Haryana State Board HBSE 10th Class Social Science Important Questions History Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation Important Questions and Answers.
Haryana Board 10th Class Social Science Important Questions History Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation
Multiple Choice Questions
Important Questions On The Age of Industrialisation HBSE 10th Class Question 1.
In which of the following years, E.T. Pauli published his music book?
Important Question On The Age of Industrialisation HBSE 10th Class Question 2.
What is a word which is usually used to refer to Asia?
The Age of Industrialisation Map Based Questions HBSE 10th Class Question 3.
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, it was difficult for the new European merchants to set up business in towns because :
(a) towns were already flooded with local businessmen.
(b) there Was a scarcity of human labour.
(c) urban crafts and trade guilds were powerful there.
(d) All of these.
(c) urban crafts and trade guilds were powerful there.
Important Questions Of The Age of Industrialisation HBSE 10th Class Question 4.
What was the first symbol of the new era in Britain?
(d) All of these.
Important Questions In The Age of Industrialisation HBSE 10th Class Question 5.
The cotton mill was created by:
(a) Richard Arkwright
(b) Richard Jordan Gatting
(c) Alexander Wood
(d) Wilhelm Siemens.
(a) Richard Arkwright
Important Questions For The Age of Industrialisation HBSE 10th Class Question 6.
The process in which fibres, such as cotton or wool are prepared prior to spin:
Important Question The Age of Industrialisation HBSE 10th Class Question 7.
Who among the following improved the steam engine produced by Newcomen?
(a) James Watt
(d) None of these.
(a) James Watt
In which industry was Spinning Jenny used?
Which of the following were pre-colonial ports of India?
(a) Surat and Bombay
(b) Surat and Hoogly
(c) Calcutta and Hoogly
(d) Bombay and Calcutta.
(b) Surat and Hoogly
Which of the following were the two most important industrial regions of India?
(a) Punjab and Bihar
(b) Bengal and Madras
(c) Bombay and Bengal
(d) Bombay and Madras.
(c) Bombay and Bengal
In which of the following states did the East India Company establish its political power in 1760s?
Trade through new ports of Bombay and Calcutta was controlled by:
(a) Indian companies
(b) French companies
(c) European companies
(d) Dutch companies.
(c) European companies
In which of the following years was the iron and steel plant established by J.N. Tata in Jamshedpur?
Which of the following images was used on the gripe water calendar for the advertisement of Gripe Water?
(a) Shri Krishna
(b) Shri Ram
(d) Lord Vishnu.
(a) Shri Krishna
What did Manchester industrialists put on their cloth bundles to sell them?
(d) All of these.
The messages carried out through the advertisements of Indian manufacturers referred to:
(d) None of these.
Fill in the blanks
1. This ………….. of machines and …………. is even more marked in a picture which appeared on the pages of a trade magazine over a hundred years ago.
2. In the countryside poor ………….. and …………. began working for merchants.
3. In Victorian Britain there was no shortage of …………….. labour.
4. The fear of …………… made workers hostile to the introduction of new
5. After the East India Company established political power, it could assert a …………… right to
6. The first ……………. mill in Bombay came up in
7. In most …………. regions workers come from the nearby
8. Famines did not affect the sale of …………… or ………….. saris.
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Who was E.T. Pauli?
He was a popular music publisher of England.
Which music company produced a music book which had a picture on the cover page announcing the ‘Dawn of the Century?
E.T. Pauli Music Company.
What is Orient?
The countries to the east of the Mediterranean are called the orient. This term usually refers to Asia.
Why was it difficult for the new European merchants to set up business in towns in the 17th and 18th centuries?
This was because urban crafts and trade guilds were very powerful in the towns.
Which two factors led to the growing demand for goods?
(i) The expansion of world trade.
(ii) The acquisition of colonies in different parts of the world.
What was the use of open fields and common lands for the poor peasants?
These common lands were very useful for the poor peasants. They were quite necessary for their survival for gathering their firewood, berries, vegetables, hay and straw etc.
From whom did a merchant clothier buy wool in England?
A merchant clothier in England purchased wool from a wool stapler.
Which city of England was known as a finishing centre?
Define the term ‘Carding’.
The process in which fibres such as cotton or wool, are prepared, prior to spinning.
Who created the cotton mill?
Richard Arkwright created the cotton mill.
Name the most dynamic industries in Britain.
Cotton and Metal industries.
Who improved and patented the steam engine produced by Newcomen?
Who invented the Spinning Jenny?
James Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny.
Before the age of machines, which Indian industries dominated the international market?
Before the age of machines, the silk and cotton industries of India dominated the international market in textiles.
Name any three pre-colonial ports in India.
Surat, Masulipatam and Hoogly.
Name the ports which grew during the colonial period.
Bombay (Mumbai) and Calcutta (Kolkata).
Why did the pre-colonial ports decline by the 1750s?
Because the European companies gradually gained power first, securing a variety of concessions from local courts, secondly, the monopoly rights to trade.
Why did the East India Company appoint Gomasthas?
The East India Company appointed Gomasthas to supervise weavers, collect supplies and examine the quality of cloth.
Write any two problems faced by Indian weavers.
(i) Their export market collapsed.
(ii) The local market shrank.
Which company official said, “The demand for Indian textiles could never reduce since no other nation produced goods of the same quality”?
Henry Patullo, an East India Company officer, gave this statement in the year 1772.
Name any four major centres of cotton textiles of India during the colonial period.
- Bombay (1854)
- Kanpur (1860)
- Ahmedabad (1861)
- Madras (1874).
Name some early Indian entrepreneurs of the nineteenth century in the field of industry and trade.
- Dwarkanath Tagore
- Dinshaw Petit
- Jamsetjee Nusservvanjee Tata,
- Seth Hukum Chand
- Father and grandfather of G.D. Birla.
In which sectors did Dwarkanath Tagore invest his capital?
Dwarkanath Tagore invested his capital in various sectors, such as shipping, shipbuilding, mining, banking, insurance and plantations.
Who established the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta in 1917?
Seth Hukum Chand.
Who was called a jobber?
A person employed by the industrialists to get new recruits was called a jobber.
Why did the workers use to pay the jobber money to get work?
The workers used to pay money to the jobber because the demand for workers was less than the supply.
Write the benefits gained by the use of Fly Shuttle.
Fly shuttle increased productivity per worker, speeded up production and reduced labour demand.
Which image was most commonly used to popularise baby products?
Baby Krishna’s image was most commonly used to popularise baby products.
What were the methods used by Indian and British Industries to sell their products in India?
- They put labels on the cloth bundles.
- They used images of gods and goddesses.
- They printed calendars.
Who is a Stapler?
A stapler is a person who sorts (stapler) wool as per its fibre.
Who is a Fuller ?
Fuller is a person who gathers (fulls) cloth by pleating. ‘
Name the four major European groups of people.
Write the names of two growing and two decaying Indian cities during the first half of eighteenth century.
(i) Growing cities- Bombay (Mumbai) and Calcutta (Kolkata)
(ii) Decaying cities- Surat and Hoogly.
Short Answer Type Questions – I
“Although the demand for goods began growing, but merchants could not expand production within towns in the 17th and 18th centuries.” Explain why?
In the 17th and 18th centuries, merchants could not expand production within towns because of the following reasons:
(i) The urban crafts and trade guilds were powerful.
(ii) The rulers granted different guilds, the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products. It was, therefore, difficult for new merchants to set up business in towns.
Define the term ‘Industrial Revolution.
The term Industrial Revolution stands for those developments and inventions which revolutionized the technique and organisation of production in the later half of the eighteenth century.
How was proto-industrialisation different from factory production?
Proto-Industrialisation was a decentralised method of production which was controlled by merchants, and the goods were produced by a vast number of producers located in different places, whereas under factories, production became centralised. Most of the processes were brought together under one roof and management.
What were guilds?
Guilds were the association of producers that trained craftspersons, maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices, and restricted the entry of new people within the trade. Rulers granted different guilds, the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products.
During the proto-industrial phase, what did the merchant’s clothier in England do?
The merchant’s clothier in England did the following things :
- They purchased wool from a wool stapler.
- They carried wool to the spinners.
- The yarn that was spun, was taken in subsequent stages of production, to weavers, fullers and then, to dyers.
- Then, the finishing was done in London and cloth was sold to the export merchant.
What was the main feature of the proto-industrial system?
The proto-industrial system was controlled by merchants and the goods were produced by a vast number of producers working within their family farms, not in factories.
Why did most industrialists of Victorian Britain not want to use modern machines?
In Victorian Britain, most of industrialists did not want to introduce machines because of the following reasons :
- In Victorian Britain, there was no shortage of human labour.
- Machines required large capital investment and made them to get rid of human labour.
- In all industries, where production fluctuated with the season, industrialists usually preferred hand labour.
Why did the aristocratic class in Europe prefer to use hand products in the Victorian period? Explain with examples.
The aristocratic class in Europe preferred to use hand products in the Victorian period because :
- They symbolized refinement and class.
- They were better finished.
- They were individually produced and carefully designed.
Why was the East India Company keen on expanding textile exports from India during the 1760s?
The East India Company was keen on expanding textile exports from India during the 1760s because the British cotton industries had not yet expanded and the Indian fine textiles were in great demand in Europe.
Who was Gomasthas? Why were there clashes between the weavers and the Gomasthas?
The Gomasthas were the paid servants of the East India Company, who used to supervise weavers, collect supplies and examine the quality of cloth. They were outsiders, with no long-term social link with the village, so they acted arrogantly, marched into villages with the police and punished weavers for the delay in supply. So, there were reports of clashes between the weavers and the Gomasthas.
What were the main functions of European managing Agencies?
European managing agencies, like Bird Heights & co., Jardine Skinner & Co., Andrew Yule, etc. controlled a large sector of Indian industries. Their main functions were the following :
- They controlled large sector of industries
- These agencies mobilised capital, set up joint stock companies and managed them
- In most cases, the Indian financiers provided the capital, while European agencies made all the investments and took business decisions.
During the First World War, industrial production in India boomed. Give reasons.
- Manchester imports into India declined, as British mills were busy with war production.
- Indian industries were also called upon to supply war needs: jute bags, cloth for the army uniform, tents and leather boots.
- Even after the war, Manchester failed to recapture its old position in the Indian market.
Discuss the role of advertisement in creating new consumers.
Advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary. They try to shape the minds of people and create new needs. If we look back into history, since the very beginning of the industrial age, advertisements have played a very vital role in expanding the markets for products and in shaping new consumer culture.
Why did the industrialists of Manchester use labels to sell their clothes in India?
When Manchester industrialists began selling cloth in India, they put labels on the cloth bundles. The label was placed to make the place of manufacture and the name of the company, familiar to the buyer. The label was also a mark of quality.
How did Indian advertisements become a vehicle of nationalist aspirations?
In colonial times, the nationalist message of Swadeshi was popularised through advertisements. The message was often loud and clear, urging people to buy Indian products if they cared for the nation. Thus, all Indian goods once advertised, became a vehicle of the nationalist message of Swadeshi.
What is meant by “Factory system”?
The factory system is an inherent part of the Industrial Revolution. The introduction of machines which could produce goods at a very fast speed resulted into the establishment of factories which are the sites where these machines are installed.
Short Answer Type Questions – II
Mention the characteristics of the cover page printed on a music book published by E. T. Pauli in 1900.
In the year 1900, a popular music publisher E. T. Pauli produced a music book that had a picture on the cover page, announcing the ‘Dawn of the Century. At the centre of the picture is a goddess, the angel of progress, bearing the flag of the new century. She is gently perched on a wheel with wings, symbolising time. Her flight is taking her into the future. Behind her, there are the signs of progress: railway, camera, machines, printing press and factory.
- Question 2.
“The poor peasants and artisans in the countryside began working for merchants.” Give reasons.
During the phase of proto-industrialisation, the poor peasants and artisans began working for merchants due to the reasons given ahead: This was a time when open fields in Europe were disappearing and commons were being enclosed. Poor peasants, who had earlier depended on these lands for their survival, had now to look for alternative sources of income.
- Many peasants had tiny plots of land which could not provide work for all members of the household.
- So when merchants came around and offered advances to produce goods for them, peasant households eagerly agreed.
- By working for the merchants, they could remain in the countryside and continue to cultivate their small plots.
- Income from proto-industrial production supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation. It also allowed them, fuller use of their family labour resources.
The production of cotton boomed in the late nineteenth century. Mention the changes within the process of production, which was responsible for the increased production of cotton.
- A series of inventions in the eighteenth century increased the efficacy of each step of the production process (carding, twisting and spinning and rolling.)
- Now, the costly new machines could be purchased, set up and maintained in the mill.
- Within the mill, all the processes were brought together under one roof and management.
- This allowed more careful supervision over the production process, a watch over quality, and the regulation of labour, all of which had been difficult to do when production was in the countryside.
Write a short note on the availability of employment for European workers in the early nineteenth century.
- The abundance of labour in the market affected the lives of workers. The actual possibility of getting a job depended on existing networks of friendship and kin relations. If they had a relative or a friend in a factory, they were more likely to get a job quickly.
- Many job-seekers had to wait for weeks, spending nights under bridges or in night shelters.
- Seasonality of work in many industries meant prolonged periods without work. So, some returned to the countryside and most of the others looked for odd jobs.
- The income of workers depended not on the wage rate alone. The number of days of work determined the average daily income of the workers.
Write a short note on the development of factories in India.
- The first cotton mill in Bombay came up in 1854 and it went into production two years later.
- By 1862, four mills were at work, with 94,000 spindles and 2,150 looms.
- Around the same time, jute mills came up in Bengal, the first being set up in 1855, and another one seven years later, in 1862.
- In north India, the Elgin mill was started in Kanpur in the 1860s, and a year later, the first cotton mill of Ahmedabad was set up.
- By 1874, the first spinning and weaving mill in Madras began its production.
Write in brief the activities of the early Indian entrepreneurs.
- The history of many business groups goes back to trade with China.
- From the late eighteenth century, the British in India began exporting opium to China and took tea from China to England.
- Many Indians became junior players in this trade, providing finance, procuring supplies, and shipping consignments. Having earned through trade, some of these businessmen had visions of developing industrial enterprises in India.
- In Bengal, Dwarkanath Tagore made his fortune in the China trade before he turned to industrial investment, setting up six joint-stock companies in the 1830s and 1840s.
- In Bombay, Parsis like Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata accumulated their initial wealth, partly from exports to China, and partly from raw cotton shipments to England.
- Seth Hukum Chand, a Marwari businessman who set up the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta in the year 1917, also traded with China. So did the father as well as the grandfather of the famous industrialist G.D. Birla.
Who was a jobber? Explain his functions.
The person employed by an industrialist to recruit the right kind of people for work was called a jobber. He was an old and trusted worker. He was a middleman, employed on commission by the industrialists. He was like a safety valve in case, anything wrong was committed by the labourers.
(i) He got people from his village, ensured them jobs and helped them settle in the city.
(ii) He provided money to the fellows in times of crisis.
Explain the miserable conditions of Indian weavers during the East India Company’s regime in the eighteenth century.
(i) Due to industrialisation in Britain, the export market of Indian weavers collapsed. As British traders started exporting machine-made clothes to India, their local market also shrank.
(ii) As raw cotton was being exported to England, there was a shortage of raw materials. When the American civil war broke out, and the cotton supplies from the United States were cut off, Britain turned to India. As raw cotton exports from India increased, there resulted in a shortage of supplies, and the weavers were forced to buy raw cotton at higher prices.
(iii) The Gomasthas, who was appointed by the government, acted arrogantly and punished weavers for the delay in supply. So, the weavers clashed with them.
(iv) The Britishers started the system of advances to regularise the supply. The weavers eagerly took the advances in the hope to earn more, but they failed to do so. They even started losing their small plots of land which they had earlier cultivated.
How were the Indian merchants and industrialists discriminated against by the Britishers?
- The market, within which Indian merchants could function, became increasingly limited.
- The Indian merchants and traders were barred from trading with Europe in manufactured goods and had to export only raw materials and foodgrains – raw cotton, opium and wheat, indigo – required by the British.
- With the entry of modern ships, Indian merchants were edged out of the shipping business.
- The European merchants and industrialists had their exclusive chamber of commerce, and Indians were not allowed to become its members.
‘In the 20th century, the handloom cloth production expanded steadily, i.e. almost trebling between 1900 and 1940.’ Give reasons.
(i) Handicraft producers adopted a new technology which helped in improving production without excessively pushing up costs.
(ii) By the second decade of the twentieth century, most of the weavers started using looms with fly shuttles. This increased productivity per worker speeded up production and reduced labour demand. By 1941, over 35 per cent of handlooms in India were fitted with fly shuttles.
(iii) There were several other small innovations that helped weavers to improve their productivity and compete with the mill sector.
How were the calendars used to increase the sale of products in India, during the British Colonial time?
Unlike newspapers and magazines, calendars were used even by people who could not read. The calendars were hung in tea shops and in poor people’s homes, just as much as in offices and middle-class houses. People who hung the calendars used to see the advertisements, day after day, throughout the year. In these calendars, the figures of gods were used to sell new products. Like the images of god, figures of important personages, of emperors and nawabs, adorned the calendars. The message very often seemed to say : if you respect the royal figure, then respect this product and use them. Thus, calendars helped to increase the sale of products in India.
Long Answer Type Questions
Explain the major features of the industrialisation process of Europe in the 19th century.
Major features of the industrialisation process of Europe in the 19th century are as follows :
(i) Main Industries:
The cotton and metal industries were the most dynamic industries in Britain. Cotton was the leading sector in the first phase of industrialisation. With the expansion of railways in England from the 1840s, and in the colonies from the 1860s, the demand for iron and steel increased rapidly. By 1873, Britain was exporting iron and steel worth about 77 million Pounds, double the value of its cotton export.
(ii) Domination of traditional industry:
Modern machinery and industries could not easily displace traditional industries. Even by the end of the nineteenth century, less than 20 per cent of the total workforce was employed in technologically advanced industrial sectors. The textile was a dynamic sector, where a large portion of the output was produced. This sector was not established within factories, but outside, within the domestic units.
(iii) Base for growth:
The pace of change in the ‘traditional’ industries was not set by steam-powered cotton or metal industries. They were the ordinary and small innovations which built up the basis of growth in many non-mechanised sectors, such as food processing, building, pottery, glass work, tanning, furniture making and production of implements.
(iv) Slow pace:
Though technological inventions were taking place, their pace was very slow. They did not spread dramatically across the industrial landscape. New technologies and machines were expensive, so the producers and the industrialists were cautious about using them. The machines often broke down and the repair was costly. They were not as effective as their manufacturers claimed.
Mention the major features of Indian textiles before the age of machine industries.
Major features of Indian textiles before the age of machine industries :
(i) The age of Indian textiles:
Historically, India was one of the leading producers of cotton textiles. Silk and cotton products of India dominated the international market. India was known for its finer varieties of cotton. The Armenian and Persian merchants took these goods from Punjab to Afghanistan, eastern Persia and Central Asia. Though most of the trade was carried through land routes, the sea route was also used. Cities like Surat, Masaulipatnam and Hoogly were the most important ports used for trade.
(ii) A complex and complete market:
Before the arrival of the outsiders, the trade was handled by a variety of Indian merchants and bankers.
The whole process of trade basically involved three steps:
- Carrying or transporting goods, and
- Supplying goods to the exporters.
Supply merchants linked the port towns to the inland regions. They gave advances to weavers, procured the woven cloth from villagers, and carried the supply to the ports. At the port, big shippers and export merchants had brokers who negotiated the price, and bought goods from the supply merchants, operating inland.
What led to the decline of Indian textile exports in the beginning of the nineteenth century?
Textile exports declined from the beginning of the nineteenth century because :
(i) When cotton industries developed in England, industrial groups pressurised the government to impose import duties on cotton textiles to enable Manchester goods to be sold in Britain without facing any competition from outside. On the other hand, British industrialists persuaded the East India Company to sell British products in the Indian market as well.
(ii) Export of British cotton goods increased dramatically in the beginning of the nineteenth century.
(iii) The Indian textile manufacturers were unable to compete with the cheap and durable goods from Manchester.
(iv) Cotton weavers in India thus, faced two problems at the same time – their export market collapsed and the local market shrank.
(v) By the decade of 1860, weavers faced an additional problem. They could not get a sufficient supply of good quality raw cotton. When the American civil war broke out and cotton supplies from the United States of America to British industries were cut off, Britain turned to India to meet the needs of its industries for raw cotton.
(vi) As raw cotton export from India increased, the price of raw cotton increased, and weavers in India were starved of supplies of good cotton. These weavers were forced to buy raw cotton at exorbitant prices. This reduced their earnings. Many people, therefore, migrated to other cities or towns and started working as agricultural labourers.
(vii) By the end of the nineteenth century, factories were set up in India. These too started flooding the market with machine-made goods. These factors contributed to the decline of the Indian weaving industry.
Describe the important features related to industrial growth in India.
The following features are important for the industrial growth in India:
(i) In the late nineteenth century, industrial growth was slow in India. When Indian businessmen began setting up industries in the nineteenth century, they avoided competing with Manchester goods in the Indian market. Since, yam was not an important part of British imports into India, early cotton mills in India produced coarse yam rather than fabric, to be used by handloom weavers, or for export to China.
(ii) As a result of the Swadeshi movement, the nationalists inspired people to boycott foreign cloth. The industrial groups organised themselves for the safety of their personal interests. They pressurised the government to increase the import duty and to offer other concessions. All these things lead to growth in production.
(iii) After 1906, there was a decrease in the export of Indian yam to China. In the Chinese markets, there was a flood of products prepared in Chinese and Japanese mills. Consequently, Indian industrialists began to produce cloth in place of yarn. The production of cloth doubled in India between 1900 and 1912.
(iv) Till the First World War, industrial growth was slow in India. Indian industrial growth was linked to the First World War also. During the war, British industries were busy with war productions and Manchester imports declined suddenly. Indian mills now had access to a vast home market to supply their goods.
(v) As the First World War prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs, e.g. jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents, leather boots and a host of other items. Thus, new factories were set up and old ones worked in multiple shifts. Over the war years, industrial production boomed in India and many new workers gained employment.
(vi) While factory industries grew regularly after the war, large industries formed only! a small segment of the economy. Most of them, about 67 per cent in the year 1911, were ‘ located in Bengal and Bombay. Over the rest of the country, small-scale production units continued to predominate.
Explain the methods used by producers to expand their markets in the 19th century.
The methods used by producers to expand their markets in the 19th century are as follows :
The most effective method used by the producers was the advertisements through newspapers, magazines, pamphlets and calendars. These played a vital role in expanding the markets for products and in shaping new consumer culture.
When Manchester industrialists began selling cloth in India, they put labels on the cloth bundles. When buyers saw ‘Made in Manchester’ written in bold on the label, they were expected to feel confident about buying the cloth. Labels not only carried words and letters, but they also carried images and were very often beautifully illustrated.
By the late 19th century, manufacturers were printing calendars to popularise their products. Unlike newspapers and magazines, calendars were used even by people who could not read. They were hung in tea shops and in poor people’s homes, just as much as in offices and middle-class apartments. Those who hung the calendars used to see the advertisements day after day, throughout the year. Even in these calendars, images of gods and goddesses were used to attract consumers.
(iv) Images of Reputed Persons:
Along with the images of gods, figures of reputed persons, such as emperors and Nawabs were also used. The message very often seemed to say: if you respect the royal figure, then respect this product; as the product was shown being used by kings, or produced under royal command, its quality could not be questioned.
(v) Advertisements by Indian producers:
Indian manufacturers were also using selling tactics. When Indian manufacturers advertised the nationalist message, it was clear and loud: “If you care for the nation then buy products that Indians produce”. Advertisements became a vehicle of the nationalist message of Swadeshi.
On the given outline map of India locate and mark where :
(i) The first iron and steel works was established.
(ii) The first spinning and weaving mill was established.
(iii) The first cotton industry was established.
(iv) The first jute mill was established.
(ii) Madras (Chennai)
(iii) Bombay (Mumbai)
(iv) Calcutta (Kolkata).
On the given outline in the map of India, show any four major centres of cotton textiles during the colonial period.
(i) Major centres of cotton textile of India are:
Kanpur, Ahmedabad, Bombay and Madras.
On the given outline:
(i) Any big centre of industry in West India.
(ii) Any big centre of Industry in East India.
(iii) Any big centre of industry in North India.
(iv) Any big centre of industry in South India.