which are owned and operated by government agencies, are called public sector industries. Example-BHEL, SAIL etc.
13. Private Sector Industries : Those industries, which are owned and operated by an individual or a group of individuals are called public sector industries. Example-Tisco, Emami Ltd. etc.
14. Joint Sector Industries : Those industries, which are jointly run by the state and an individual or a group of individuals are called joint sector industries. Example-Oil India Ltd.
15. Co-operative Sector Industries : Those industries, which are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw material, workers, or both, are called co-operative sector industries. Example-The coir industry in Kerala.
16. Heavy Industries: Those industries, which use heavy and bulky raw materials, are called heavy industries. Example-Iron and Steel industries.
17. Light Industries: Those industries, which use light raw materials and produce light goods are called light industries. Example-Electrical industries.
18. Smelting: The process of separating metals from their ore, by heating in the blast furnace.
19. Industrial Pollution: Pollution caused to air, soil, water, etc.by emission of poisonous gases, and chemicals from industries or by dumping them untreated in the open space is called industrial pollution.
20. Environment: Surroundings or the conditions under which a person or things exist and develop his/her or their character are called environment. It covers both physical and cultural elements.
21. Environmental Degradation: Loss of quality of environment due to human excesses on nature, that results in danger to the existence of flora and fauna.