Haryana State Board HBSE 9th Class Science Notes Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources Notes.
Haryana Board 9th Class Science Notes Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources
→ There are proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and mineral salts in our food.
→ We get food from plants and animals.
→ Green and white revolutions contributed to increase foodgrain production.
→ Sustainable systems are needed to increase the production of foodgrain.
→ For sustained livelihood, it is necessary to undertake mixed farming, intercropping and integrated farming systems.
→ There are thirteen nutrients which are essential for crops. Of these, six are required in large quantities and are known as macro-nutrients. Whereas seven nutrients are required in small quantities and are known as micro-nutrients.
→ Mixed cropping is growing of two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece of land.
→ Now growing of two or more crops in definite row patterns is known as intercropping.
→ Varietal improvement is required for higher yield, good quality, biotic and abiotic resistance, shortening the maturity duration, wider adaptability and desirable agronomic characteristics. Compost or vermicompost and green manure are organic manures.
→ Fertilizers are prepared by chemical reactions.
→ Crop protection is also the helping factor in increasing the crop production.
→ Livestock management is called animal husbandry.
→ Farm animals require proper care and management such as shelter, feeding, breeding and disease control. This is called animal husbandry.
→ Poultry farming is done to raise domestic fowls. Poultry production includes egg production and broiler production for poultry meat.
→ To enhance poultry production, cross breeding is done between Indian and exotic breeds for variety improvement. ,
→ Fish may be obtained from marine resources as well as inland resources.
→ Marine fish capture is done by fishing nets guided by echo-sounders and satellites.
→ Composite fish culture system is commonly used for fish farming.
→ Bee-keeping is done to collect honey and wax.
→ Macro-nutrients: Which nutrients are required in large quantities, are called macro-nutrients. (These are six in number.)
→ Micro-nutrients: Which nutrients are required in small quantities, are called micro-nutrients. (These are seven in number.)
→ Manure: From which matters plants get nutrients, are called manure.
→ Compost: Which matters are prepared by the decomposition of biological wastes, are called compost.
→ Vermi-compost: Which compost is made by using earthworms, is called vermi-compost.
→ Green manure: Manure which is made by the decomposition of green plants, is called green manure.
→ Fertilizer: Manure which is manufactured by artificial processes is called fertilizer.
→ Irrigation: To provide the required water to crops is called irrigation.
→ Soil erosion: To cut or flow away of the upper surface of earth is called soil erosion.
→ Mixed cropping: Growing of two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece of land is called mixed cropping.
→ Intercropping: Growing of two or more crops simultaneously on the same field in a definite pattern is called intercropping.
→ Crop rotation: The growing of different crops on a piece of land in a pre-planned succession is known as crop rotation.
→ Weeds: Weeds are unwanted plants in the cultivated field.
→ Insect pests: Insects which prove harm to the crops are known as insect pests.
→ Pesticides: Chemicals which are used to destroy the pests are called pesticides.
→ Animal husbandry: Management of livestock is called animal husbandry.
→ Milch animals (dairy animals): Milk producing female animals are Called milch animals.
→ Draught animals: The animals used for farm labour are called draught animals.
→ Dairy Animals: Milk-producing animals are called dairy animals.
→ Poultry farming: Chickens, quails and geese are domesticated for egg production and chicken meat is called poultry farming.
→ Layers: Egg-producing hens are called layers.
→ Broilers: Meat-producing chickens are called broilers.
→ Fish farming: Farming for the utilization of shell fish such as prawns and molluscs is called fish farming.
→ Bee-keeping: To collect honey and wax is called bee-keeping.