Haryana State Board HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources Notes
Haryana Board 10th Class Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources
- The earth’s crust is made up of various minerals, embedded in the rocks.
- Various metals are extracted from these minerals after proper refinement.
- Minerals are an indispensable part of our lives.
- In all stages of development, human beings have used minerals for their livelihood.
→ Meaning of Minerals
- Geologists define mineral as a hemogenous naturally-occurring substance with a definable Internal structure.
- India is endowed with a rich variety of minerals, distributed unevenly.
- Over 2000 minerals have been identified till now.
- Minerals are found in a wide range of colours, hardness, crystal forms, lustre and density.
Class 10th Chapter 5 Geography Notes HBSE
→ Types of Minerals
- Minerals are divided into three categories:
(iii) Energy Minerals.
- Minerals are found in varied forms in nature, ranging from the hardest diamond, to the softest talc.
- Minerals are usually found in “Ores”. The term ‘ore’ is used to describe an accumulation of any mineral mixed with other materials.
- In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. Major metallic minerals like tin, copper, zinc and lead etc. are obtained from veins and lodes.
- In sedimentary rocks, number of minerals occur in beds or layers, like coal. Sedimentary rocks on the Western and Eastern flanks of the peninsula in Gujarat and Assam have most of the petroleum deposits.
- Peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal, metallic minerals, mica etc. Certain minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the base of hills. For example-Gold, Silver, Tin and Platinum.
- The ocean waters contain vast quantities of minerals, like common salt, magnesium and bromine etc.
- Mineral formation involves the decomposition of surface rocks, and the removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores. Example-Bauxite.
- The vast alluvial plains of north India are almost devoid of economic minerals.
→ Iron ore
- Iron-ore is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development for any country. India is rich in good quality of iron ores like Magnetite and Hematite.
- The major iron-ore belts in India are:
(i) Orissa-Jharkhand belt
(ii) Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt
(iii) Bellary-Chitradurga- Chikmaglur-Tumkur belt
(iv) Maharashtra-Goa belt.
- Manganese is mainly used for making steel and ferro-manganese alloy. Madhya Pradesh is the largest producer of manganese ores in India.
- Copper is mainly used in electrical cables, electronics and chemical industries.
- The Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh and the Singbhum (Jharkhand) and Khetri mines (Rajasthan) are the leading producer of copper.
Minerals And Energy Resources Notes HBSE 10th Class
- Bauxite is the ore of aluminium.
- India’s bauxite deposits are mainly found in the Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni.
- Orissa is the largest bauxite producing state in India. Panchpatmali deposits in Koraput district are the most important bauxite deposits in the state.
→ Non-Metalic Minerals
- Mica is a mineral made up of a series of plates called leaves.
- Mica deposits are found in the northern edge of the Chotanagpur plateau. Koderma Gaya-
- Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer.
- In Rajasthan the major mica producing area is around Ajmer.
- Limestone is found in association with rocks composed of calcium carbonate.
- Limestone is the basic raw material for cement industry.
- Toothpaste consists of cleaning minerals like silica, limestone, aluminium oxide and various phosphate minerals.
- Toothpastes consists of titanium oxide. It comes from rutile, ilmonite and anatase.
- Toothbrush and tubes are made up of plastics derived from petroleum.
- Fluoride, that reduces cavities, comes from a mineral- fluorite.
→ Conservation of Minerals
- Minerals are extremely valuable possessions. They are finite and non-renewable. Therefore, it is necessary to conserve them.
→ Energy Resources
- Energy can be generated from fuel minerals like coal, petroleum, natural gas, uranium, and, from electricity.
- Energy is required for all activities.
- Conventional sources of energy include- firewood, cattle-dung cake, coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity.
- Non-conventional sources include- solar, wind, tidal, geo-thermal, biogas and atomic energy.
- In India, coal is the most abundantly available fossil fuel.
- It provides substantial part of energy for the country.
- Coal is formed due to compression of plant material over millions of years.
- The main varieties of coal include peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite.
- In India, coal occurs in rock series of two main geological ages, namely Gondwana and in tertiary deposits.
- Anthracite is the highest quality hard coal.
- The Gondwana coal is located in Damodar Valley (West Bengal-Jharkhand), Jharia, Raniganj and Bokaro.
- Tertiary coals occur in the north-eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland. The Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys also contain coal deposits.
- Coal is used in power generation, supplying energy to industries, satisfying domestic needs and commercial energy requirements.
- Petroleum is the second most important source of energy.
- Most of the petroleum occurrences in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps in the rock formations of the tertiary age.
- About 63 per cent of India’s petroleum production is from Mumbai High. Assam is the oldest oil producing state of India.
- Natural gas is an important clean energy resource found in association with or without petroleum.
- Large reserves of natural gas have been discovered in the Krishna-Godavari basin.
- Electricity is generated in India, mainly in two ways—By running water and by burning other fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas.
- Hydro-electricity is generated from running turbines by water and thermal electricity is generated by buring coal, petroleum and natural gas.
- Uranium and thorium are used for generating atomic or nuclear energy.
- India has enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy. The largest solar plant of India is located at Madhapur, near Bhuj, where solar energy is used to sterlise milk cans.
Class 10 Sst Minerals And Energy Resources Notes HBSE
→ Non-Conventional Sources of Energy
- Photovoltaic technology converts sunlight directly into electricity.
- Wind energy is absolutely pollution free, inexhaustible source of energy.
- The largest wind farm cluster is located in Tamil Nadu, from Nagarcoil to Madurai.
- Shrubs, farm waste, animal and human waste are used to produce biogas for domestic consumption in rural areas.
- Oceanic tides can be used to generate electricity. In India, the Gulf of Kuchchh, Gulf of Khambhat provides ideal conditions for utilising tidal energy.
- Geo-thermal energy can be used to generate electricity.
- Several hundred hot streams are there in India, and they are also used to generate electricity.
- Energy is a basic requirement for economic development. We have to adopt a cautious approach for the judicious use of our limited energy resources.
1. Mineral : A substance which is found in the earth’s crust, and which generally has a definite chemical composition unlike most rocks, is called mineral.
2. Ore: Ore is the raw material extracted from the earth mixed with soil and other impurities.
3. Mining: An economic activity concerned with the extraction of commercially valuable minerals from the bowels of the earth.
4. Geographers: Experts who study about distribution of mineral resoruces and associated economic activities.
5. Geologists: Experts who study about rocks, their age, formation of minerals and their physical and chemical composition.
Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 5 Notes HBSE
6. Rock: A consolidated mixture of various minerals is called rock.
7. Igneous Rocks: Rocks which were solidified from molten magma are called igneous rocks.
8. Metamorphic Rocks: Rocks which were originally igneous or sedimentary, but have changed in character and appearance are called metamorphic rocks.
9. Sedimentary Rocks: Rocks which have been deposited as beds and layers of sediments are called sedimentary rocks.
10. Veins and Lodes: in igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. The smaller occurrences are called the veins and larger are called the lodes.
11. PlacerDeposits: Some minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floor and at the base of hills, these are known as placer deposits.
12. Manganese Nodules: A type of sediment scattered on the ocean floor, which mainly constitutes manganese and iron, and usually contains some amounts of cobalt, nickel and copper are called manganese nodules.
13. Rat-hole Mining: Coal mining in Jowai and Cherapunjee (Meghalaya) is done by family members in the form of narrow tunnel. This is known as Rat-hole mining.
14. Ferrous Mineral: These are the minerals which contain iron, e.g. iron-ore, manganese- ore and nickel.
15. Non-Ferrous Minerals: Minerals devoid of iron contents are termed as non-ferrous minerals, e.g. zinc and lead.
16. Magnetite: This is the best quality of iron-ore and contains about 70% of iron. It has excellent magnetic property, especially valuable for
the electrical industry.
17. Hematite: p p the most important industrial iron-ore, in terms of the quantity used. It contains about 50% to 60% of pure iron.
18. Mineral Fuel: Non-metallic minerals, such as coal and petroleum, which are used as fuel are called mineral fuel.
19. Conventional Sources of Energy: Traditional sources of energy like coal, petroleum and natural gas.
20. Fossil Fuels: These are the fuels formed by the decomposition of organisms under the earth or the sea-bed.
21. CNG: Compressed Natural Gas, used for driving vehicles.
Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes HBSE
22. Hydroelectricity: Electricity generated through moving turbine, by using water falling from dams etc. It is also known as hydel power.
23. Thermal Elecricity: power obtained by burning coal, petroleum and natural gas in large power plants.
24. Atomic Energy: power obtained by splitting the atom under controlled conditions. It is also known as nuclear energy.
25. Non-conventional Sources of Energy: Renewable sources of energy which are recently developed, like- solar, wind, tidal energy etc.
26. Biogas: Energy gas produced by using shrubs, farm waste, animal and human waste is called Biogas.
27. Tidal Energy: Energy produced by using oceanic tides is called tidal energy.
28. Geothermal Energy: Heat and electricity produced by using heat from the interior of the Earth are called geothermal energy.