HBSE 9th Class Science Notes Chapter 7 Diversity in Living Organisms

Haryana State Board HBSE 9th Class Science Notes Chapter 7 Diversity in Living Organisms Notes.

Haryana Board 9th Class Science Notes Chapter 7 Diversity in Living Organisms

→ Oil our earth there are present about 10 crore different types of plants and animals, out of these about 17 lakhs different types of species have been classified.

→ The organisms are classified on the basis of similarities, dissimilarities and inter-relationships among them.

→ The branch of science which deals with classification of organisms is called systematics (Taxonomy). This word is given by D. Candoili.

→ The classification of organisms make their study convenient.

→ Carolus Linnaeus is known as the father of Taxonomy. He developed system of binomial nomenclature.

→ In Binomial system of Nomenclature the name of each organism is composed of two components, first one generic name (genus) and second one specific name (species).

→ The various levels/series in classification are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genera and species.

→ The living world has been divided into two groups. Animal kingdom and Plant kingdom.

HBSE 9th Class Science Notes Chapter 7 Diversity in Living Organisms

→ Classification of organisms in five kingdoms are based on the following criteria:

  • Cell-structure: prokaryotic and eukaryotic.
  • Complexity of organisms (unicellular or multicellular). Multicellular organisms has complexity body structure.
  • Presence of cell wall and capacity of self (auto) nutrition.

→ All living organisms are divided on the above mentioned bases into five kingdoms:

  • Monera
  • Protista.
  • Fungi.
  • Plantae
  • Animalia.

→ The classification of living organisms is related to their evolution.

→ Plantae and animalia are further divided into subdivisions on the basis of increasing complexity of body organisation.

→ Plants are divided into five groups: Thallophyta. Brvophyta. Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms.

→ Animals are divided into ten groups: Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Protochordata and Vertebrata.

→ Biodiversity: Biodiversity is the diversity of all life forms.

→ Classification: The method of arranging organisms into groups on the basis of similarities and dissimilarities is called classification.

→ Evolution: An accumulation of changes in the body design of organisms and which allow the
organisms possessing them to survive better is called evolution.

→ Megadiversity Zone: Maximum diversity in organisms is found between the tropic of Cancer and tropic of Capricorn on the earth. This part of earth is known as megadiversity zone.

→ Monera: Unicellular prokaryotic organism in which cell wall is found, is called Monera.

→ Protista: Unicellular eukaryotic organisms are called protista.

HBSE 9th Class Science Notes Chapter 7 Diversity in Living Organisms

→ Fungi: The heterotrophic eukaryotic organisms which obtain their food from decaying organic material are called fungi.

→ Plantae: The organisms of multicellular eukaryotes with cell walls and autotrophs are called plantae.

→ Animalia: The organisms of multicellular eukaryotes without cell walls are called animalia.

→ Thallophyta: They have a structure known as thallus.

→ Bryophyta: These are called the amphibians of the plant kingdom.

→ Cryptogams: Non-seed-bearing plants are called cryptogams.

→ Gymnosperms: Plants with naked seeds are called gymnosperms.

→ Angiosperms: Plants having covered seeds are called angiosperms.

→ Vertebrates: The animals with backbone are called vertebrates. .

→ Invertebrates: The animals without backbone are called invertebrates.

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