Haryana State Board HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture Notes
Haryana Board 10th Class Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture
- India is mainly an agricultural country.
- The about two-thirds population of India is engaged in agricultural activities.
- Agriculture is an important base of the Indian economy society and culture.
- Agriculture provides foodgrain to the people. It provides raw material to agro-based industries.
- Tea, coffee, spices etc. are some of the agricultural products that are exported.
→ Types of Farming
- According to the physical environment, climate and characteristics of soil, farming varies in India, from subsistence to commercial type.
- At present in different parts of India, different types of farming systems are practised, in which, primitive subsistence farming, intensive subsistence farming and commercial farming are important.
Chapter 4 Agriculture Class 10 Notes HBSE
→ Primitive Subsistence Farming
- Primitive subsistence agriculture is practised on small patches of land by using traditional techniques.
- This type of farming depends upon monsoon.
- In the ‘slash and bum’ agriculture, farmers clear a patch of land by burning vegetation and produce cereals and other food crops to sustain their family.
- When the soil fertility decreases, the farmers shift from there and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation.
- Slash and bum agriculture is known by different names in different regions such as Jhumming in the North-Eastern India, Bewar or Dahiya in Madhya Pradesh, Podu or Penda in Andhra Pradesh, Pamadabi or Roman or Bringa in Odisha, Kumari in Western Ghats, Valre in South-eastern Rajasthan Khin in Himalayan belt and Kuruwa in Jharkhand.
- Slash and bum agriculture is known as Milpa in Mexico, Conuco in Venezuela, Roca in Brazil, Ladang in Indonesia and Rey in Vietnam.
→ Intensive Subsistence Farming
- Intensive subsistence farming is a labour-intensive farming technique, which is practised in areas of high population pressure on land.
- In this agriculture, high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used.
→ Commercial Farming
- Scientific methods and techniques are used in commercial farming to obtain high yield.
- Plantation is a type of commercial farming in which a single crop is grown on a large area.
Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture Notes HBSE
→ Cropping Pattern
- In India, tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana etc. are important plantation crops.
- Our country has three cropping seasons which can be named as rabi, kharif and zaid.
- Rabi crops in India are sown in winter and harvested in spring. Some of the important rabi crops are wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard.
- Kharif crops are grown with the arrival of the monsoon in different parts of the country and harvested in September-Oetober.
- Major Kharif crops grown in India are paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, arhar, moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soyabean etc.
- In states like Assam, West Bengal and Odisha, three crops of paddy are grown in a year-Aus, Aman and Boro.
- Some of the crops produced during ‘Zaid’ are watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables, sugarcane and fodder crops.
→ Major Crops
- Major crops grown in India are rice, wheat, millets, pulses, tea, coffee, sugarcane, oil seeds, cotton, jute etc.
- Rice is the staple food crop of a majority of Indians.
- India is the second largest producer of rice all over in the world, after China.
- Rice is a Kharif crop which requires high temperature and high rainfall.
- Rice is grown mainly in the plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and the deltaic regions.
- After rice, wheat is the second most important food crop of India.
- There are two major wheat-growing zones in the country- the Ganga-Satluj plains in the north-west and black soil region of the Deccan.
- Jowar, bajra and ragi are the major millets grown in India. These are also known as coarse grains.
- Jowar is the third most important food crop of India with respect to area and production.
- Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh are the largest producers of jowar.
- Rajasthan is the largest producer of bajra, followed by Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana.
- Karnataka is the largest producer of ragi, followed by Tamil Nadu.
- Major maize-producing states of India are Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Andhra Pradesh.
Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Notes HBSE
- India is the largest producer, as well as the consumer of pulses in the world.
- Major pulses-that are grown in India are tur (arhar), urad, moong, masur, peas and gram.
- Major pulse-producing states in India are Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka.
- Sugarcane is a tropical as well as a sub-tropical crop, which grows well in hot and humid climate.
- India is the second largest producer of sugarcane in the world, after Brazil.
- The major sugarcane-producing states of India are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana.
→ Oil Seeds
- Main oil seeds produced in India are groundniit, mustard, coconut, sesamum (til), soyabean, castor seeds, cotton seeds, linseed and sunflower.
- Groundnut is a kharif crop and accounts for about half of the major oil seeds produced in the country.
- Tea is an important beverage crop of India. Major tea-producing states are Assam, hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
- In 2016, India was the second largest producer of tea after China.
- Indian coffee is known in the world for its good quality. The Arabica quality brought from Yemen is now being produced in the country.
- Major coffee-producing states of India are Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
- India was the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world in 2014. Rubber is an important industrial raw material. It is mainly grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Geography Chapter 4 Class 10 Notes HBSE
- The production of silk fibre is known as sericulture.
- India is the original place of cotton. India was the second largest producer of cotton in the world in 2016.
- Cotton grows well in drier parts of the black soil of the Deccan plateau.
- Jute is known as the golden fibre. West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Odisha and Meghalaya are the major jute-producing states of India.
→ technological and institutional reforms
- Collectivisation, consolidation of holdings, cooperation and abolition of zamindari, etc.
- were given priority to bring about institutional reforms in the country after independence.
- Green Revolution was initiated in India to improve the lot of Indian agriculture.
- The declining share of agriculture in the Gross Domestic Production (GDP) is a matter of serious concern.
- The Government of India made concrete efforts to modernise agriculture.
- The establishment of Indian Council of Agricultural Research, agricultural universities, veterinary services and animal breeding centres, horticulture development, research and development
- In the field of meterology and weather forecast, etc., were given priority for improving Indian agriculture.
- Kissan Credit Card, Personal Accident Insurance are some other schemes introduced by the government for the, benefit. of, the, farmers.
- In order to ensure the availability of food to all sections of society, our government carefully designed a national food seeds-its system.
→ Impact of Globalisation on Agriculture
- Public Distribution System (PDS) is a programme which provides foodgrains and other essential commodities at subsidised prices in rural and urban areas.
- Under globalisation, particularly after 1990, the farmers in India have been exposed to new challenges.
- Genetic engineering is recognised as a powerful supplement in inventing new hybrid varieties of seeds.
- Indian farmers should diversify their cropping pattern from food grains to high-value crops. This will increase income and reduce environmental degradation simultaneously.
- Israel, Italy and Chile produce and export high-value crops and import foodgrains for strong and successful economies.
Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes HBSE
→ Important Terms
1. Agriculture: The science and art of cultivating soil, raising crops and rearing animals.
2. Primitive Subsistence Farming: Farming on a small patches of land with the help of primitive tools such as hoe, dao and digging sticks and family or community labour.
3. Cereal: Any kind of grain used for food.
4. Shifting Agriculture: In this farming practice, a piece of land is cleared, either by burning or cutting trees and shrubs and then cultivated for a short period. This land remains under cultivation for a few years and is abandoned when it loses its fertility. It is also called ‘slash and bum’ agriculture.
5. Intensive Subsistence Farming: Increase in agricultural production by using scientific methods and better agricultural inputs.
6. Commercial Farming: Farming, in which the farmers grow the crop with the aim of selling it in the market, is called commercial farming.
8. HYV: It stands for High Yielding Variety of seeds. They are used for better or higher output of some major crops like rice and wheat.
9. Plantation Agriculture: A large-scale farming of one crop resembling factory production. It is usually characterised by large estates, huge capital investment and modem and scientific techniques of cultivation and trade.
10th Class Agriculture Notes HBSE
10. Rabi Season: A crop season that starts at the beginning of winter and continues till the beginning of summer.
11. Kharif Season: A crop season that starts with the onset of monsoon and continues till the beginning of winter.
12. Zaid Season: A short crop season of summer.
13. Green Revolution: A phenomenal and sustained increase in the production of agricultural crops.
14. Irrigation: An artificial means of watering the standing crops is called irrigation.
15. Millets: Jowar, Bajra and Ragi are called Millets.
16. Crop Rotation: Growing of different crops in succession, on the same field, from season to season to maintain soil fertility.
17. Horticulture: Specialised cultivation of fruits and vegetables is called horticulture.
18. Sericulture: Rearing of silkworms to produce raw silk is known as sericulture.
19. Golden fibre: Jute is known as golden fibre.
20. White Revolution (Operation Flood): A phenomenal and sustained increase in the production of milk.
21. Bloodless Revolution: Bhoodan and Gramdan Movement initiated by Vinobha Bhave is known as the Bloodless Revolution.
Class 10th Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture Notes HBSE
22. GDP: Gross Domestic Product.
23. ICAR: Indian Council of Agricultural Research
24. Food Security: A food situation that ensures the availability of adequate food to all citizens in the country.
25. PDS: Public Distribution System is a programme which provides foodgrains and other essential commodities at subsidised prices in rural and urban areas.
26. FCI: Food Corporation of India.
27. Minimum Support Price (MSP): A minimum guaranteed price of a crop, fixed and announced by the government before the start of a cropping season, at which it would be ready to purchase any quantity of the crop offered to it for sale by farmers.
28. BPL: Below Poverty Line.
28. APL: Above Poverty Line.
29. Globalisation: The merger of the economy of individual countries into a global economy is known as globalisation.
30. Organic Farming: Farming is practised without factory-made chemicals such as fertilisers and pesticides.
31. Holdings: A parcel of land, bounded by similar parcels on all sides.