Haryana State Board HBSE 10th Class Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 1 Resource and Developmen Notes
Haryana Board 10th Class Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 1 Resource and Development
- Resource: Meaning and Development
- Resources are technologically accessible, economically feasible, culturally acceptable and are limited in quantity.
- The process of transformation of things available in our environment involves an interactive relationship between nature, technology and institutions.
- Resources are free gifts of nature and very useful elements of environment.
→ Types of Resources
On the basis of origin, exhaustibility, ownership and status of development, resources can be classified in the following ways-
(a) On the basis of origin:
(b) On the basis of exhaustibility:
(c) On the basis of ownership:
(d) On the basis of status of development:
(iii) Stock and Reserves.
→ Development of Resources
- Resources are compulsory for human survival, as well as for maintaining the quality, of life.
- Human beings use resources indiscriminately and this has led to global ecological crises such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land degradation. Sustainable Development
- In June, 1992, more than 100 heads of states met in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, for the first International Earth Summit, which was convened for addressing urgent problems of environmental protection and socio-economic development, at the global level.
- Agenda 21 is the declaration signed by more than 100 heads of states, in Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit 1992, held in Brazil. It aims at the achievement of global sustainable development.
→ Resource Planning
- Resource planning is a widely-accepted strategy for judicious use of resources.
- India has made concrete efforts to achieve the goals of resource planning, right from the First Five Year Plan.
- India has various types of relief features, such as mountains, plateaus, plains and islands. Land Resources
- Land use is determined by physical factors, such as-topography, climate, soil types and human factors, such as—population density,
- technical capability, culture and traditions, etc.
- Continuous use of land, over a long period of time, without taking appropriate measures to conserve and manage it, has resulted in land degradation which is a serious problem. Soil as a Resource
- Soil is the most important renewable natural resource. It is a mixture of natural biotic material and minerals.
- Soil takes millions of years to form a few centimetres in depth.
- India has varied relief features, landforms, climatic realms and vegetation types.
- These have contributed to the development of various types of soil which are following:
(i) Alluvial Soil
(ii) Black Soil
(iii) Red and Yellow Soil
(iv) Laterite Soil
(v) Arid Soil
(vi) Forest Soil.
- Soil erosion is a very serious problem. It happens because of the denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down.
Types of soil erosion:
(i) Wind erosion
(ii) Sheet erosion
(iii) Gully erosion.
- Contour ploughing, terrace farming, strip cropping and shelter belts are such methods, through which soil can be conserved.
→ Important Terms
1. Resources: All the useful elements of environment that satisfy our basic needs are called resources.
2. Biotic Resources: These are obtained from biosphere and have life, such as- human beings, flora and fauna, fisheries, livestock etc.
3. Abiotic Resources: All those things which are composed of non-living things are called abiotic resources. For example rocks and metals etc.
4. Renewable Resources: The resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as
renewable or replenishable resources. For example, solar and wind energy.
5. Non-Renewable Resources: These are the resources that once used, cannot be replenished. For example, coal, petroleum, minerals like copper and iron-ore.
6. Natural Resources: Natural endowments in the form of land, water, vegetation and minerals are called natural resources. Natural resources are free gifts of nature.
7. Man-made Resources: These are the resources that are created by human beings, with the help of machines.
8. Potential Resources: Those resources which are regionally available, but not yet utilised. Example — Wind and solar energy in Rajasthan and Gujarat.
9. Developed Resources: All those resources which are surveyed. Their quality and quantity have been determined for utilisation.
10. Stock: The materials in the environment which have the potential to satisfy the human needs, but human beings do not have the appropriate technology to access these, are included among stock.
11. Sustainable Development: Sustainable development means that development should take place without damaging the environment, and development in the present should not compromise with the interests of future generations.
12. Resource Planning: ft is a widely-accepted strategy for judicious use of resources.
13. Resource Conservation: Conservation of resources means the judicial and planned use of resources. Thus, we get benefitted from them for a long time.
14. Fallow Land: A land that is left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year for increasing its fertility is known as fallow land.
15. Waste Land: Land which is not suitable for cultivation is known as waste land.
16. Net Sown Area: Area, sown once in a year is known as the net sown area.
17. Pasture: Grassland which is used for providing food for animals.
18. Gross Cropped Area : Area sown more than once in an agricultural year, plus net sown area, is known as gross cropped area.
19. Land Degradation: Rendering the land unfit for cultivation is called land degradation.
20. Shelter Belts: Rows of trees, which are planted in between the crops are known as shelter belts.
21. Soil: The uppermost layer of the earth’s crust which is loose, fragmented and useful for growing plants and crops is called soil.
22. Soil Profile: It is the vertical section of soil from the ground surface to the parent rock.
23. Bangar: It has been classified as older alluvium and contains higher concentration of nodules. It is a less fertile soil.
24. Khadar: Classified as new alluvium, and is more sandy and free from Kankar nodules.
25. Soil Erosion: The removal of soil by the forces of nature, particularly wind and water.
26. Bad-Land: The land unfit for cultivation is known as bad-land.
27. Ravines: This is the land which turns unsuitable for cultivation due to soil erosion.
28. Sheet Erosion: When the top layer of the soil is removed over a large area by the running water, it is called sheet erosion.
29. Gullies: The running water cuts through the clayey soils and makes deep channels, which are known as gullies.
30. Gully Erosion: Gully erosion takes place when running water cuts deep ravines in the absence of vegetation. This type of erosion makes the soil unfit for cultivation.
31. Wind Er osion: Wind blows loose soil off flat or sloping land. This is known as wind erosion.
32. Contour Ploughing: Ploughing along the contour lines is known as contour ploughing.
33. Leaching: Leaching is a process by which the nutrients in the soil are washed down by heavy rains.