Haryana State Board HBSE 7th Class Social Science Solutions History Chapter 6 Towns, Traders and Craftpersons Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
Haryana Board 7th Class Social Science Solutions History Chapter 6 Towns, Traders and Craftpersons
HBSE 7th Class History Towns, Traders and Craftpersons Textbook Questions and Answers
LET S RECALL
Towns, Traders and Craftpersons Class 7 HBSE History Question 1.
Fill in the blanks:
- The Rajarajeshvara temple was built in
- Ajmer iff associated with the Sufi saint
- Hampi was the capital of the Empire.
- The Dutch established a settlement at in Andhra Pradesh.
- Thanjavur (Tamil Nadu)
- Muinuddin Chishti
Towns, Traders and Craftpersons Class 7 Question Answer HBSE Question 2.
State whether true or false:
- We know the name of the architect of the Rajarajeshvara temple from an inscription.
- Merchants preferred to travel individually rather than in caravans.
- Kabul was a major centre for trade in elephants.
- Surat was an important trading port on the Bay of Bengal.
Towns, Traders and Craftpersons Class 7 Questions And Answers HBSE Question 3.
How was water supplied to the city of Thanjavur?
Water was supplied from wells and tanks to the city of Thanjavur.
Class 7 Towns, Traders and Craftpersons HBSE History Question 4.
Who lived in the “Black Town” in cities such as Madras?
Merchants and artisans (such as weavers) or craftspersons along with the white rulers (European traders) lived in the cities like Madras during the British rule.
Class 7 History Towns, Traders and Craftpersons HBSE Question 5.
Why do you think towns grew around temples?
(i) Temple towns represented a very important pattern of urbanisation, the process by which cities develop.
(ii) Temples were often central to the economy and society.
(iii) Rulers built temples to demonstrate their devotion to various dieties. They also endowed temples with grants of land and money to carry out elaborate rituals, feed pilgrims and priest and celebrate festivals.
(iv) Pilgrims who flocked to the temples also made donations.
(v) Temple authorities used their wealth to finance trade and banking.
(vi) Generally, a large number of priests, workers, artisans, traders etc. settled near the temple to cater to the needs and those of the pilgrims.
For example: Billasvamin and Somnath in Gujarat.
Towns, Traders and Craftpersons HBSE 7th Class History Question 6.
How important were craftspersons for the building and maintenance of temples?
(i) Craftspersons were very important for building and maintenance of temples.
(ii) For instance the Panchalas or Vishwakarama community, consisting of goldsmith, bronzesmith, blacksmiths, masons are carpenters were essential to the building of temples.
(iii) The craftsmen also played an important role in the construction of big buildings for pilgrims, used to visit temples as visitors or tourists and also in construction of tanks and reservoirs, attacked to temples.
(iv) The craftspersons of Bidar were so fapied for their inlay work in copper and silver that it came to be called Bidri.
(v) Weavers such as the Saliyar or Kaikkolars emerged as prosperous communities, making donations to temples.
Class 7 History Chapter 5 HBSE Question 7.
Why did people from distant lands visit Surat?
1. Surat was the most important medieval port on the west coast of Indian subcontinent.
2. It was the emporium of western trade during the Mughal period.
3. Surat was the gateway for trade with west Asia via the Gulf of Ormuz.
4. Surat has also been called the gate of Mecca, because many pilgrim ships get sail from here.
5. There were also several retail and wholesale shops selling cotton textiles.
6. Surat was famous for the textiles with gold lace borders (zari).
Due to all such reasons many people from distant lands visited Surat.
In what ways craft production in cities like Calcutta different from that in cities like Thanjavur?
|Craft Production in Thanjavur||Craft Production in Calcutta|
|1. Craftspersons were free to be as much creative as they could be.||1. Craftspersons had to produce what was demanded by the East India Company.|
|2. Craftpersons used to live near temple. They always get buyers of their products.||2. The craftspersons were force to live in the “Black Towns”. The only buyer of their products was the East India Company.|
|3. There was no system pf advances.||3. There existed system of advances, which meant that they have to weave cloths which were already promised to European agents.|
|4. Weavers had the freedom of selling their own cloths or weaving by their own patterns.||4. Weavers no longer had liberty of selling their own cloths or weaving by their own patterns.|
|5. They didn’t have to reproduce same designs.||5. They had to reproduce the designs supplied to them by the company agents.|
Compare any one of the cities described in the chapter with a town or a village with which you are familiar. Do you notice any similarities or differences?
|1. Hampi is located in the Krishna, Tungabhadra basin, which formed the nucleus of the Vijay Nagar Empire, founded in 1336.||1. Ajmer is in Rajasthan. It was the capital of the Chauhan kings in the twelfth century. Later, Ajmer became the suba headquarters under the Mughals.|
|2. The magnificent ruins at Hampi reveal a well fortified city. The architecture of Hampi was distinctive.
The buildings in the royal complex had splendid arches, domes and pillared halls with niches for building sculptures.
|2. Ajmer remained a famous pilgirmage centre for the Hindus. There is a holy water tank at Puskar near Ajmer. There is a world wide famous temple of the Brahmaji.|
|3. Temples were the hub of cultural activities and devadasis (temple dancers) performed before the deity, royalty and masses in the many pillared halls in the virupaksha temple, known today as Navaratri in the south, was one of the most important festivals celebrated at Hampi.||3. Ajmer also provides an excellent example of religious co-existence, Khwaja Muinud- din Chishti, the celebrated sufi-saint who settled there in the twelfth century attracted devotees from all creeds.|
What were the problems encountered by merchants? Do you think some of these problems persist today?
Some of the problems faced by the merchants were as under:
- They had to travel through forests and there was always the fear of robbers. Therefore, pierchants travelled in caravans.
- Merchants such as Mulla Abdul Ghafur and Indian Virji Vora, who owned a large number of ships were subdued by the East India Company ships. Then, they have to work as agents of the company instead of running their own business.
- Yes, such problems do exist today.
HBSE 7th Class History Towns, Traders and Craftpersons Important Questions and Answers
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Give the capital of Cholas.
Who built Rajarajeshwara temple?
King Rajaraja Chola.
What type of a town is Thanjavur?
Name an alloy of copper and tin.
What is the capital of the Chauhan kings in the 12th century?
Give two groups of weavers that emerged as prosperous communities.
Short Answer Type Questions
Name the trading groups in Masulipatnam.
The Golconda nobles, Persian merchants, Telugu Komati Chettis and European traders were the trading groups in Masulipatnam.
What was the ‘system of advances’?.
The system of advances was a system under which craftspersons like weavers were given advance payments so that they had to weave cloths for European agents only.
What were the main features of medieval towns?
The main features of medieval towns were as under:
(a) The towns probably emerged from large villages.
(b) Towns had mandapika (or mandi of later times) to which nearby villages brought their produce to sell.
(c) Towns also had market streets calle hatta lined with shops.
(d) There were streets for different kinds of artisans such as potters, oil pressers, sugar makers, toddy makers, smiths, stone masons, etc.
How was the architecture of Hampi distinctive?
Due to following reasons, the architecture of Hampi was distinctive:
(a) The building in the royal complex had splendid arches, domes and pillared halls with niches for holding sculptures.
(b) There were well planned orchards and pleasure gardens with sculptural motifs such as lotus and corbels.
(c) The Wall of Hampi fort was constructed without using mortar or cement. The technique of wedging bricks together by interlocking was used.
Long Answer Type Questions
Why did Masulipatnam port decline?
(a) The Dutch and English companies had settled in Masulipatnam.
(b) But the Qutab Shahi rulers of Golconda exerted their influence on the trade and settlement in the port city of Masulipatnam.
(c) After Mughal occupation of Golconda, Mughal Governor Mir Jurnla who was also a merchant, began to play off the Dutch and English against each other.
(d) Due to this the European Companies looked for alternative and hence, they developed the port city of Madras.
(e) Thus, Masulipatnam lost both its merchants and prosperity and declined.
How was the Indian textile business affected when the European Companies entered in it?
The Indian textile business was affected when the European Companies entered it in the following ways:
(i) The demand of Indian textiles increased manifolds.
(ii) This led to a great expansion of the crafts of spinning, weaving, bleaching, dyeing, etc.
(iii) The employment opportunities also increased.
(iv) Indian textile designs became increasingly refined.
(v) But due to the system of advances, the independent craftspersons declined.
(vi) Indian traders, weavers and merchants had to live in “Black Towns” whereas “White” people lived in superior residencies of Fort St. George in Madras or Fort St. William in Calcutta.
What were the causes of decline of Surat as a commercial town?
(i) From 17th century onwards the 1 town of Surat began to decline in the commercial activities.
(ii) The main cause was loss of markets and productivity because of the decline of the Mughal Empire.
(iii) Sea routes were controlled by Portuguese.
(iv) The newly built Bombay port gve tough English competition to the port of Surat.
(v) East India Company shifted its headquarters to Bombay in 1668.
Describe the rise of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras as trading towns.
(i) Bombay, Calcutta and Madras rose as nodal cities.
(ii) Crafts and commerce underwent major changes as merchants and artisans (such as weavers) were moved into the Black Towns established by the European Companies with in these new cities.
(iii) The blacks or native traders and crafts persons were confined here.
(iv) The ‘White’ rulers occupied the superior residencies of Fort St. George in Madras or Fort St. William in Calcutta.
Towns, Traders And Craftspersons Class 7 HBSE Notes
- Hinterland: A piece of land beyond coast is known as hinterland.
- Administrative Town: It is a town from where the administrative functions are carried on.
- Temple Town: It is a town with prominent temple or temples.
- Commercial Town: It is a town where the sale and purchase of commodities takes place.
- Pilgrimage Towns: Places where people go for pilgrimage are called pilgrimage towns.
- Chintz: A type of cotton cloth with printed design on it is called Chintz.
- Black Town: That part of towns where artisans and merchants of Indian origin used to live was called Black Town.
- Emporium: A place where goods from diverse production centres are bought and sold is called emporium.
- Hundi: It is a note recording a deposit made by a person. The amount deposited can be claimed in another place by presenting the record of the deposit.
- Factor: An official merchant of the East India Company is called a factor.
- Sthapatis: Sculptors who made bronze idols and tall ornamental bell metal lamps are called Sthapatis.