HBSE 12th Class English Reading Unseen Passages Note Making

Haryana State Board HBSE 12th Class English Solutions Reading Unseen Passages Note Making Exercise Questions and Answers.

Haryana Board 12th Class English Reading Unseen Passages Note Making

I. Note-Making

(a) What is Note-Making?
Note-making is a useful skill which helps us not only in learning long and difficult questions but also prepares us for life. Note-making helps the students in the following ways :

  • With the help of notes lengthy lessons can be condensed into short.
  • Notes help one to remember the gathered information.
  • Notes are useful for making quick revision before exams.
  • Note-making skill helps in storing supplement material taken from reference books and journals.
  • Notes help in understanding the texts better.

(b) How to make notes?

  • Take intensive reading of the passage. If needed take the reading again.
  • Underline the main headings and sub-headings from the passage.
  • Make a note of the main ideas roughly.
  • Add the sub-points which supplement the main points.
  • Avoid giving examples.

HBSE 12th Class English Unseen Passages Note Making 1

II. Summary

Summary: Giving the main gist of the passage is known as the summary.
How to write the summary?

  • Be careful about the tense of the summary i. e., the tense of the summary must be the same that of the passage.
  • Avoid mentioning the examples while writing the summary.
  • Don’t write the summary in Direct Speech. Always write the summary in Indirect Speech.
  • Be careful about the word limit.

III. Finding A Title

A title is a word or a phrase or a short sentence that sums up the main theme of the passage. Clues for the title are found mostly in the beginning of the passage. All the words of the title begin with a capital letter except prepositions and articles.

IV. Abbreviations And Symbols Used

The following ways of abbreviating words can be used by the students.
(a) By capitalizing initial letters.
e.g. U.S.A. for United States of America.
M.P. for Member of Parliament.

(b) Taking first few letters of the word.
e.g. eco for economics
telecom for telecommunication

(c) Taking first and last letters of the word.
e.g. dist. for district
Comput. for compartment

(d) Adding‘s’to make plurals
e.g. Stds. for students bks. for books

(e) Universally recognized symbols.
e.g. for example
i.e. for that is

HBSE 12th Class English Reading Unseen Passages Note Making

Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Passage 1
The small village of Somnathpur contains an extraordinary temple, built around 1268 A.D. by the Hoyasalas of Karnataka – one of the most prolific temple builders. Belur and Halebid are among their better-known works. ‘While these suffered during the invasions of the 14th century, the Somnathpur temple stands more or less intact in near-original condition. This small temple captivates the beauty and vitality of its detailed sculpture, covering almost every inch of the walls, pillars, and even ceilings. It has three shikharas and stands on a star-shaped, raised platform with 24 edges.

The outer walls have a profusion of detailed carvings: the entire surface run over by carved plaques of stone. There were vertical panels covered by exquisite figures of gods and goddesses with many incarnations being depicted. There were nymphs too, some carrying an ear of maize – a symbol of plenty and prosperity.

The elaborate ornamentation, the very characteristic of Hoysala sculptures, was a remarkable feature. On closer look – and it is worth it – the series of friezes on the outer walls revealed intricately carved caparisoned (covered decorative cloth) elephants, charging horsemen, stylized flowers, warriors, musicians, crocodiles and swans. The temple was actually commissioned by Soma Dandanayaka or Somnath (he named the village after himself), the minister of the Hoysala king, Narasimha, the third.

The temple was built to house three versions of Krishna. The inner center of the temple was the Kalyana Mandapa. Leading from here ‘were three corridors each ending in a shrine, one for each kind of Krishna – Venugopala, Janardana, and Prasanna Keshava, though only two remain in their original form. In the, darkness of the sanctum sanctorum, I tried to discern the different images. The temple’s sculptural perfection is amazing and it includes the doors of the temple and the three elegantly carved towers. [H.B.S.E. March 2019 (Set-A)]

Word-Meanings :
Extraordinary (exceptional) = असाधारण;
sculpture (model) = मूर्ति;
profusion (abundance) = प्रचुरता;
exquisite (extremly beautiful) = अति सुंदर;
sanctum (holy place) = पूजा-ग्रह।

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it, using recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary.
(b) Assign a suitable title to the passage.
(a) Notes:
1. Somnathpur Temple: An Introduction
(i) Built around 1268 A.D.
(ii) Hoyasalas of Karnataka .
(iii) Belur and Helebid works.

2. Sculpture Art:
(i) beauty and vitality of detailed sculpture
(ii) sculpture on every inch of wall
(iii) three shikharas
(iv) platform with 24 edges
(v) figures of gods and goddesses

3. Symbols and Ornamentation :
(i) Nymphs-an ear of maize-a symbol of plenty and prosperity
(ii) Ornamentation: characteristic ofHoyasala’s sculpture
(iii) intricately carved caparisoned

4. Three Versions of Krishna :
(i) inner center : the Kalyana Mandapa
(ii) three corridors for each kind of Krishna ‘
(iii) Krishna : Venugopala, Janardana, Prasanna Keshava
(b) Title: The Somnath Temple

Passage 2
It’s 10 pm and the research paper is due the next morning. Sam types frantically. Two weeks ago, it seemed that there was plenty of time to get the paper done. Last week, the final of a soccer match on TV made it hard to study. Now it’s crunch time. Looking at the clock, Sam wonders, “Why do I keep doing this to myself? Why haven’t I learned not to put things off until the last minute ?” The word procrastination comes from the Latin term ‘Procrastinators’. It means to put forward until tomorrow.

Standard dictionary definitions all include the idea of postponement or delay. Steel, a psychologist who has reviewed hundreds of studies on the subject, states that to procrastinate is “to voluntarily delay an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse-off for the delay”.

Another expert, Dr. Joseph R. Ferrari (2005), distinguishes between people who tend to put things off and “chronic” or “real” procrastinators for whom this is their life and who might even need therapy. Ferrari categorizes procrastinators into three types : (a) stimulation types that get a thrill from beating a deadline, (b) avoiders put off doing things that might make others think badly of them, and (c) decisional procrastinators postpone making a decision until they have enough information to avoid making a wrong choice. Chronic procrastinators tend to have a low self-esteem and focus on the past more than the future.

The Discounted Expectancy Theory illustrates with a student like Sam who puts off writing a paper. When the deadline is far off, the rewards for socializing now are greater than those for finishing a task not due until later. As the deadline looms, the rewards or consequences for finishing the paper become more important. Tice and Baumeister (1997) found that procrastinators on the average got lower grades and had higher levels of stress and illness.

Chu and Choi (2005) however, say that not all procrastinators are lazy and undisciplined. “Passive procrastinators” are more stressed, less efficient. “Active procrastinators prefer to work under pressure” and “if something unexpected comes up, they will knowingly switch gears and engage in new tasks they perceive as more urgent.” [H.B.S.E. March 2019 (Set-B)]

Intrigued (to puzzle) = परेशान करना;
possesses (to own) = अधिकार होना;
soothed (to calm) = शांत करना;
evidence (witness) = साक्षी, गवाही;
adequate (sufficient) = पर्याप्त;
exhilarate (to make glad) =खुश करना।

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Also assign a suitable title to it.
(a) Notes :
1. Problem with Sam:
(i) less than 12 hours left to present paper
(ii) types frantically
(iii) waste time in watching final of soccer
(iv) didn’t study

2. Procrastination :
(i) putting work to delay knowingly
(ii) idea of postponement
(iii) voluntarily delay
(iv) worse-off expectation for delay

3. Dr. Joseph R. Ferrari’s Opinion :
Three categories of Procrastinators
(i) beating a deadline
(ii) put off doing things until people think badly of them
(iii) delaying a decision to the last extent.

4. Tice and Baumeister’s opinion about Procrastinators :
(i) lower grades
(ii) higher levels of stress
(iii) illness

5. Chu and Choi’s Opinion about Procrastinators :
(i) prefer to work under pressure
(ii) can gear up speed
(b) Title: Different views about Procrastinators

Passage 3
Most people, when asked what spiritual quality is needed to rebuild civilization, will reply ’Love’. Men must love one another they say; nations must do likewise, and then the series of cataclysms which is threatening to destroy us will be checked. Love is a great force in private life; it is indeed the greatest of all things: but love in public affairs does not work. It has been tried again and again; by the Christian civilizations of the Middle Ages, and also by the French Revolution, a secular movement which reasserted the Brotherhood of Man.

And it has always failed. The idea that nations should love one another or that business concerns or marketing boards should love one another, or that a man in Portugal should love a man in Peru of whom he has never heard-it is absurd, unreal, dangerous. The fact is we can only love what we know personally. And we cannot know much.

In public affairs, in the rebuilding of civilization, something else is needed namely, tolerance. Tolerance is a very dull virtue. It is boring. Unlike love it has always had a bad press. It is negative. It merely means putting up with people, being able to stand things. No one has ever written an ode to tolerance or raised a statue to her. Yet this is the quality which will be most needed. This is the sound state of mind which we are looking for. This is the only force which will enable different races, and classes and interests to settle down together to the work of reconstruction.

The world is very full of people; it has never been so full before, and they are all tumbling over each other. Most of these people one doesn’t know and some of them one doesn’t like; doesn’t like the colour of their skins, or the way they talk. Well, what is one to do? There are two solutions. One of them is a Nazi solution. If you don’t like people, kill them, banish them, segregate them and then strut up and down proclaiming that you are the salt of the earth. The other way is much less thrilling, but it is on the whole the way of the democracies. If you don’t like people, put up with them as well as you can.

Don’t try to love them; you can’t, you’ll only strain yourself. But try to tolerate them. On the basis of that tolerance, a civilized future may be built. Going back over two thousand years, and to India, there is the great Emperor Ashoka, who set up inscriptions recording not his own exploits but the need for mercy and mutual understanding and peace.

Word-Meanings :
Cataclysm (violent upheaval) = उथल-पुथल;
destroy (ruin) = नष्ट करना;
absurd (ridiculous) = हास्यास्पद;
sound (healthy) = स्वस्थ;
tumbling (falling) = गिरना;
segregate (separate) = अलग करना;
proclaim (announce) = घोषणा करना।

HBSE 12th Class English Reading Unseen Passages Note Making

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it, using recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary.
(b) Assign a suitable title to the passage.

(a) Notes:
1. Love: a spiritual quality :
(a) Needed to rebuild civilization
(i) People must love one another
(ii) Nations too

(b) Love: a great force
(i) Greatest thing in private life
(ii) But does not work in public affairs
(iii) Tried by Christian civilizations
(iv) In the French Revolution
(a) But always failed

2. Value of Tolerance :
(a) Love can be successful at the personal level
(i) tolerance needed in public affairs
(b) Tolerance: a dull virtue
(i) boring
(ii) negative

3. Different classes and races of people :
(a) Most of them intolerant of one another :
(i) Intolerant of the skin colour.
(ii) Intolerant of other things.

(b) Two solutions
(i) kill, banish or segregate people
(ii) The way of democracy

(a) put up with them
(b) try to tolerate them

4. Future of Civilisation based on democracy :
(a) Ashoka adopted democracy :
(i) advocated mercy and mutual understanding.
(A) Title: Love and Tolerance

Passage 4
There is an enemy beneath our feet-an enemy the more deadly for his complete impartiality. He recognizes no national boundaries, no political parties. Everyone in the world is threatened by him. The enemy is the earth itself. When an earthquake strikes, the world trembles. The power of a quake is greater than anything man himself can produce. But today scientists are directing a great deal of their effort into finding some way of combating earthquakes, and it is possible that at some time in the near future mankind will have discovered a means of protecting itself.

An earthquake strikes without warning. When it does, its power is immense. If it strikes a modem city, the damage it causes is as great as if it has struck a primitive village. Gas mains burst, explosions are caused and fires are started. Underground railways are wrecked. Whole buildings collapse, bridges fall, and dams burst. Gaping crevices appear in busy streets. If the quake strikes at sea, huge tidal waves sweep inland. If it strikes in mountain regions, avalanches roar down into the valley. Consider the terrifying statistics from the past. 1755: Lisbon, capital of Portugal—the city destroyed entirely and 450 killed. 1970: Peru-50,000 killed.

In 1968, an earthquake struck Alaska. As this is a relatively unpopulated part, only a few people were killed. But it is likely that this was one of the most powerful quakes ever to have hit the world. Geologists estimate that during the tremors, the whole of the state moved over 80 feet farther wesj into the Pacific Ocean. Imagine the power of something that can move an entire subcontinent! This is the problem that faces the scientists. They are dealing with forces so immense that man cannot hope to resist them. All that can be done is to try to pinpoint just where the earthquake will strike and work from there. At least some precautionary measures can then be taken to save lives and some of the property.[H.B.S.E. 2017 (Set-B)]

Beneath (under) = नीचे;
deadly (fatal) = घातक;
immense (big) = बड़ा;
damage (harm) = नुकसान;
primitive (old) = पुराना;
wrecked (ruined) = नष्ट किया;
gaping (wide) = चौड़ा;
huge (big) = बड़ा;
relatively (comparatively) = तुलनात्मक रूप से;
entire (whole) = सारा;
resist (prevent) = रोकना ।

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it, using recognisable abbreviations, wherever necessary.
(b) Assign a suitable title to the passage.
(a) Notes:
1. Earthquake-the great enemy: ‘
(a) Strikes everywhere
(i) very deadly
(ii) the earth trembles

(b) Power of the earthquake
(i) greater than anything made by man
(ii) strikes without warning

2. Damage caused by earthquakes :
(a) In a city
(i) Gas mains burst
(ii) Underground railways wrecked
(iii) Explosions and fires
(iv) Collapse of buildings
(v) Dams and bridges fall
(vi) Crevices on streets

(b) Effect on the sea
(i) Huge tidal waves
(ii) Effect on mountainous regions
(iii) Great avalanches

3. Particular instances of damage done by earthquake:
(a) In Lisbon : 1755
(i) City destroyed
(ii) 450 casualties

(b) Peru: 1970
(i) 50,000 killed
(c) Alaska: 1968
(i) Only a few killed
(ii) Entire continent shifted 80 feet into the ocean

4. Role of scientists :
(a) Efforts being made in this regard
(i) Not possible to resist earthquakes
(ii) Precautionary measures.
(A) Title: Threat of Earthquakes

Passage 5
More than a century ago, some countries had no police force. Local leaders devised their own methods of ensuring that their orders were carried out and fulfilled. The offender was not given a second chance to repeat his mistake for he was either killed or hunted out of the district. In England, the modem police force grew largely from an unofficial body gathered together by a London Magistrate. He found that it was practically impossible to apprehend any of the criminals in his area unless he deployed some men secretly to detect and hunt the culprits. These unofficial constables had to patrol one large district.

They looked upon their position largely as an honorary one and had very little power. Worse still they were sometimes corrupt men themselves for they would conveniently look the other way round in times of trouble, like theft, hooliganism, and vandalism. Magistrate Fielding enrolled a few men whom he could explicitly trust and employed them to catch the thieves and other undesirable persons. The majority of the people resented what they thought was a threat to their liberties, intrusion on their privacies, and above all spying on them.

They maintained that they should have every right to drink themselves to death with any form of alcohol, as so many of them did. They thought too that they should be allowed to quarrel, to fight, and even kill among themselves. The situation was made worse by the fact that the penalties for offenses were very heavy in those days and a man could be hanged for the theft of some unimportant thing. Arrest by the magistrate’s men could bring disastrous results.

Contrary to general feeling, the authorities gradually admitted that these early policemen were vitally necessary. After much discussion, argument and persuasion, the government secretly agreed to re-imburse the magistrate for the men he employed. This step was not made public lest it should be thought that the government was planting spies amidst its people. Eventually, the public came to look upon the police with a more friendly spirit as the benefits became more noticeable. At long last, men and women could walk along the streets by day and even by night without fear of robbery and other acts of violence.

HBSE 12th Class English Reading Unseen Passages Note Making

Hitherto, the people were free to do practically anything-good or bad, irrespective of the possible consequences, as the police force built up. The people gave up their freedom to commit evil deeds so that they might have a greater freedom to do good so as to enable one and all to enjoy life peacefully and harmoniously. [H.B.S.E. March 2018 (Set-A)]

Word-Meanings :
Apprenend = पकड़कर गिरफ्तार करना;
explicitly = स्पष्ट रूप से;
intrusion = अनुचित हस्तक्षेप;
persuasion = प्रत्यायन ।

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it, using recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary.
(b) Assign a suitable title to the passage.
(a) Notes:
1. Role of Police :
(i) Ensuring orders of local leaders
(ii) Killing or hunting out the offenders

2. Role of London Police :
(i) Secret deployment
(ii) Patrolling the whole district
(iii) Largely an honorary one
(iv) Very little power.

3. Views of the People about Police :
(i) A threat to their liberties
(ii) Intrusion on their privacies
(iii) Spying on theme

4. Police a Boon to Mankind :
(i) Freedom and Security to life
(ii) Security to property
(iii) Stops acts of violence
(iv) Peaceful and harmonious life
(b) Title: Role of Police in Modem Society

Passage 6
Over the last fifty years, millions of rupees have undoubtedly been spent on child care in this country. Yet, it is not Sub-Saharan Africa that is the home of the malnutrition child but India where, according to UNICEF statistics, 53% of all children are malnourished. The reasons for malnutrition among Indian children are not far to seek. It is a multi-sectorial, multi-level problem that involves not just the availability but also adequate mother and child care in terms of easy access to health facilities, safe drinking water, environmental sanitation, and, of course, literacy.

Neither the setting up of the National Nutrition Council in 1974, under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister, nor the integrated child development scheme launched in 1975 to promote the holistic development of the child under six years of age, have made any visible or vocal difference or improvement in the sordid situation. Unfortunately, the purpose of strengthening the capacities of the community and of those who care has failed to deliver the goods because the schemes envisaged have had only marginal impact in the area of nutrition where it is most wanting and woeful.

On paper we have plenty of policies and programmes, but as far as performance is concerned we have earned enough notoriety. The need of the hour is to translate them into deeds and results what we have tried to sell in the form of promises and populist pronouncements.

The most urgent areas of attention and immediate actions are the nutrition, health and education of children, whose well-being reflects the health of the society and caring outlook of the polity. Since the causes of malnutrition of children are many, like exploding population, bias against the female child, weak and suffering mothers, the remedy calls for “care of the mother and care by the mother”, besides an effective control overpopulation explosion. Ignorance on what foods should be taken is another contributory factor that results in malnutrition among women and children. The implementation of various schemes to fight the menace of malnutrition and undernourishment of children requires planning, co-ordination, and monitoring by high-powered bodies right down to the village level.

Word-Meanings :
Undoubtedly (without doubt) = निस्संदेह;
seek (search for) = तलाश करना;
adequate (sufficient) = पर्याप्त;
access (reach) = पहुँच;
santitation (cleanliness) = सफाई;
holistic (whole) = पूर्ण;
sordid (dull) = नीरस;
envisaged (imagined) = कल्पना किया हुआ;
notoriety (bad reputation) = बदनामी;
reflects (shows) = दर्शाता है;
remedy (cure) = इलाज ।

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Also assign a suitable title to it.
(a) Notes:
1. Child care in India :
(a) Most child malnutrition cases in India
(i) 53% of all children: under-nourished
(ii) a multi-level problem
(iii) Involves a number of things
(a) Access to health facilities
(b) Safe drinking water
(c) Sanitation
(d) Literacy

2. Failure of child welfare schemes in India :
(a) Schemes not very successful
(i) National Nutrition Council in 1974
(ii) Integrated Child Development Scheme in 1975
(iii) Did not yield much results

(b) Progress only on paper
(i) Not adequate implementation
(ii) Empty promises

3. The most urgent areas of attention :
(a) Nutrition
(b) Health
(c) Education
(d) Many causes of malnutrition.
(i) Increasing population
(ii) Bias against the female child
(iii) Weak and suffering mothers
(iv) Ignorance of what food to take
(e) The Remedy
(i) Care of mothers
(ii) Control over population explosion
(iii) Planning and coordination of various schemes
(b) Title: Child Care in India

Passage 7
Whether work should be placed among the causes of happiness or among the causes of unhappiness may perhaps be regarded as a doubtful question. There is certainly much work which is exceedingly irksome, and an excess of work is always very painful. However, work is not, to most people, more painful than idleness. There are in work, all grades; from more relief of tedium up to the pro foundest delights, according to the nature of the work and the abilities of the worker. Most of the work that most people have to do is not interesting in itself, but even that work has certain great advantages. To begin with, it fills a good many hour of the day without the need of deciding what one shall do. Most people, when they are left free to fill their own time according to their own choice, are at a loss to think of anything sufficiently pleasant to be worth doing.

And whatever they decide on, they are troubled by the feeling that something else would have been more pleasant here. To be able to fill leisure intelligently is the last product of civilization and at present very few people have reached this level. Moreover, the exercise of choice is tiresome in itself. Except, to people with unusual initiative, it is positively agreeable to be told what to do at each hour of the day, provided the orders are not too unpleasant. Most of the idle rich suffer unspeakable boredom. At times they may find relief by hunting big game in Africa or by flying around the world, but the number of such sensations is limited, especially after youth is past. Accordingly, the more intelligent rich men work nearly as hard as if they were poor.

Work, therefore is desirable, first and foremost as a preventive of boredom, although uninteresting work is as boring as having nothing to do. With this advantage of work, another associated advantage is that it makes holidays much more delicious when they come. Provided that a man does not have to work so hard as to impair his vigour, he is likely to find far more zest than an idle man would possibly find. The second advantage of most paid work and some of unpaid work is that it gives chances of success and opportunities for ambition. In most work, success is measured by income and while our capitalistic society continues, this is inevitable. However dull work too, becomes bearable, if it is a means of building up a reputation. Continuity of purpose is one of the most essential ingredients of happiness and that comes chiefly through work. [H.B.S.E. March 2019 (Set-C)]

Irksome (troublesome) = दुखदायी;
desirable (wishing) = अभिलषणीय;
zest (enjoyment) = मज़ेदार;
inevitable (compulsory) = अनिवार्य;
ambition (the strong desire to gain or achieve something) = महत्त्वाकांक्षा;
vigour (vitality) = प्रभाव ।

HBSE 12th Class English Reading Unseen Passages Note Making

Questions :
(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it, using recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary.
(b) Supply a suitable title.
(a) Notes:
1. Nature of Work :
(i) happiness
(ii) on happiness
(iii) irksome
(iv) excess of work is always painful
(v) great advantages

2. Advantages of Work :
(i) preventive of boredom
(ii) makes holidays much more delicious
(iii) payments
(iv) chances of success and opportunities

3. Success of Work :
(i) rise in income
(ii) building up in reputation
(iii) happiness
(A) Title: Role of Work in Life Or Importance of Work

Passage 8
Education ought to teach us how to be in love always and what to be in love with. The great things of history have been done by great lovers, saints, men of science and artists, and the problem of civilization is to give every man a chance of being a saint, a man of science and an artist. But this problem cannot be solved unless men desire to be saints, men of science or artists. And if they are to desire that continuously they must be taught what it means to be these things. We think of the man of science, or the artist if not of the saint, as a being with peculiar gifts who exercises more precisely and incessantly perhaps, activities which we all ought to exercise. It is a commonplace belief now that art has ebbed away out of our ordinary life, out of all the things which we use, and that it is practised no longer by workmen but only a few painters and sculptors.

That has happened because we no longer recognise the aesthetic activity as an activity of the spirit and common to all men. We do not know that when a man makes anything he ought to make it beautiful for the sake of doing so, and that when a man buys anything he ought to demand beauty in it for the sake for of that beauty. We think of beauty, if we think of it at all, as a mere source of pleasure, and therefore it means to us an ornament added to things for which we can pay extra as we choose. But beauty is not an ornament to life, or the things made by man. It is an essential part of both. [H.B.S.E. 2017 (Set-A)]


(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Also assign a suitable title to it.
(a) Notes:
1. Education ought to teach us :
(i) how to be in love
(ii) what to be in love with

2. Great things of history done :
(i) great lovers
(ii) saints
(iii) men of science
(iv) artists

3. Problems of civilization :
(i) to give every man a chance
(ii) to develop desire in them
(iii) lack of proper instructions

4. Concept of beauty :
(i) source of pleasure
(ii) not only ornamental to life
(iii) an essential part of the thing

(b) Title: The Role of Education in Life.

Passage 9
I remember my childhood as being generally happy and can recall experiencing some of the most carefree times of my life. But I can also remember, even more vividly, moments of being deeply frightened. As a child, I was truly terrified of the dark and getting lost. These fears were very real and caused me some extremely uncomfortable moments. Maybe it was the strange way things looked and sounded in my familiar room at night that scared me so much. There was never total darkness, but a street light or passing car lights made clothes hung over a chair take on the shape of an unknown beast.

Out of the comer of my eye, I saw curtains move when there was no breeze. A tiny creak in the floor would sound a hundred times louder than in the daylight and my imagination would take over creating burglars and monsters. Darkness always made me feel helpless. My heart would pound and I would lie very still so that ‘the enemy’ wouldn’t discover me.

Another childhood fear of mine was that I would get lost, especially on my way home from school. Every morning, I got on the school bus right near my home-that was no problem. After school, when all the buses were lined up along the curve, I was terrified that I would get on the wrong one and be taken to some unfamiliar neighborhood. I would scan the bus for the faces of my friends, make sure that the bus driver was the same one that had been there in the morning, and even then ask the others over and over again to be sure that I was in the right bus. On school or family trips to an amusement park or a museum, I wouldn’t let the leaders out of my sight.

And of course, I was never very adventurous when it came to taking walks or hikes because I would go only where I was sure I would never get lost. Perhaps, one of the worst fears I had as a child was that of not being liked or accepted by others. First of all, I was quite shy. Secondly, I worried constantly about my looks, thinking people wouldn’t like me because I was too fat or wore braces.

I tried to wear ‘the right clothes’ and had intense arguments with my mother over the importance of wearing flats instead of saddled shoes to school. Being popular was very important to me then and (the fear of not being liked was a powerful one.

One of the processes of evolving from a child to an adult is being able to recognize and overcome our fears. I have learnt that darkness does not have to take on a life of own, that others can help me when I am lost and that friendliness and sincerity will encourage people to like me. Understanding the things that scare us as children helps to cope with our lives as adults. [H.B.S.E. March 2018 (Set-C)]

Instead = व्यक्ति या वस्तु के स्थान पर;
evolving = सरल से जटिल और उच्चतर रूपों में विकसित होना;
encourage = प्रोत्साहित करना।

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it, using recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Supply a suitable heading.
(a) Notes:
1. Childhood fears :
(i) Fears from darkness
(a) A real fear
(b) Caused extreme uncomfort
(c) Sights and sound frightened at night
(d) Clothes seemed unknown beasts
(e) Curtains seemed moving without breeze
(f) Creak in the floor
(g) Afraid of some sudden attack

(ii) Fear of get lost
(a) From way back to school
(b) Fear of right bus
(c) Fear of taken to some unknown place
(d) Asked again and again about the same bus

(iii) Fears on trips
(a) Never let the others go out of right
(iv) Fears of not being liked
(a) Quite Shy
(b) Worried constantly about looks
(c) Too fat
(d) Wore braces

2. Remedies to fears :
(i) Darkness makes no harms
(ii) People will help when he is lost
(iii) Friendliness and sincerity will encourage people to like him
(b) Title: Fears of childhood.

HBSE 12th Class English Reading Unseen Passages Note Making

Passage 10
It is surprising that sometimes we don’t listen to what people say to us. We hear them, but we don’t listen to them. I was curious to know how hearing is different from listening. I had thought both were synonyms, but gradually, I realised there is a big difference between the two words. Hearing is a physical phenomenon. Whenever somebody speaks, the sound waves generated reach you, and you definitely hear whatever is said to you.

However, even if you hear something, it doesn’t always mean that you actually understand whatever is being said. Paying attention to whatever you hear means you are really listening. Consciously using your mind to understand whatever is being said is listening. Diving deeper, I found that listening is not only hearing with attention, but is much more than that. Listening is hearing with full attention and applying our mind. Most of the time, we listen to someone, but our minds are full of needless chatter and there doesn’t seem to be enough space to accommodate what is being spoken.

We come with a lot of prejudices and preconceived notions about the speaker or the subject on which he is talking. We pretend to listen to the speaker, but deep inside, we sit in judgment and are dying to pronounce right or wrong, true or false, yes or no, Sometimes, we even come prepared with a negative mindset of proving the speaker – wrong.

Even if the speaker says nothing harmful, we are ready to pounce on him with our own version of things. What are should ideally do is listen first with full awareness. Once we have done that, we can decide whether we want to make a judgment or not. Once we do that, communication will be perfect and our interpersonal relationship will become so much better. Listening well doesn’t mean one has to say the right thing at the right moment. In fact, sometimes if words are left unspoken, there is a feeling of tension and negativity.

Therefore, it is better to speak out your mind but do so with awareness after listening to the speaker with full concentration. Let’s look at this in another way. When you really listen, you imbibe not only what is being spoken, but you also understand what is not spoken as well. Most of the time we don’t really listen even to people who really matter to us. That’s how misunderstandings grow among families, husbands and wives, brothers and sisters. [H.B.S.E. March 2019 (Set-D)]

Word-Meanings :
Consciously (aware) = सचेत;
accommodate (settle) = रहने का स्थान;
prejudices (formed in the mind beforehand) = पूर्वाग्रह;
pounce (attack) = आक्रमण करना;
phenomenon (unusual) = गैरमामूली।

Questions :
(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it, using recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Supply a suitable heading.
(a) Notes:
1. Listening and Hearing: Similarity
(i) synonyms
(ii) gradual

2. Listening and Hearing: Differences
(i) Hearing-a physical phenomenon
(ii) definitely hear whatever is said
(iii) hearing always does not mean listening
(iv) understanding missing in hearing

3. Listening:
(i) paying attention to whatever is said
(ii) hearing with attention
(iii) using mind consciously
(iv) application of mind
(v) accommodate hearing

4. Drawbacks with Listening :
(i) being judgemental
(ii) having a negative mindset
(iii) giving importance to our own version

5. Best Listening:
(i) listen first with full awareness
(ii) avoid misunderstanding
(A) Title: Importance of Listening Or Be a Good Listener

Passage 11
Although stupidity is commonly defined as a lack of normal intelligence’, stupid behaviour is not the behaviour of a person lacking in intelligence but the behaviour of a person not using good judgment or sense. In face, stupidity comes from the Latin word that means ‘senseless’. Therefore, stupidity can be defined as the behaviour of a person of normal intelligence who acts in a particular situation as if he or she isn’t very bright. Stupidity exists at three levels of seriousness. First is the simple, relatively harmless level. Behaviour at this level is often amusing. It is humorous when someone places the food from a fast food restaurant on the roof of the car while unlocking the door and then drives away with the food still on the roof.

We call this absent-mindedness. The person’s good sense or intelligence was temporarily absent. At this level, other than passing inconvenience or embarrassment, no one is injured by the stupid behaviour. The next type-serious stupidity-is are more dangerous. Practical jokes such as putting sugar in the salt shakers are at this level. The intention is humorous, but there is a chance of harm. Irresponsible advice given to others is also serious stupidity. An example is the person who plays a psychiatrist on the basis of an introductory psychology course or doing a TV program on psychiatry.

The intention may be to help, but if the victim really needs psychiatric help, an amateur will only worsen the situation. Even worse is the third kind of stupidity. Kind people, who would never injure another living being, stupidly throw away a box of six-week-old kittens along a country road. Lacking the heart to kill the poor things, they sentence them to almost certain death from wild animals, infections, exposure or the wheels of a passing vehicle.

Yet they are able to tell themselves that ‘they will find nice homes’ or ‘animals can get along in the wild’. Another example of this kind of stupidity is the successful local businessman who tries to have as many office affairs as he can get away with. He risks the loss of his business and his home. He fails to see that what he is doing is wrong. This is the true moral stupidity of a person not willing to think about the results of his actions or take responsibility for them. The common defense of a person guilty of stupidity is-‘But I didn’t think ’ This, however, is not a proper excuse, especially when serious or harmful stupidity is involved. [H.B.S.E. March 2018 (Set-D)]

Word-Meanings :
Amusing = मनोरंजक;
Humorous = विनोद या हास्यपूर्ण;
exposure = रहस्योद्घाटन या प्रदर्शन;
defense = प्रतिरक्षा।

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it, using recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Supply a suitable heading.
(a) Notes:
1. Definition of Stupidity :
(i) A lack of normal intelligence
(ii) Stupid behavior
(iii) Not using good judgment or sense
(iv) Senseless behaviour

2. Levels of Stupidity :
(i) First level
(a) relatively harmless
(b) simple
(c) a kind of absent-mindedness

(ii) Second Level
(a) serious stupidity
(b) more dangerous
(c) chance of harm

(iii) Third Level
(a) Worst kind of stupidity
(b) danger to the life of others
(c) highly risky
(ft) Title: The three levels of stupidity

Passage 12
In a very short period of time, the internet has had a profound impact on the way we live. Since the internet was made operational in 1983, it has lowered both the costs of communication and the barriers to creative expression. It has challenged old business models and enabled new ones. It has provided access to information on a scale never before achievable. It succeeded because we designed it to be flexible and open. These two features have allowed it to accommodate innovation without massive changes to its infrastructure. An open, borderless and standardized platform means that barriers to entry are low, competition is high, interchangeability is assured and innovation is rapid. The beauty of an open platform is that there are no gatekeepers.

For centuries, access to and creation of information was controlled by the few. The internet has changed that and is rapidly becoming the platform for everyone, by everyone. Of course, it still has a way to go. Today there are only about 2.3 billion internet users, representing roughly 30% of the world’s population. Much of the information that they can access online is in English, but this is changing rapidly. The technological progress of the internet has also set social change in motion. As with other enabling inventions before it, from the telegraph to television, some will worry about the effects of broader access to information-the printing press and the rise in literacy that it affected were, after all, long seen as destabilizing. Similar concerns about the internet are occasionally raised, but if we take a long view, I’m confident that its benefits far outweigh the discomforts of learning to integrate into our lives.

The internet and the world wide web are what they are because literally millions of people have made it so. It is a grand collaboration. It would be foolish not to acknowledge that the openness of the internet has had a price. Security is an increasingly important issue and cannot be ignored. If there is an area of vital research and development for the internet, this is one of them. I am increasingly confident, however, that techniques and practice exist to make the internet safer and more secure while retaining its essentially open quality.

After working on the internet and its predecessors for over decades, I’m more optimistic about its promise than I have ever been. We are all free to innovate on the net every day. The internet is tool of the people, built by the people and it must stay that way. [H.B.S.E. March 2018 (Set-B)]

Destablize = किसी सरकार व्यवस्था आदि को अस्थिर करना;
discomfort = परशानी;
predecessor = पूर्ववर्ती अधिकारी,
optimisties = आशापूर्ण।

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings.
Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Also assign a suitable title to it.
(a) Notes:
1. History of Internet:
(i) Made operational in 1983

2. Benefits of Internet:
(i) Cheaper Communication
(ii) Removed barriers to creative expression
(iii) Enabled new business models
(iv) Access to latest information

3. Features of Internet:
(i) Flexible
(a) accommodates innovations without massive change
(ii) Open
(a) barriers to entry are low
(b) no gatekeepers

4. Access to People :
(i) 2.3 billion internet users
(ii) 30% of the world population

5. Internet Issues :
(i) Security
(ii) misuse
(iff) leakage of information
(b) Title: Importance of Internet

Passage 13
It’s headache having a headache. Almost all of us have suffered from a headache at some time or the other. For some, a headache is a constant companion and life can be a painful hell of wasted time. The most important step to cope with headaches is to identify the type of headache one is suffering from. In tension headaches (two-hand headaches); a feeling of a tight band around the head exists along with pain in the neck and shoulders. It usually follows activities such as long stretches of driving typing or sitting on the desk. They are usually short-lived but can also last for days or weeks.

A headache is usually caused due to spinal misalignment of the head, due to poor posture. Sleeping on the stomach with the head turned to one side and bending over positions for a long time make it worse. In migraine headaches (one-handed headaches), the pain is usually on one side of the head and may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, irritability, and bright spots of flashes of light. This headache is made worse by activity, especially bending. The throbbing pain in the head gets worse by noise and light. Certain triggers for migraines may be chocolate-eating, smoking, or MSU in certain food items. The pain may last from eight to 24 hours and there may be a hangover for two-three days.

Migraines are often preceded by an “aura” – changes in sight and sensation. There is usually a family history of migraine. In a headache, the pain originates not from the brain but from irritated nerves of muscles, blood vessels, and bones. These send pain signals to the brain which then judges the degree of distress and relays it at appropriate sites. The pain may sometimes be referred to sites other than the problem areas. This is known as referred pain and occurs due to sensation overload. Thus, though most headaches start at the base of the skull the referred pain is felt typically behind the eyes.

Factors causing headaches are not fully understood but it is known that a shift in the level of body hormones and chemicals, certain food and drinks, and environmental stress can trigger them. If headaches trouble you often, visit the doctor, who will take a full health history relating to diet, lifestyle stresses, the type of headache, triggering factors, and relief measures. You may be asked to keep a “headache diary” which tells you to list-the time the headache started, when it ended, emotional, environmental, and food and drink factors which may have contributed to it. The type and severity of pain and medications used which provided most relief are also to be listed.

This helps the doctor in determining the exact cause and type of headache and the type of drugs to use. Apart from this a physical examination is done to rule out any serious underlying cause. The blood pressure is recorded, vision tested and muscle coordination of the eyes is checked to rule out these as causes. Blood tests may be done out anemia, diabetes, and thyroid disease. If any of the above is abnormal or otherwise a CT Scan or MRI may be done to see tissues and structures around the brain. These will rule out causes such as tumors, hemorrhage, and infection of the brain. This examination gives a clear picture of the problem to the doctor.

Immediate relief can be certain medications and few simple self-care techniques. Using ice against the pain ‘site’, covering eyes with dark classes, drinking plenty of fluids, and lying down in a dark and quiet room provide relief in a migraine attack. Painkillers like aspirin, ibuprofen (brufen), and crocin can be taken and provide relief in different proportions. These should be used with caution and under medical supervision if used for long periods and in large quantities as all of them can cause many side effects. An antiemetic like
perform can help the nausea associated with a migraine. [H.B.S.E. 2017 (Sel-D)]

Word-Meanings :
Tension (stress) = तनाव;
misalignment (incompatibility) = बेमेल संबंध;
posture (pose) = मुद्रा;
aura (atmosphere) = वातावरण;
antiemetic (drug for vomiting) = उल्टी की दवा;
nausea (feeling of sickness) = जी मिचलाना।

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Also assign a suitable title to it.
(a) Notes:
1. The troublesome ailment of headache:
(a) What is headache?
(i) pain from irritated nerves
(ii) brain transmits this pain
(iii) pain is felt
(a) at base of skull
(b) behind eyes

2. Types of H. ache:
(a) Tension h. ache
(i) Pain in:
a. head
b. neck
c. shouLders

(ii) Causes:
a. driving
b. typing
c. desk work
(iii) Duration: usually short

(b) Migraine
(i) Symptoms :
(a) pain: one side of head
(b) nausea
(c) irritability

(ii) Causes :
(a) certain foods
(b) smoking
(c) genetic

HBSE 12th Class English Reading Unseen Passages Note Making

(iii) Duration : 8-24 hours

3. Causes of Headache :
(a) Hormonal imbalances
(b) Poor posture
(i) spinal misalignment
(c) Faulty sleeping post
(d) Environ. stress

4. Remedy :
(a) Long term
(i) Visit Dr. for check up
(b) Instant Relief
(i) ice-pack
(ii) fluid intake
(b) Title: Headache

Passage 14
A vast blanket of pollution stretching across South Asia is cutting down sunlight by 10 percent over India, damaging agriculture, modifying rainfall patterns and putting hundreds of thousands of people at risk, according to a new study. The startling findings of scientists working with the United Nations Environment Programme indicate that the spectacular economic growth seen in this part of the world in the past decade may soon falter as a result of pollution.

Research carried out in India indicates that the haze caused by pollution might be reducing winter rice harvests by as much as 10 percent, the report said. “Acids in the haze may, by falling as acid rain, have the potential to damage crops and trees. Ash falling on leaves can aggravate the impact of reduced sunlight on earth’s surface. The pollution that is forming the haze could be leading to several hundred of thousands of premature deaths as a result of higher level of respiratory diseases,” it said. Results from seven cities in India alone, including Delhi, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, and Kolkata, estimate that air pollution was annually responsible for 24,000 premature deaths in the early 1990s. [H.B.S.E. 2020 (Set-A)]

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Also assign a suitable title to it.
(а) Notes:
1. Effects of increasing pollution in South Asia :
(i) Cutting 10% of sunlight over India.
(ii) Damaging its agriculture.
(iii) Modifying rainfall patterns.
(iv) Putting thousands of people at risk.

2. Findings of scientists of UNEP indicate :
Economic growth made by South Asia in the past decade may soon falter due to pollution.

3. According to the research made in India, haze caused by pollution :
(i) Might reduce winter rice harvests.
(ii) Might damage the vegetation.
(iii) Might cause several thousands of premature death.
(b) Title: Pollution and its effects.

Passage 15
Skipping breakfast, especially among primary and secondary school children, affects mental performance in the classroom, thus lending weight to the old adage that a healthy breakfast gets you off to a good start for the day. New research shows that eating breakfast benefits the memory. It provides essential nutrients and energy that contribute to the overall diet quality and adequacy. Children who skip breakfast do not make up for nutrients and energy deficits later in the day and they tend to perform more poorly in tests of cognition than those who eat their breakfast. A study undertaken by doctors at the University of Wales in the U.K. found that a higher blood glucose level after eating breakfast is one of the key reasons for the improvement in mental performance.

It particularly affects the speed of recalling new information but does not influence other aspects such as intelligence test results or mental tasks related to conditioning or developed skills. Eating breakfast was found to improve performance on retention of new information like recall of stories and word lists. This aspect of memory is called ‘declarative memory’ in which information can be consciously recalled and declared verbally, says the study whose finding have been presented in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. [2020 (Set-B)]

Vast (large) = विशाल;
damage (destroy) = विनाश;
modify (make partial changes) = आंशिक परिवर्तन;
risk (dangerous situation) = जोखिम;
indicate (point out) = इशारा करना;
growth (development) = विकास ।

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Also assign a suitable title to it.
(a) Notes :
1. Effects of skipping breakfast:
(i) Poor mental performance
(ii) Deficiency in energy.

2. Benefits of eating breakfast:
(i) Memory improvement.
(ii) Provides essential energy.

3. Study by doctors at University of Wales :
(i) High blood glucose level after breakfast improves mental performance.
(ii) Increases speed of recalling new information.

(b) Title: How the Breakfast is Beneficial for Us.

Passage 16
Gandhiji the greatest political genius of our time, indicated the path to be taken. He gave living testimony to the fact that man’s will sustained by an indomitable conviction, is more powerful than material forces that seem insurmountable. On the whole, I believe that Gandhiji held the most enlightened view of all political men of our times. We should strive to do things in his spirit: not to use violence in fighting for our cause and to refrain from taking part in anything we believe as evil. Revolution without the use of violence was the method by which Gandhiji brought about the liberation of India.

It is my belief that the problem of bringing peace to the world on a supranational basis will be solved only by employing Gandhiji’s method on a large scale. The veneration in which Gandhiji has been held throughout the world rests on the recognition, for the most part unconscious, that in our age of moral decay, he was the only statesman who represented that higher conception of human relation in the political sphere to which we must aspire with all our powers. [H.B.S.E. March 2020 (Set-C)]

Word-Meanings :
Primary (chief importance) = प्राथमिक;
healthy (having good health) = स्वस्थ;
benefits (profit) = लाभ;
essential (neccessary) = जरूरी;
energy (power) = ताकत;
quality (characteristics) = गुण;
level (unit) = मात्रा।

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Also assign a suitable title to it.
(a) Notes :
1. Gandhiji:
(i) the greatest political genius of our time.
(ii) followed the path of non-violence.
(iii) believed in the power of the will.
(iv) believed in revolution without the use of violence.

2. For tolerable future of mankind :
(i) Gandhiji’s higher conception of human relations.
(b) Title: Gandhiji-The Political Genius.

Passage 17
Real praise, a sincere compliment, is probably the most useful social tool of all. it is the valued gold coin of our conversation. Yet today, it is in danger of losing its brightness. For, it is greatly misused and not properly exchanged. What is a true compliment? It is one that benefits both the giver and the receiver. We all like to have our sense of personal worth built up or pointed out. And when one expert adds to another’s sense of dignity and speaks favourably of his skill, he is offering a compliment of the highest and rarest kind. A compliment differs from flattery in that it is objective and given without any thought of gain. Flattery is often merely lip service or excessive praise given for motives other than expected.

The greatest efforts of the human race have always resulted from the love of praise. This should be inspired in childhood. A wise parent makes it a point to compliment a child who deserves it. There is an art in the giving of compliments. Thus a good compliment is always to the point and timing is important. Don’t wait too long to tell a person what a good talk he gave or how well he cut your grass. But don’t do it immediately when he is expecting it either. Wait. Then, when he thinks you may have forgotten, pass the praise. [H.B.S.E. March 2020 (Set-D)]

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings.
Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Also assign a suitable title to it.
(a) Notes:
1. Benefits of sincere compliment
(i) Most useful social tool
(ii) Benefits both giver and receiver –

2. Difference between flattery and complement
(i) Complement given without thought of gain
(it) Flattery merely lip service; given for some self-motive

3. Timing of complement
(i) Neither too late
(ii) Nor immediately
(iii) Pass it when one thinks you have forgotten
(b) Title: The Art of Giving Compliment.

HBSE 12th Class English Reading Unseen Passages Note Making

Unsolved Passages For Practice

Passage 1
The work of the heart can never be interrupted. The heart’s job is to keep oxygen-rich blood flowing through the body. All the body’s cells need a constant supply of oxygen, especially those in the brain. Brain cells live only four to five minutes after their oxygen is cut off, and death comes to the entire body.

The heart is a specialized muscle that serves as a pump. This pump is divided into four chambers connected by tiny doors called valves. The chambers work to keep the blood flowing round the body in a circle. At the end of each circuit, veins carry the blood to the right atrium, the first of the four chambers. Its oxygen has been used up and it is on its way back to the lung to pick up a fresh supply and to give up the carbon dioxide it has accumulated.

From the right atrium the blood flows through the tricuspid valve into the second chamber, the right ventricle. The right ventricle contracts when it is filled, pushing the blood through the pulmonary artery, which leads to the lungs. In the lungs the blood gives up its carbon dioxide and picks up fresh oxygen. Then it travels to the third chamber, the left atrium. When this chamber is filled it forces the blood through the mitral valve to the left ventricle. From here it is pushed into a big blood vessel called aotra and sent round the body by way of arteries.
Heart diseases can result from damage to the heart muscle, the valves or the pacemaker. If the muscle is damaged, the heart is unable to pump properly. If the valves are damaged, blood cannot flow normally and easily from one chamber to another, and if the pacemaker is defective the contractions of the chambers will become uncoordinated.

Until the twentieth century, few doctors dared to touch the heart. In 1953, all this changed. After twenty years of work, Dr. John Gibbon of U.S.A. had developed a machine that could take over temporarily from the heart and lungs. Blood could be routed through the machine, bypassing the heart so that surgeons could work inside it and see what they were doing. The era of open heart surgery had begun.
In the operating theatre, it gives surgeons the chance to repair or replace a defective heart. Many patients have had plastic valves inserted in their hearts when their own was faulty. Many people are being kept alive with tiny battery-operated pacemakers; none of these repairs could have been made without the heart-lung machine. But valuable as it is to the surgeons, the heart-lung machine has certain limitations. It can be used only for a few hours at a time because its pumping gradually damages the blood cells.

Word-Meanings :
Interrupted (stopped temporarily) = कुछ देर के लिए रुका;
constant (continual) = लगातार,
chambers (rooms) = कमरे, खाने;
accumulated (collected) = इकट्ठा किया हुआ;
contract (squeeze) = सिकुड़ना;
damaged (harmed) = नुकसान;
era (age) = युग;
faulty (defective) = दोषपूर्ण;
gradually (slowly) = धीरे-धीरे।

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Also assign a suitable title to it.

Passage 2

Humans erect buildings for various purposes. The structure of the building depends- on the purpose for which it is erected. One building may require strength, another may require comfort, and a third may require space. People who design a building keep in mind the purpose for which it is being erected, draw a plan that will fulfill the purpose.

There are many types of buildings. First type which all of you are familiar with is the domestic building: your own house, for example. A domestic building should serve as a shelter for people against heat and cold, rain, and snow. It should also be pleasing to the eye. A modem type of domestic building is the apartment house; here, many families live in the same building, each family occupying a separate flat.

The second type of building is the military building. Castles and forts are examples. A military building must be strong. It must have thick, high walls made of stone. Usually, there is a moat around the castle and a drawbridge to permit only friends to enter the castle. Many castles have survived over centuries since they were built of strong materials.

The third type of building is the public building: for example, the Parliament House in Delhi or the Pentagon in Washington. Almost every town has its town hall. Public buildings house government offices, or educational institutions, or law courts, or other similar organizations.

The fourth type of building is the religious building. The temples, mosques and churches are examples. Many of these buildings are noteworthy for their architectural beauty and for the fine carvings one finds in them. The gopura of a South Indian temple, the minaret of a mosque and the steeple of a church add majesty to the buildings. Even today the objects that attract the largest number of tourists are the temples, mosques, mausoleums, and cathedrals.

Word-Meanings :
Erected (build) = निर्माण किया जाना;
occupying (possess) = रखना/मालिक होना;
castle (palace) = महल;
mosque (the worship place of the muslims) = मस्जिद;
steeple (tower) = मीनार ।

HBSE 12th Class English Reading Unseen Passages Note Making

Questions :
(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it, using recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Assign a suitable title to the passage

Passage 3
The whole point of technical advance is that it enables man to manipulate his environment to live in the sort of conditions he wants to live in. So you ask ‘What will man’s everyday surroundings be like in forty ‘ years’ time?’ Other animals will get the environment they deserve, man will get the one he wants.

And will man be so very different in forty years’ time? I do not think so. Healthier, yes, I imagine we shall have mastered the viruses and the problem of cancer in the young and I am sure we shall know enough to be able to avoid passing on hereditary abnormalities to our children; but I suspect that the illnesses and hurts of old f- age will still be with us because I doubt whether we shall have overcome the necessity of growing old.

And shall we be any more sensible? No, certainly not, the recorded history of several thousand years shows us that all the logical absurdities of man have always been with us; what we have not outgrown in 4,000 years we shall not outgrow in another forty. Food is already becoming increasingly hygienic, quick frozen, packaged, and prepackaged in impregnable plastic containers, increasingly free from all taint of decay-forgetting the fact that many of the flavours which we prize most highly are due to the early stages of decay of one sort or another. Already the production of our organic food is becoming increasingly mechanized. One obvious step remains, and that is to produce all our food-the proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins roughage and what have you entirely synthetically.

And how shall we communicate? We shall still talk to each other. Shall we write? Not,I think, in the way we do today. Even today, handwriting is dying out. Typing will last longer, but the time will come when the manual typewriter will in its turn become obsolete and will be relegated to the status of a toy, like a child’s printing set. For already computers are beginning to tackle the problem of recognition of ordinary written texts, and already a simple computer exists which will obey verbal instructions. Put these ideas together, and you will see that even today we are within sight of the possibility of a machine that will take dictation, and will then automatically print out the dictated text.

Do you find this sort of prospect worrying, depressing, even frightening? I have envisaged nothing that will not be technically possible in forty years if we really want it. For it is what we want not that will decide what we get in the future.

Word-Meanings :
Manipulate (manage) = संभालना;
mastered (controlled) = काबू करना;
abnormalities (defects) = दोष;
overcome (remove) = हटाना;
impregnable (impenetrable) = अभेद्य;
obsolete (out of date) = पुराना;
frightening (terrifying) = भयावह;
envisaged (imagined) = कल्पना करना ।

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Also assign a suitable title to it.

Passage 4

Leadership does not exist without followership. A leader has to be accepted by the group which | the former is supposed to lead. To gain acceptability the leader should cause an emotive impact on the 1 group members. The characters exhibited by leaders make them dear to their followers. A leader is one who effectively inspires employees to achieve worthwhile things. What character of the leader motivates the followers? It is not pomp and show nor flattery not sanctioning more incentives. Pomp and show creates a sense of awe and | the leader is deified rather than emulated. Flattery is unrealistic, and cannot serve as a long-term motivational tool.

A leader’s style should be one that can be emulated by all irrespective of cadre, class, and caliber. Simplicity in one’s day-to-day conduct is the only thing that can be adopted by all. When the leader is simple, he is , counted as one belonging to the group of which he is the leader. That’s enough to motivate the people. Motivation I is the innate quality that enables an individual or group, to contribute unlimitedly with limited means. It is the proud prerogative of enlightened human beings.

A leader needs to assume the role of a guide; quintessential to fulfilling the role is knowledgeability. Technical and administrative knowledge of the guide in balanced quantity and of right kind are essential. The technical knowledge is too vast to acquire by a leader. At best he is either ‘Jack of all’ or ‘Master of few’. But he has to master the human relations aspect of administration in all detail. And when the leader is good at this his guidance is sought and accepted, then he fulfills the role of guide.

The leader is an negotiator within and outside the organisation. The leader shapes people and moulds character. To achieve this the leader should maintain equanimity. Equanimity is keeping oneself poised and balanced at all times. A leader is simply great if he can mould his followers with this frame of mind. He does this by his own example.

Word-Meanings :
Emotive (passionate) = भावनात्मक;
exhibited (shown) = दिखावा, प्रदशित;
emulate (to follow) = अनुसरण करना;
cadre (rank) = दर्जा;
calibre (ability) = क्षमता;
motivate (to encourage, to inspire) = प्रेरणा देना;
innate (inner) = आंतरिक;
assume (adopt) = अपनाना;
quintessential (perfect) = पूर्ण;
acquire (get) = प्राप्त करना;
negotiator (arbiter) = बिचौला;
equanimity (balance, peace) = संतुलन, शांति ।

Questions :
(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Also assign a suitable title to it.

Passage 5
Bamboo is perhaps the most useful plant in the world. It grows in almost all tropical and subtropical countries. The only continents in which bamboo does not grow are Europe and Antarctica. In India, it grows extensively in the northeast and in the Western Ghats. There are varieties of bamboo that grow to a height of 40 meters, and others that reach a height of only a meter. Bamboo is among the fastest-growing plants of the world; one plant in Japan recorded a growth of 121 centimeters in one day! You could almost see it growing!

The bamboo is a variety of grass, with a woody, many-jointed stem. The stem itself is hollow and is connected to a rhizome network which spreads out beneath the surface of the soil. Roots grow out of this network of rhizomes and help the plant to absorb and distribute food and water from the soil. Many species of bamboo flower once in several years and then die. One species flowers regularly once in 120 years: bamboos of that species all over the world flower together in the same year, and then die.

Bamboo is a versatile plant. Men have found several uses for it. Bamboo shoots are a staple diet in many Asian countries. The shoots are pickled or stewed and served as delicacies. The fleshy fruits of one species of bamboo in Assam are eaten raw or cooked. When there is a drought, bamboo seeds are used as a substitute for rice.

The commercial uses of bamboo are astonishing. India produces over 3 million tonnes of bamboo annually, and nearly half of it is turned into paper. Another important use of bamboo is in housing. Instead of costly timber, bamboo can be used in the construction of houses. In Colombia, bamboo used in house structures is covered with plaster. Bamboo can even replace steel in many of its uses. Concrete reinforced with bamboo has sufficient strength for most uses. In Assam, suspension bridges have been built using bamboo.

Scientists at the Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, are working on the extraction of diesel fuel from the jointed stem of bamboo. With its network of rhizomes and roots, bamboo plays an important role in the prevention of soil erosion. When all these things are considered, the humble bamboo appears to be a miracle plant that can provide an abundant, cheap and versatile resource for the industrialized world.

Word-Meanings :
Extensively (widely) = विस्तृत रूप से;
stem (trunk) = तना;
absorb (suck) = चूसना;
delicacies (delicious dishes) = स्वादिष्ट व्यंजन;
astonishing (surprising) = आश्चर्यजनक;
erosion (cutting away) = क्षय;
abundant (in good quantity) = प्रचुर मात्रा में।

HBSE 12th Class English Reading Unseen Passages Note Making

(a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary.
(b) Also assign a suitable title to it.

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